At all times, growing crops was one of the most important branches of any state. Therefore, the process of growing potatoes is of great importance. Quality depends on this, which includes taste, the content of nutrients and vitamins, the shelf life.
- potato cultivation: methods
- potatoes in bags, boxes or barrels
- new method: at agrovoloknom or cardboard
- crest on the high ridges
- According Mitlayderu
- straw from
- seeds under
- film according to the method Gyuliha: in Kobtsev
- According to Mikhailov
- Preparation and germination of tubers before planting
- How to choose planting material
- Preparation of soil
- Distance between tubers during planting
- Timing and planting depth
- Diseases and pestsSuch containers help to save space, and at the same time get a fairly good harvest. This requires a barrel, box or bag without a bottom.
The technology is quite simple:
- The bottom is removed from the container, and holes are made at the sides for oxygen to pass.
- A bottomless container is placed on the ground. Then go to the bottom of the tank compost layer of 20 centimeters .
- Tubers are laid on the compost, and covered with fertile soil.
- After the potato has sprouted and the length of the shoots has reached 5 centimeters, it is necessary to cover them almost completely with a layer of soil. This should be done until the container is full. In this interval, we should not forget about watering and dressing.
In the same way you can grow potatoes in mounds, a tower, a waste bin and a pit.
New method: under agrofibre or cardboard
In early spring, waiting for the top layer of soil to warm up. At this point, you can make the planting of tubers.
In order for for the potatoes to be early, the tubers are germinated in advance .
- To do this, they are placed in 2 - 3 layers in a cool room at a temperature of 10-15 degrees Celsius. Excess temperature threatens to a strong stretching of the shoots, which will affect the decrease in yield.
- The appearance of sprouts in 1 - 2 centimeters will allow to shorten the time for obtaining new potatoes.
- Sprouted tubers soot at a distance of 25 centimeters from each other in the row, and 50 to 60 centimeters between the rows.
You can also place the tubers not only in a row, but also in a checkerboard pattern. This allows the bushes to grow better, as they do not obscure and do not interfere with each other. Then we cover with agrofibre or a cardboard.
Agrofibre is highly permeable to moisture and air, and in the cardboard it is necessary to make holes for ventilation. Agrofibre and cardboard help survive the shoots of frost, and when the threat passes them, covering material can be removed. Thus, can get a healthy and tasty young crop .
In the ridges
The meaning of this method of cultivation is very simple.
In this case, much more tubers are formed. Productivity increases. This method is widespread in the Netherlands and is called the Dutch method.
On the high ridges of the
The meaning of this method of growing is similar to the method of growing in barrels, bags, boxes and ridges. Since the volume of soil for the root system of potatoes is more than usual, it begins to grow well. Thus, abundant tuber buildup occurs.
When laying high ridges on the bottom of the bed humus or foliage, as well as dry branches of trees. In the process of decomposition of these materials, they will release heat and nutrients. If you cover the ridge, you can also get an early harvest.
The meaning of growing by Mitlayder is to create long and narrow beds for plants. In this case, a rather large space for culture is created.
Plants get the maximum amount of sunlight, and therefore produce more nutrients for themselves through the process of photosynthesis. Therefore, the root system in plants develops well , and in this case, the potato grows larger tubers. And their number increases.
Under the straw
For this, you need so that the soil is sufficiently loose and wet :
- The tubers are laid in holes or just on the soil, in rows, or in a staggered pattern.
- Then the tubers are covered with a thick layer of straw or hay. Thickness about 7-10 cm. Straw well passes air to the tubers, and also well passes moisture. Therefore, this material helps to grow well and develop both the root system and the bush itself.
- Over time, the straw layer will settle. Therefore it is necessary to add a layer of straw.
In the same way, is used to grow potatoes under the moss .The effect is the same. Good air permeability, moisture. In addition, the moss not only passes moisture well, but also holds it. This is one of the advantages of this method of cultivation.
seeds The meaning of growing from seed is that over time the planting material loses its original performance and brings less and less yield each year.
In addition, planting material is capable of accumulating diseases. But if you grow potatoes from seed, it will help return the potato to its former harvest. Seeds are collected from the fruit, which remains after flowering bush.
The planting is done in advance so that when the soil warms up, the seedlings are ready for planting. Care is the same as for ordinary bushes.
An important point in harvesting such potatoes. You need to choose bushes with the best tubers. Thus, you can provide yourself with a constant rich and tasty harvest.
Under the film
This method is similar to growing under agrofibre, only the film does not let air and moisture, only saves. But this contributes to the early harvest of .As soon as the soil is warmed, germinated potato tubers are planted in the soil, and covered with a film on top.
The film allows you to transfer frosts, and also provides moisture culture for a long time. This allows you to get not only an early harvest, but also its increase due to the creation of a longer growing season.
According to Gulich's method:
When the length of the shoots reaches 5-8 cm, they need to sprinkle with soil .And so it is necessary to do so until the potatoes form several tiers. In the process of growth do not forget about the timely watering and feeding.
Thus, using this method, you can get up to 16 kilograms of a crop from a single tuber.
According to the Mikhailov method
The meaning of this method is the same as that of Gulich. A hole is made into which the humus is placed. Then tuber sits and is covered with a layer of soil. When the tuber shoots, 4 of them are left to grow vertically, and the rest are tied to pegs and placed in the form of rays in a circle.
As the shoots grow , both vertical and horizontal are sprinkled with soil .Productivity increases markedly. With proper compliance, you can get from 14 to 16 kilograms.
Table 1 .Ways to grow potatoes.
|Traditional methods||The ridges( Dutch method)|
|New ways|| At high beds |
under agrovoloknom or cardboard
|unusual way|| Gyuliha method( in Kobtsev) |
by the method Mikhailova
|cultivation methods for small areas|| In |
barrel underoptics optfrom seed
Preparation and germination of tubers before planting
How to choose planting material
The variety that will be cultivated on the field, should be zoned , this will allow to be confident in the adaptability of potatoes to these growing conditions. It is important to know the maturation information in order to provide proper care.
The soil should be plowed from the autumn, this will allow moisture to accumulate. The soil composition of the soil is preferably loam with the content of humus. If the soil is solid, then it needs to be pierced and added organic.
Distance between tubers when planting
If the potato is trench, then the distance between rows is 60 - 70 cm. The distance between the tubers is 30 - 40 cm. When planting potatoes with holes, the distance does not change.
The timing and depth of planting
The term for planting potatoes depends on the temperature of the soil. Its temperature should be at least 5 degrees Celsius. Planting depth approximately 10 cm.
Irrigation is as needed .If during the summer there was a sufficient amount of precipitation, and the soil most of the time was wet, then watering is not required.
In arid summer and spring, the main irrigation takes place during the period of germination, growth and flowering of the shoots. If August is dry, watering is also necessary.
The most important role of hilling is the reduction of temperature around tubers. The tuber must be in space, where is a temperature several degrees lower than the stem .If hilling does not occur, the tuber begins to re-germinate, consuming energy and nutrients intended for plant development.
Spud the soil should be in cloudy weather, after rain, to avoid evaporation of moisture. Hilling is also carried out on compacted soils where gas exchange is poorly performed.
There are complex mineral fertilizers , which are to be applied along with planting. Mineral fertilizers increase germination, disease resistance and increase yield.
is usually applied with potash, phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers, the amount and frequency of application is determined by the composition of the soil and the needs of the crop. Better in the spring to fertilize directly into the hole. As a feed you can use ash.
Organic fertilizers always favorably affect the yield. Horse manure is the most useful and high-quality version of organic fertilizer.
Mulching is always necessary, it increases the content of organic matter, and therefore nutrients, retains soil moisture. Plant residues are always best suited for mulching at any time.
Also mulching is performed with straw and sawdust, but this option is suitable only if the soil is well heated, and in the yard on 15 June. In spring, straw and sawdust do not mulch, they reflect the sun's rays, preventing the soil from warming. Sawdust acidifies the soil.
Diseases and pests of potato
The extermination of diseases and pests by chemical means is carried out if the economic threshold of harmfulness is exceeded. The main pest is Colorado potato beetle .If there is not a lot of it, then you can collect manually, the most important thing is to destroy the larvae.
The wireworm harms the tubers of potatoes; when ammonia fertilizers are applied, its population is reduced.
Potatoes are often affected by with various types of nematode .To fight the nematode there are no safe chemicals. It is recommended to change the soil, if possible.
If cultivated in large areas, then urea must be applied to the soil, and then the infusion of young potato residues. This process is carried out in early spring, so that the nematode larvae, sensing potato nutrition, can go out and die from the lack of food.
For prevention, bird droppings are introduced into the soil.
When harvesting, it is important to select seeds for further cultivation.
It is recommended to start harvesting potatoes while yellowing tops. If you start harvesting earlier, the potatoes will be worse stored.
Potatoes are one of the main products of traditional cuisine. Culture does not require special care. It is important to know only certain subtleties. And with the help of the methods and methods described above, you can simply grow an abundant and useful crop of high quality .