One of the most popular vegetables on home garden beds is tomato. It is used to prepare various dishes, including winter preparations. Vitamins and amino acids are preserved even in canned fruits. In order to harvest good yields annually, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the agrotechnics of tomatoes and the rules of care for growing and planting in open ground.
In this article we will look at the most acceptable and fruitful varieties for the Russian region, the correct methods of planting and the secrets of transplantation, as well as how to fertilize and how to feed the bushes.
Table of Contents:
- good harvest
- Selection of seedlings
- What is the preparation of the beds
- necessary? Secrets of planting seedlings in the spring
- The most important care after transplanting to the ground
- Pollination methods
- Acceptable feedand fertilizer and to get the fruitful tomato
- errors cultivation and sowing
- Diseases and pests - a poison sprayed on them
correct timing of planting tomatoes in the open ground Planting
work starts after the establishment of night temperature with a positive indicator .In the middle lane this period falls on the 20th of May - the beginning of June.
Timing is determined based on plant varieties and climatic features of the region. As soon as the average daily temperature + 12 degrees , you can begin landing. It is important to take into account the maturity of the seedlings:
- the height of the shoot reaches 20-25 cm;
- stem has 7-9 well-formed leaflets.
Early-class planting in southern Russia and Ukraine begins in the second half of April until early May. Gardeners of the central regions of Russia transfer seedlings to the garden from May 1 to May 15.
Mid-season varieties are planted 2-3 weeks later. Works are carried out by in cloudy weather or in the evening after 20-00 .
Varieties resistant to temperatures for planting in Ukraine and Russia
Ukrainian gardeners and summer residents of Donbass identified the top five best varieties of tomatoes that produce good yields that can be planted in these regions.
The plant begins to bear fruit early, pink tomatoes can be harvested before the end of summer. Vegetation lasts 65 days, the weight of a medium-sized tomato is 200-220 g .With proper care, up to 100 tons of crop is removed per hectare.
Hybrid is tolerant to various diseases( Fusarium, Verticillosis), suitable for cultivation at a dacha in different types of soil, withstands adverse weather conditions.
High-yielding hybrid with an early term of ripening( vegetation period - 60-65 days).Large fruits weighing up to 300 grams. have fleshy flesh and a sweetish taste.
This plant is characterized by: a developed root system, excellent setting, weighty fruits, large yields. Supernova shows resistance to coolness and disease. The fruits retain their marketable appearance due to their thick skin.
Pietra Rossa F1
The yield per hectare, for example, if landed in the Donetsk region, is about 100 tons. Slightly elongated fruit, externally similar to cream, of medium size with an weight up to 80 g.
Vegetation lasts 115-125 days, with simultaneous ripening of tomatoes. Meaty pulp with a dense structure is ideal for processing.
The plant is recognized by a compact branchy bush and a large number of fruits whose weight does not exceed 60-70 gr.
The growing season lasts 65-70 days. Hybrid stress-resistant, easily tolerates hot weather and cold snap, shows tolerance to fusarium wilt, nematode. There is a touch of sweetness in the taste.
The following tomato varieties are popular among Russian gardeners.
Tomatoes are medium sized with dense fruit ovaries weighing up to 70 grams . Tomatoes ripen even at low temperatures.
Vegetation requires 95 days. Vegetables are well transported thanks to the elastic peel and dense flesh of sweetish taste.
Hybrid Explosion is an improved version of the White filling, is characterized by strong immunity and the ability to develop at low temperatures and heavy rainfall.
The fruits of a low-growing shrub are literally whipped, the red tomatoes on average curtain 200 gr. Over 4 kg of crop is removed from one bush.
The result of the work of English breeders, is highly resistant to wet environments and fungal infections. Tomatoes are formed in a round form of light red color, weight reaches 100 gr.
The vegetation period lasts 110-125 days. Up to 40 tomatoes are removed from the bush if grown correctly.
Fruits are formed by tassels, externally similar to cream, weight about 90 gr. The height of the bush reaches only 70-75 cm. The variety is valued for the opportunity to carry out seeding in open ground.
The plant easily tolerates heat and cool in spring. The growing season lasts 96-98 days.
How can you plant tomatoes to get a good harvest
Selection of seedlings
Some gardeners prefer to purchase seedlings on the market, others - to grow independently. In both cases, in order to plant, seedlings are selected with a well-formed root system, a sturdy stem that has reached an length of 20 cm .
On each shoot, should have time to form 7-8 leaves of , their rich green color indicates a healthy state. Pallor or blotch on greens can signal any disease or disturbance in the growing conditions of seedlings.
When self-growing seedlings, it is worth considering the time of sowing and observe the temperature regime at each stage of development.
Why do we need to prepare the
garden? On 1 m2 should take 1.5 liters of working fluid. After that, fertilizers are introduced.
For loam and clay soils, you can use the following mixture: manure humus, peat and sawdust, taken on a bucket. From mineral substances, a mixture of superphosphate( 2 tbsp. L.), Potassium sulphate( 1 tbsp. L.), Wood ash( 2 cups) is suitable. The preparatory work with the soil is completed by the one week before the start of the landing of the .
Secrets of planting seedlings in spring
The landing is better to do in cloudy weather or after sunset .At night, shoots will be easier to adapt to the new environment. The scheme of planting is selected based on the varieties of tomatoes. Each bush should be well ventilated and illuminated by sunlight.
Tomatoes with an average ripening period are planted in a row at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other. Interval spacing is 50-60 cm .Compact plants have a distance of 40 cm .
The holes for seedlings are dug for the size of the spade bayonet. After abundant watering of the pits and water absorption, the seedlings are alternately transferred to the wells together with the earth clod. It is not recommended to violate the integrity of the root system, so it will take less time to adapt. Work is completed by watering the beds( 1-2 liters per bush).
The most important care after transplanting into the ground is
For the development of the root system and the plant as a whole, oxygen is needed, therefore every 2-3 weeks the bed needs to loosen ( the depth of the instrument is 8-12 cm).If the soil is different density, then carry out the work should be more often.
The loosening procedure is often combined with the weeding with the weeding. Weeds provoke an invasion of pests and retain moisture on the beds, which creates favorable conditions for the development of diseases. In addition, the thickened bed poorly ventilated. After the first weeding of the grown seedlings, the soil can be mulched.
Watering is carried out under the root of tomatoes, you do not need to water the greens. Of the existing irrigation systems, preference is given to point irrigation, sprinkling provokes shedding of inflorescences, causes blanching of the fruits.
The first time after planting to get involved in irrigation is not worth it, it is enough to carry out water procedures 1-2 times a week, not allowing the soil to dry out.
Many varieties, especially large-fruited, need stading .Removal of stepsons is carried out every 2 weeks, so that all forces and nutrients are distributed exclusively for the formation of tomatoes.
In order for a fruit to form in the inflorescence, pollination is required. There are different varieties: pollinated by bees and self-pollinated .
If insects are absent from the garden due to weather conditions or for a number of other reasons, then you can pollinate the flowers with your own hands. To do this, determine the male and female inflorescences.
Soft brush is carried out first on the pistils, then the pollen is shaken on the stamens. Such manipulation is usually done in greenhouses, and then only with those varieties that need pollination.
To attract insects to the garden to pollinate the crop, it is recommended to plant honey plants( basil, marigolds, etc.) in the aisle.
Acceptable feedings and fertilizers to get a productive tomato
- After 3 weeks of , after planting seedlings, Ideal fertilizer is added to the ground with the addition of nitrophoska( 1 tbsp.) To a bucket of water. On one tomato consumed 0.5 liters of solution.
- When the second flower brush, , starts to bloom with , a second supplement is introduced.10 l of water is mixed: potassium sulfate( 1 tsp.), Superphosphate( 1 tbsp. L.), Potassium chloride( 1 tsp.), Fertilizer "Agricola - Vegeta"( 1 tbsp. L.).Another option involves the use of the tool "Signor Tomato"( art. L per 10 liters of water).
- When blooming with the third flower brush , “Sodium HUMATE” or “Ideal” is introduced.
- After 2 weeks a solution of 10 liters of water and art.lsuperphosphate.
Errors in growing and sowing
To protect your crop from unexpected losses, you need to be familiar with the mistakes that gardeners often make when growing tomatoes.
Among the main ones are:
- planting of seedlings or seeds in violation of the terms indicated on the package, or the choice of varieties intended for cultivation in the greenhouse;
- purchase of seedlings with inflorescences( the formation of the ovaries is subsequently disturbed);
- plentiful watering( provokes rotting of the root system);
- excessive soil fertilization( leads to intensive development of the stem and leaves, while the inflorescences look sluggish);
- planting in open ground ahead of schedule ( violation of temperature conditions adversely affect the formation of ovaries).
Diseases and pests - what a poison to spray from them
The following diseases are considered dangerous for tomatoes:
- Late blight , in which brown spots appear on the stem and leaves. On the back of the sheet you can see the characteristic white bloom. Fruits are covered with brown spots. The main reasons for the development of the disease are high temperature drops, high humidity. Fight against late blight involves spraying: the first time seedlings are processed 20 days after planting with the Zaslon solution, and the second time they are processed another 20 days later with a biological preparation Barrier.
- The apical rot is characterized by the appearance of black indented spots on green fruits. The reason for the development of the disease are: insufficient moisture of the plant, excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizers in the soil, calcium deficiency. When detecting lesions, it is recommended to treat the bushes with calcium nitrate solution. To do this, in a bucket of water diluted with a tablespoon of funds. Strongly affected tomatoes must be removed from the bed and disposed of.
- The root rot of tomatoes is caused by overwetting the soil or is transmitted through contaminated soil. Therefore, before planting, the garden beds should be disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate, and during the growing season of the crop it is strictly necessary to follow the irrigation rules.
- The anthracnose of tomatoes is recognized by the characteristic brown spots on the stem, leaves and fruits. Tomatoes disease affects more often when they reach maturity. Initially, small round foci appear that quickly grow in size, which you may not notice right away. When signs of disease are found, the plants should be sprayed with Fitolavin.
Among the dangerous pests that can cause significant damage to the crop:
- gourd aphid, etc.
In many cases, it is possible to defeat insects by spraying the plants with biological preparations or folk remedies. For the bear it is rational to build traps and dispose of the collected pest populations. Identified parasites must be collected from the beds, preventing their spread .
Some of the effective remedies recommended for use:
- Phosbecid and others.
Timely fertilization of plants strengthens the immunity of , which makes them unattractive for insects. They love to attack weak and young shoots. A strong culture with a well-formed root and stem will be able to resist diseases and pests, giving the owners a bountiful harvest.
To grow a good harvest outdoors on the street, you need to carefully care for the plantings, cover the bushes as needed. In some cases, you need to feed the soil before planting seedlings, but most often you need to start feeding the plants after sowing.