- №1.Features of the production of clinker bricks
- №2.Advantages and disadvantages of clinker brick
- №3.Types of clinker bricks and scope of use
- №4.Hollow and corpulent clinker brick
- №5.The size and shape of clinker bricks
- № 6.Color brick clinker
- №7.The texture of clinker bricks
- №8.Large manufacturers of clinker bricks
The unique properties of clinker bricks are only told by the fact that after disassembling the buildings in the construction of which it was used, it is cleaned and used again. The clinker brick is distinguished for its high strength, moisture resistance, durability and chic appearance. It is used in construction, for paving sidewalks, in decorating, as well as in furnishing stoves. The brick present on the market may differ in size, color, type of surface, shape and some performance characteristics. We understand how to choose a clinker brick correctly, so that it will delight you for decades with its impeccable appearance.
№1.Features of the production of clinker bricks
The production process of clinker bricks in many ways resembles the technology of making ceramic that we all know: a clay mass is formed and then burned in a furnace. By and large, clinker bricks can be considered a kind of ceramic, the differences are only in the characteristics of the raw materials and the temperatures of its processing.
For the manufacture of clinker bricks use special refractory grades of clay .In kilns, the temperature rises to 1200-13000С( for ceramic bricks, temperature indicators 800-9000С), which provides with full sintering of previously carefully pressed raw materials. All voids are filled, and as a result it turns out monolithic brick with unique properties. Due to its structure, it has high strength and wear resistance, ahead of all other types of bricks in these parameters. The absence of pores inside the product allows us to speak about the minimum hygroscopicity. The moisture absorption rate of clinker bricks is no more than 4-6%, and this parameter reaches 15-20% for the nearest competitor, ceramic bricks. Not surprisingly, the buildings that were built in the 19th century using this material still retain their original appearance.
To get a really strong and durable material, you must very carefully consider the choice of raw materials and production technology. Deposits of suitable grades of clay are present in Germany, Poland, Austria and Holland. There are very few of those in Russia, so almost the entire clinker brick on the market is imported, which affects the cost of an already expensive product.
Today, in almost all clinker brick factories, is used for machine forming , which ensures high performance of the material. The hand-formed brick gains much lower strength and higher moisture absorption.
№2.Advantages and disadvantages of clinker brick
The characteristics of raw materials and production technology make it possible to produce a brick with a unique structure, which has with many advantages:
- durability .The material retains the original quality for 100 years or more;
- strength .If you compare different types of bricks for compressive strength, the clinker confidently takes the lead. The parameter, of course, can vary within certain limits, but will never be lower than 250-300 kg / cm2, which corresponds to the strength mark of М250-М300.By the way, in construction the brick of such marks is used for laying the foundations of apartment buildings;
- low moisture absorption ( 4-6%) due to the almost complete absence of pores in the structure of the material, because the raw materials in the process of pressing and sintering turns into a monolith. That is why clinker bricks are used for the construction of critical structures, especially those which will be operated in difficult conditions( aggressive environment with a high level of humidity).Vysola on the material does not appear. By the way, the clinker brick covered with glaze does not absorb moisture at all;
- frost resistance , which is due to the high density of the material and minimal moisture absorption. Even the simplest clinker brick can withstand 75-100 freeze / thaw cycles, and some species can easily carry up to 300 cycles. Excellent frost resistance provided the material popularity in areas with harsh climates. The most frost-resistant products are made for paving;
- resistance to temperature extremes ;
- fire resistance .The presence of refractory components in the composition of the material and high firing temperatures provide the clinker with record-breaking resistance in front of the fire. Experiments have shown that the material can withstand temperatures up to 18000С, and the structures after the fire are not deformed and do not collapse;
- environmental friendliness .The product is based on natural raw materials, therefore it is not necessary to speak about the harm to health and the emission of toxic substances. All major manufacturers of clinker bricks are checking raw materials and finished products for radioactivity, so you can be 100% confident in your own safety;
- excellent appearance .Clinker brick looks natural and noble. Hue depends on the composition of the raw materials, so each brick is unique in its own way. If we take into account the variety of sizes and shapes, then you can choose a material for every taste;
- versatility and wide scope of .Clinker brick is used in cladding, full-scale construction, with the arrangement of furnaces and sidewalks.
Among the main drawbacks of the clinker brick it is worth noting:
- is high price , because a material with such impressive performance, as you can guess, can not be cheap. However, if we compare the cost of the material and its durability, then the purchase can be considered as an investment in its maintenance-free future .Clinker brick is twice as expensive as ceramic, but in terms of its durability and resistance to negative external factors it bypasses it at times. On the other hand, it is worth noting that it is because of the high price that clinker bricks are rarely used as a building material — they prefer to use it for cladding;
- high thermal conductivity coefficient of as a result of the almost complete absence of air pores. For high strength and moisture resistance will have to pay high-quality insulation;
- is the low sound-proof qualities of , which again comes from the lack of pores, therefore protecting structures from this material will also need good sound insulation;
- clinker masonry should be done by professionals. In addition, it is necessary to use special solutions - the usual masonry composition is not suitable, since the material has a low moisture absorption.
We should also mention with low vapor permeability of .The minimum number of pores gives the clinker brick moisture resistance, but at the same time prevents air from passing through the material. That is why when using the material as a building or facing material, it is necessary to take care of high-quality ventilation.
№3.Types of clinker bricks and the scope of
The entire clinker brick on the market, depending on the destination, can be divided into the following types of :
- construction, or ordinary brick. This is a solid solid brick that is used for the construction of critical structural elements, includingfoundations, plinths, columns, stairs and pillars. Sometimes this type of brick is used to build some parts of the kiln. Starting rows of heavy furnaces and internal chimney channels are made of it;
- facing, or front. From the name it is clear that this type of material is used exclusively for decoration. Elegant appearance of clinker brick is able to decorate the facade of any house. In addition, the material will protect the bearing walls from negative external influences. To save money, the clinker in the finish is combined with other materials. Often clinker bricks are used for facing the basement. The material will maintain the original appearance for decades, so that the repair of the facade for a long time will not have to be remembered. A clinker tile, which is significantly thinner than a brick, has also appeared on the market today, but after installation, there will be no differences. This solution allows not only to save, but also to relieve the load on the foundation;
- paving brick is used for paving walkways, alleys and pavements. The material is characterized by increased wear and frost resistance, excellent resistance to mechanical and shock loads. Streets in Europe are often paved with clinker, knowing that it will last at least half a century.
Clinker brick is used very rarely for interior finishing. is such a liner that beats the bill and loads the foundation. However, today designers have already begun to use clinker tiles to decorate individual zones. Good material suitable for decoration stoves and fireplaces.
hollow and corpulent clinker bricks Like other types of bricks, clinker may differ in the nature of its filling:
- solid-core bricks have a holistic structure without holes. These are durable but heavy products, which are used in the construction of important structural elements, as well as in the construction of furnace chimneys;
- hollow bricks may have a different number of through holes or grooves of a round, rectangular or other shape. Holes are formed at the pressing stage; special shapes are used for this. In some cases, voidness can reach 35-40%.Such a brick copes worse with loads, but weighs much less than full-bodied. Moreover, the appearance of holes filled with air has a positive effect on the heat and sound insulation qualities of the material. This brick has been used in cladding facades.
№5.Sizes and shape of clinker brick
Clinker brick is:
- standard in the form of a parallelepiped, the most common;
- figured, or shaped differs in an unusual form.
In the world of brick production, has long been formed: a single standard, , on which all manufacturers are oriented. A single brick, and this applies to clinker products, has the parameters 250 * 120 * 65 mm and is denoted 1 NF( the so-called normal format).Such products can be corpulent or hollow, and are used in construction and cladding - in general, have found the widest application.
Standard bricks are also available in other sizes:
- one-and-a-half bricks , 1.4 NF, 250 * 120 * 88 mm. Used in the construction of critical structures, when you need to save time;
- double brick , 2.1 NF, 250 * 120 * 140 mm. Usually produced hollow and used in lightweight laying;
- "Euro" , or 0.7 NF, 250 * 85 * 65 mm, found application in cladding;
- half , 0.5 NF, 250 * 60 * 65 mm, is also used in decorating;
- modular single block, 1.3 NF, 288 * 138 * 65 mm, is used extremely rarely.
There are other less common clinker brick formats, for example, 240 * 90 * 52 mm or 240 * 115 * 174 mm. The weight of one brick, depending on the size and fullness, ranges from 1.6 to 3.3 kg.
There are some requirements for the finished product, more precisely its geometry. Thus, the maximum permissible deviation from the declared value in length is 4 mm, in height it is 2 mm, in width it is 3 mm. The product must have the shape of a regular parallelepiped, and the maximum divergence of parallel faces is 3 mm.
In cladding, an irregularly shaped brick is often used. Figured products can have a wedge-shaped, triangular, rounded and other complex shape. With the help of such elements usually decorate window openings, window sills, corners of the house and other architectural elements. Shaped brick allows you to create a unique look of the house and show imagination to the maximum.
№6.Color of clinker brick
The hue of the clinker brick depends primarily on the grade of clay. Adjustments are also made by the roasting procedure, after which products made from the same raw material may have slightly different tones. New shades are obtained by mixing different grades of clay , no third-party coloring pigments are usually used. The mineralogical composition of clay has a great influence on shade. So, for example, clays that are located near iron ores get a terracotta shade, clays lying near limestone have a white tint, and near coal, gray. Each deposit is distinguished by its unique color - no two are alike.
By mixing different grades of clay, managed to get several dozen different shades of clinker bricks, but all of them can be combined into three groups of :
- natural terracotta and brick tones;
- bright cream shades with the transition to peach color;
- dark colors.
is considered to be the rarest white clinker brick , which is made from the best grades of clay, which are fired before sintering. As a result, beautiful products are obtained, which during the entire service life retain the original shade, are distinguished by almost complete water resistance and excellent dirt-repellent properties.
Products that have undergone artificial aging, or on which imitation of efflorescence or soot is created under factory conditions, are in decent demand. This brick allows you to create a unique architectural appearance of the house.
Before chooses a certain shade of , it is necessary to clearly present, and it is better to portray in the layout, how this color will be combined with the color of the roof, fence and other elements of the site. It is important how well-chosen color will fit into the environment and style of landscape design.
If you want to get a special result, can be combined in the facade cladding of several shades of .For example, window and doorways highlight a darker brick. You can randomly use bricks of two or three different shades. Any experiments are welcome, but the main thing is to think well in advance what result you want to get. It is advisable to buy a brick in the amount that is enough to complete the entire scope of work. Otherwise, you may encounter the fact that products from different batches will vary in hue. The difference, of course, will seem almost imperceptible, but after all the cladding work has been completed, you will see a clear color transition.
Pay attention to the color of the decorative grout .It can be in the color of a brick or, on the contrary, be contrast. Hue grout dramatically affects the perception of the brick surface.
№7.Texture of clinker brick
The classic and simplest option is the smooth matte surface .In this case, nothing special needs to be done in the production process. To diversify the appearance of a brick, to give it relief or gloss, the following technologies are used:
- standard method involves applying a certain pattern on the molded, but not yet burned mass. After the processing of the product in the furnace, the drawing is preserved, and as a result, a brick with the necessary relief is obtained. Such manipulations are not reflected on the strength;
- shotcrete is a popular way to decorate clinker bricks. Mineral chips are applied to one or several faces before firing. Under the influence of high temperatures, it melts and bakes with clinker, forming interesting color transitions and a unique pattern;
- The engaging of involves the application of a thin layer of ceramics called engobe to the formed dried brick. It is a mixture of clay and metal oxides. In the furnace, the engobe melts, is sintered with clinker and allows you to get a product with an interesting shade, and the color depends on the composition of the engobe. If the engobe is applied only to a part of the brick surface, then a material with a smooth color transition can be obtained. It is in this way that artificially aged brick is produced;
- glazing allows you to get a brick with a glossy slippery surface. The production technology resembles that described above, only the ceramic layer in this case is replaced with a layer of glaze. Once again, we emphasize that the glazed clinker brick does not absorb moisture at all, and it is less intensively polluted.
Any kind of clinker brick will be suitable for facade cladding - it all depends on personal preferences and tastes. For paving of tracks it is better to take a product with a noticeable relief - they will be less slippery.
№8.Major manufacturers of clinker bricks
The homeland of clinker brick is Germany. All major production is still concentrated in this country. They honor traditions, develop new solutions and are very scrupulous about the quality of products. There are more than a dozen manufacturers in the country. In the domestic market, you can purchase the products of such by large German companies:
- ABC Klinkergruppe manufactures facade, sidewalk clinker, as well as clinker tiles and floor tiles from clinker. Local shale clay is used as raw material. Finished products are used domestically, exported to a number of European countries, to Russia and the United Arab Emirates. Due to the composition of the clay and the special firing technology, unique products are obtained. The product range is wide, but I want to highlight a brick 490 mm long;
- Röben has 7 plants in Germany and 7 more in Europe and the USA.All are equipped with modern facilities. The product range is colossal. They produce facing brick bricks, facade and floor tiles, tiles, porous and sidewalk clinker, as well as ready-made facade elements;
- A-K-A Ziegelgruppe - a large enterprise with almost the most extensive range of
- clinker brick
- Wienerberger is a German-Austrian company with 12 plants. It produces facing and sidewalk clinker bricks, tiles, tiles, ready-made facade elements;
- Hagemeister produces 100 million units of bricks per year, produces 300 different products, includingsidewalk and facing clinker
- Glueckstaedter Klinker has at its disposal unique clay deposits, and using a wide range of products in the production process of glazing and engobing produces a wide range of products;
- Klinkerziegelei Uhlhorn - a small company that produces several types of facing bricks, paving and molded bricks;
- Egernsund Ziegel produces construction and facing clinker, shades weight, there are glazed samples;
- Janinhof - 350 different types of clinker bricks, there are non-standard sizes.
Separately, we note the products Feldhaus Klinker .Among the Chinese manufacturers, Houson can be distinguished, which is one of the few that produces really high-quality brick and sells it at very competitive prices.
Not so long ago, clinker brick of domestic production appeared on the market:
- Ekoklinker plant in Novocheboksarsk has been manufacturing facade, kiln and sidewalk clinker since 2014, as well as floor tiles, steps and facade elements. This is our only manufacturer that offers a full range of clinker products. The range of facing bricks is constantly expanding;
- Nikolsky Brick Factory( Leningrad Oblast) has been producing facade and paving clinker bricks since 2013;
- LLC "Dubensky brick factory"( Republic of Mordovia) in 2015 launched the production of paving clinker bricks.
Certainly, a brick of domestic production is cheaper than imported products, but when you buy it, do not forget that clinker cannot be very cheap - raw materials and production technology are quite expensive. Carefully inspect the brick for defects and geometry accuracy. Quality products will always have the appropriate documents. First of all, it is a certificate of compliance with the requirements of regulatory documents.
Based on http: //thermobrick.ru/.