In the arsenal of a farmer there is a proven, reliable drug - iron vitriol. It is still in demand, despite the emergence of many new chemicals. The reasons for the popularity: a wide range of applications, low toxicity, reasonable price. What kind of drug it is, how to dilute it and then treat the garden, we will tell further.
; Contentsbefore bud swelling)
Composition and release form of iron sulphate
Iron sulfate otherwise called iron sulfate. From a chemical point of view, it is a salt, ferrous sulphate. It looks like small crystals( sometimes - powder) of greenish color with a bluish( turquoise) or yellowish tint.
Ferrous sulfate is sold in garden and hardware stores, retail packaging is usually 200 or 250 g. Mass fraction of the beneficial substance( sulfate) is 53%( grade 1) or 47%( grade 2);in terms of pure iron - 20%.
Preparation of working solution( general rules)
An aqueous solution of ferrous sulphate of iron in various concentrations in gardening is in demand. It is applied with a sprayer, in some cases - with a brush. Prepare it quite simply.
Water for breeding is desirable to take soft - rain or snow. The resulting liquid is an antiseptic, has an acid reaction.
Compatibility with other drugs
When mixing sulphate of iron with alkalis( for example, with lime), chemical interaction occurs, and many properties are neutralized, lost. But such mixtures are sometimes used in agriculture as moderate( soft) fungicides.
It is not recommended to combine iron sulphate with other fungicides, with insecticides based on malathion( Karbofos, Fufanon, Aliot, Iskra M, Alatar, Inta-CM).
Iron sulfate solution is prepared in various concentrations( proportion to 10 liters of water):
- 15% - 1.5 kg;
- 10% - 1 kg;
- 5% - 500 g;
- 3% - 300 g;
- 1% - 100 g;
- 0,5% - 50 g.
Concentration of more than 1% is very effective, but it burns greens and is suitable only for plants in the resting stage.
Iron sulfate helps to fight some pests and plant diseases, fungi in homes and cellars. Acts as a fertilizer for chlorosis. Solves the following problems:
- Destruction of lichens and mosses in garden plantings.
- Disinfection of tree wounds, hollow.
- Suppression of fungal infections in fruit, berry, ornamental and vegetable crops( treatment and prevention).Protection contact, on the surface( without penetration inside the plant).
- Reduction in the number of certain insects( apple creeper, grape pests).
- Reflection of a rodent attack( effectiveness - not 100%).
- Restoration of iron deficiency in plant nutrition.
- Cleaning the walls of fungus, mold in the cellar and in the house. Wood processing.
- Disinfection of country toilets.
Consider various methods in more detail.
. Work instructions
In each specific case, different concentrations are needed. Let's look at the instructions and how it differs for different trees and shrub species.
When sealing an
hollow A close up of a hollow on a fruit tree allows you to stop the destruction of the wood and prolong the active life of the plant. The operation is carried out at the end of the season, after leaf fall, in stages:
- cleaning the internal cavity to healthy wood;
- disinfection with iron sulfate( 5 percent) ;sometimes recommend a stronger version( 10%);
- after 4 hours - sealing( filling) with cement mortar( cement, sand, lime in a ratio of 2: 6: 1 plus water until creamy thickness);
- after drying - paint on the varnish.
How to treat wounds in trees in the fall
Frostburns, burns, mechanical and infectious damage to the bark and wood are treated with iron sulfate( 5%) after cutting out dead tissue. The optimal time for such events is the first half of summer.
Autumn spraying in gardening
After the leaves of , the trees and bushes of enter a dormant phase. This is the best time to apply a concentrated strike:
- for fungal diseases ( coccomycosis, cytosporosis, septoria, black cancer, scab, moniliosis, powdery mildew, anthracnose, blotch, rust, botrytis, etc.);
- for mosses and lichens .
Dosage for the garden:
- pome seeds ( apple, pear, etc.) - 5%.
- stone ( cherry, plum, etc.) and decorative cultures( including roses ), berries ( raspberry, currant, gooseberry) - 3%.
Treatment is carried out by abundant spraying of trunks and branches, as well as pristvolny circles and soil in the surrounding area. Approximate consumption - 2 liters per plant. They operate at positive air temperature( from +5) in calm and clear weather.
Treatment in spring( before bud swelling)
Spring event - analogous to autumn : the same rules( not recommended only for roses).You can not be late with the deadlines: work when setting low positive temperatures( +5 degrees or slightly higher), strictly for dormant buds. If the currant is already awake, it does not touch.
remedies. Similar spraying of apple trees in the spring reduces the number of the harmful insect - the apple leaflet( sapling).
Program for grapes
- Disinfected cuttings in the fall are disinfected before winter storage( 3%).
- Sleeping cuttings are washed with ferrous sulphate solution( 1%) before spring planting. The buds "slow down", contributing to the growth of the roots.
- In the fall, the young vine planted for wintering before the shelter is treated at a concentration of 3%, and adult bushes - 5%.Consumption - from 1 to 3 liters per bush. After some time, if the weather is damp, the vines darken - this is a normal reaction.
- Work is repeated in the spring, after opening, at air temperatures above +4 degrees, before bud break. Sometimes for spring, the concentration is recommended to be weaker - 1%.
Many diseases and pests of the vineyards are suppressed - oidium, pillow, mealybug, etc. Along the way, the procedure inhibits the opening of the kidneys for 1-2 weeks( sometimes it is useful for avoiding frost).
To combat fungal diseases on a green sheet, you have to prepare a special substance( has a scientific patent, has been tested).Mix 50 g of ferrous sulfate, 30 g of urea, 20 g of hydrated lime and 10 liters of water. The prepared liquid is stored no longer than a day. Sprayed:
- apples, plums, cherries in the bud stage;
- strawberries in spring in the growth phase of young foliage;
- tomatoes, potatoes during the growing season( less phytophthora and the Colorado potato beetle).
- acidity of the substance is close to neutral, does not burn;
- toxicity is minimal;
- components reinforce each other;
- good adhesion, long lasting protection;
- nutritional value( nitrogen, iron, calcium).
There is a quantitative increase in yield, an improvement in its quality.
Seasonal protection of roses in the garden
To combat black spot on roses, they are sprayed with iron sulfate foliage( diluted in a concentration from 0.5 to 1%, not more): starting fromlate spring - several times( with an interval of 13 days).
Fertilizing fruit trees
If there is a shortage of iron, the plants show signs of chlorosis( yellowing, blanching) on young leaves, the old leaf remains green;flowers are shrinking. Apple trees are especially sensitive - they have young shoots. On grassy plants, chlorosis occurs when excessive irrigation of the land with potassium permanganate( it interferes with the absorption of food).
Rescue foliar feeding with a weak solution of vitriol( up to 0.5%): several times weekly. For prophylaxis the dose is five times less - 10 g( 2 tsp) per bucket.
Watering is less effective: in the soil the substance is bound in inaccessible forms. Chelate fertilizer is necessary for root feed. It can be made independently: combine 1 liter of water, half a teaspoon of citric acid, a teaspoon of iron sulphate. The mixture is not stored, watered immediately.
In everyday life,
- At the beginning of autumn, , before harvesting, on the surface of basements and cellars means( from 1 to 6%) is applied by spraying or brushing;then air out.
- A strong concentration of 15% is used against the house fungus.
- Outdoor garden toilets sprayed to disinfect and reduce “odor”( 5%).