- №1.Aerated concrete as production
- №2.Advantages and disadvantages of aerated concrete
- №3.Brand gas
- №4.The compressive strength of the gas block
- №5.Sound insulation quality
- №6.Frost resistance gas
- No. 8 gozoblock size and shape. What to take into account when examining the unit?
- # 9.The best producers of aerated concrete-WPC "
Lightweight, durable, durable and inexpensive aerated concrete has recently been increasingly used in private residential construction. Its operational qualities can significantly save financial and time resources for the construction of the building. The use of aerated concrete blocks is expanding day by day, and manufacturers, in response to growing demand, offer an increasing range: gas blocks can vary in density, thermal insulation qualities, shape and size. To make the right choice of blocks of aerated concrete, you must know exactly the purpose of their use and be familiar with their main types.
№1.Aerated concrete by type of production
For the production of gas blocks use cement, sand and special blowing agents( usually aluminum dust), lime, gypsum, are sometimes added, as well as industrial waste, including slag from metallurgical industries and ash. The mixture is diluted with water, poured into a pre-prepared form, where the reaction of the interaction of aluminum with cement or lime mortar occurs. The resulting hydrogen foams the cement mortar, with the result that spherical pores with a diameter of 1 to 3 mm interconnect. After setting the resulting solution, it is removed from the forms, cut into blanks and dried.
By type of final processing, aerated concrete blocks are divided into:
- autoclaved. Their hardening occurs in autoclaves under the influence of saturated steam supplied under high pressure. This is the more durable and expensive material. Such blocks are recommended to be used for the construction of load-bearing walls;
- non-autoclave .Harden in electrically heated drying chambers or in natural conditions. Their main advantage - lower price due to the simplified method of production.
№2.Advantages and disadvantages of aerated concrete
Regardless of some production features, all aerated concrete blocks can boast a decent set of advantages of :
- excellent insulation, which is explained by the porous structure of the material;
- large size, light weight and ease of processing greatly simplify and speed up the construction of buildings from the gas block;
- good vapor and air permeability .According to these indicators, blocks of aerated concrete close to the tree. In practice, this means that in a house built of such material there will always be an optimal microclimate;
- fire resistance ;
- environmental friendliness and safety. In the manufacture of gas blocks are not used hazardous synthetic substances;
- resistance to damage by rodents, insects and microorganisms;
- frost resistance .On average, the gasblock can withstand up to 50 freeze / thaw cycles without losing the basic operational properties;
- relatively low cost .
Among the main deficiencies of aerated concrete, , we highlight:
- high hygroscopicity .This major material disadvantage is associated with its structure and ability to retain moisture inside. Water absorption can reach 35%.When absorbing moisture, the insulating qualities deteriorate, and serious deformations of the material can occur. It is possible to bypass this drawback by arranging enhanced waterproofing, building a reliable drainage system and window drains. In addition, the facade needs a mandatory finish, for which decorative tiles are excellent;
- the possibility of the appearance of cracks with improper installation of the foundation. Cracks can appear both on the lines of the masonry and in the blocks due to the shrinkage of the foundation, to which so large aerated concrete blocks are very sensitive. So that the advantage does not turn into a disadvantage, you need to pay maximum attention to the correct installation of the foundation;
- problems with fasteners .Only self-tapping screws can safely hold in aerated concrete. Nails and screws easily enter the wall of aerated concrete and just as easily fall out of it, so you will need special fasteners.
№3.Brand of gas-block
The most important and defining the scope of use characteristic of blocks of aerated concrete - their density. It is measured in kg / m3, and its numerical expression is reflected in the brand of concrete, designated D .Currently, gas-blocks of from D 200 to D 1200 are produced. The lower the density, the more fragile and light material, but the better it retains heat, therefore blocks of different density are used for different purposes and are divided into several types of :
- constructional .The heaviest and strongest blocks are used for the construction of load-bearing walls of houses above three floors. This class includes blocks of brands from D700 to D1200;
- structurally heat-insulating blocks of brands from D500 to D600 can be used for the construction of supporting walls of low-rise buildings, as well as partitions;
- heat-insulating blocks of grades from D200 to D350 are used as a heat insulator, as well as for arranging non-bearing internal partitions.
Indicators of grades in strength and grades in frost resistance for different grades of cellular concrete with a density of
№4.The compressive strength of the gas block
The compressive strength of the material is directly dependent on the density. The higher the density, the more durable and reliable the material will be. The strength class is indicated by the letter B and the coefficient following it. For example, B2.5 will correspond to a compressive strength of 2.5 MPa, which the D500 gas block has. The D700 brand block will have a strength class up to B5.In order to compare with something, the compressive strength of a brick is determined within 15-20 MPa, therefore, it is not recommended to erect buildings above five floors from aerated concrete, but the material is more than suitable for building small private houses, garages and other buildings.
№5.The sound insulation qualities of
Aerated concrete is an excellent sound insulator, but the ability to absorb external noise varies depending on the density of the material, the construction technology and the thickness of the wall. For example, a gas-block brand D500 with a wall thickness of 120 mm provides noise insulation at 36 dB, and with a wall thickness of 360 mm - 48 dB.Similar figures for aerated concrete brand D600 - 38 and 50 dB.Regulations regulate sound insulation between rooms at 41 dB, between room and bathroom - 45 dB, between different apartments, apartment and staircase, vestibule, corridor - 50 dB.Even a gas-block of structural and thermal insulation type allows to achieve the required values of sound insulation.
№6.Frost resistance of the gas-block
In the conditions of the harsh domestic climate, it makes sense to pay attention to the frost resistance of the material. This parameter can be judged by the number of freeze / thaw cycles without loss of basic performance properties. Today, blocks from F 15 to F 100 are on sale, where the coefficient following F is the numerical expression of the cycles that a particular material can withstand. The choice should be built on the climatic features of the region, but for the construction of external walls it is better not to use a gas-block with frost resistance below F50.
№7.The size and shape of the
gozoblocks. The gas blocks on the market can vary in size and even shape. Depending on the purpose of use choose one or another material. The most common option is rectangular blocks , which can be divided into several types:
- wall or masonry .Used for the construction of load-bearing walls, at least - partitions. They have a standard length of 600 mm and a height of 200 mm, but different widths - from 200 to 500 mm;
- gas-block for partitions has the same parameters of length and height, but smaller width - from 75 to 150 mm;The
- gas-block for jumpers is not produced by all manufacturers. The length of such blocks is 500 mm, height is 200 mm, and width is from 250 to 400 mm.
In addition to smooth rectangular blocks, material of the following types is also produced:
- U -shaped blocks are usually used for arranging hidden building elements. With their help, you can create a monolithic belt stiffness, while the inner space is filled with reinforcement and concrete;
- tongue-and-groove blocks at the ends have protrusions and depressions for the most accurate and durable connection of neighboring elements. There is no need to use adhesive solution for processing vertical seams;
- blocks with grippers are distinguished by the presence of cuts on the sides of the block to simplify handling;
- blocks of the type hh due to their structure allow laying a layer of insulation between the partition walls.
№8.What to take into account when examining the unit?
To be sure of the durability and reliability of the constructed building, special attention must be paid to the personal inspection of gas blocks. Pay attention to the following details:
- geometry accuracy .Responsible manufacturers, which will be discussed below, offer blocks with exact dimensions, without deviations( allows 1-2 mm) and chips, because this is a guarantee of simplicity and efficiency of installation. Moreover, thick joints that become inevitable with insufficiently accurate geometry can create cold bridges;
- color .A good autoclave aerated block has a uniform light gray color. If the blocks of one batch differ from each other in color, have divorces, then we are talking about products of inadequate quality. The presence of oily stains and cracks is unacceptable;
- packaging .The material must be tightly packed, and on each pallet with the material must be information about the batch number, and each batch must be accompanied by a quality certificate.
# 9.The best manufacturers of aerated concrete
The name of the manufacturer is a pledge of quality of gas blocks, because large companies that have been working on their reputation for many years will not spoil it by releasing products that do not meet the standards. Let us dwell on the largest manufacturers of aerated concrete blocks.
Xella Group - group of companies with a center in Germany. Produces gas blocks under the brand Ytong .Factories of the manufacturer are located in different countries, incl.and in Russia , where production is carried out according to German technologies with careful quality control, which allows domestic buyers to purchase products of the European level at reasonable prices. Laboratories Xella Group is constantly working to improve the materials produced. The manufacturer’s product range includes wall blocks of the D400 and D500 grades of different sizes, blocks for partitions, U-shaped and arc-shaped blocks, glue for Ytong gas blocks and the necessary tools for working with aerated concrete are also sold.
This is a large domestic enterprise specializing in the production of autoclaved gas blocks. Founded in 2004, belongs to the group of companies LSR Group, , and manufactures products under the well-known brand AEROC .Among the strengths of the manufacturer - a fully automated production, equipped with the latest German equipment. Largely due to this company, in some regions of the country, the use of D400 blocks has become widespread. Not so long ago, the production of D300 B2.0 F50 blocks was mastered, which the company proposes to use in low-rise construction as supporting single-layer walls. The range of manufactured gas blocks is wide, includes material with strength from D 300 to D 600 and compressive strength from B2 to B5.0, U-blocks and jumpers are also available. Production volumes are about 400,000 m3 of aerated concrete per year.
Another major domestic manufacturer of autoclaved aerated concrete. The company includes two plants and its own sand quarry , which allows you to control the quality of products absolutely at all stages. The total capacity of the factories of the manufacturer is over 900,000 m3 of aerated concrete per year. .The location of production facilities in different districts allows us to provide our products to 15 regions of the country. In the production of used Dutch equipment, allowing the production of aerocrete with the most accurate geometry. Blocks of aerated concrete are manufactured by the brands from D 300 to D 700 and compressive strength from B1.5 to B5.0 in various sizes. There are blocks with a groove-crest system, with hand grippers and U-blocks.
"Dmitrovsky Aerated Concrete Products Plant"
The company's aerodrometers are known to domestic buyers of under the trademark AeroStone .Each year, the company produces about 500,000 m3 of aerated concrete using modern German equipment. Products meet European and domestic quality standards, and the control at the plant is carried out by German experts. Blocks of brands from D400 to D600 of various sizes are produced, there are wall and partition walls, as well as U-shaped blocks.
“Bonolit - Construction Solutions”
The production facilities of the enterprise are located in the Moscow Region. Gas-blocks under the trademark Bonolit are produced on German equipment, the design capacity of the line is 450 000 m3 of aerated concrete a year .The range is represented by blocks for load-bearing walls, partitions and lintels, the density of products from D300 to D600.
H + H International A / S
Today H + H International A / S - is an international group of companies , whose history begins in 1909 in Denmark. In 1949, the manufacturer began to specialize in aerated concrete, and today it is one of the largest manufacturers of gas side in the world. Factories are located in 4 countries, incl.in Russia. In 2009, a plant of the company was built in the Leningrad region, equipped with the most modern production lines. Today, here annually produce 450,000 m3 of aerated concrete , incl.wall and partition blocks and U-blocks under trademark H + H .
"Lipetsk plant products housing"
The company uses aerated concrete production technology and equipment from the German company Hebel, which explains the high product quality and dimensional accuracy( a maximum deviation of 1 mm is allowed).The plant produces wall and partition blocks of various sizes and from D 300 to D 700.
Production is located in Kolomna, it produces autoclaved aerated concrete under the brand EL-BLOCK .The plant's productivity is up to 400,000 m3 of aerated concrete per year. .The consistently high quality of the products is guaranteed by the use of equipment and technology of the German company WEHRHAHN, which provide for full automation of the production process and strict control over it. Smooth and gypsum blocks, wall and partition walls, with and without hand grips, as well as special O-blocks, with openings in which allow for reinforced masonry of walls, are produced.
The unique performance characteristics of aerated concrete blocks and their wide range on the market allowed the material to become one of the most popular in the field of private low-rise residential construction.