Pear can be attributed to fruit crops that are found in almost every garden plot. But the positive emotions associated with growing this crop and harvesting tasty fruits can overshadow 's numerous diseases .They can not only degrade the decorativeness of the plant, but also lead to a significant reduction in yield and even death of the tree. In this article we will look at why pear diseases and treatment of various diseases occur.
Table of contents
- Tree proliferation, disease control methods
- Scab - black fruits and leaves, how to treat?
- Fruit rot or monilioz
- Black soot - black deposits on fruits and leaves
- Mealy dew - leaves began to curl and dry
- Rust - why did yellow spots appear and what to do?
- : crayfish and signs of cure
Diseases of pears are numerous and can affect different parts of the plant. Many of them can affect not only pears, but other pome crops, such as apple, quince, medlar, and hawthorn. What to do in case of disease of trees and how to treat them?With regular inspection of trees, it is easy to notice signs of disease, even in the early stages of .Therefore, even a novice gardener needs to know the main diseases of pears.
The most common symptoms are:
- Leaves and fruits change shape;
- The appearance of spots of different color and shape;
- Defeat of young shoots and bark of old branches;
- Hazelification of fruits and change in taste;
- Falling leaves, ovaries and fruits;
- Drying of branches and tree.
Tree proliferation, disease control methods
Pear proliferation is a viral disease, also called sprouting. Prematurely developed shoots depart from the plant at an acute angle .Numerous thin lateral shoots appear on the plants, dormant buds wake up, and the strong branching of the lateral fat shoots leads to the formation of witch brooms.
Leaves of diseased shoots, as a rule, have large well-developed stipules with a jagged edge. Flowers on infected plants do not fall off, and at the end of the summer re-flowering may occur. Fruits are deformed, and the stalk elongates greatly.Most often the disease is transmitted by vaccination.
It is impossible to cure the disease, therefore, when it comes to industrial plantations, it is better to create a new one with the previously tested healthy planting material .In individual gardening you can observe the state of the tree. Often the disease can become latent and practically does not manifest itself, and the plant will develop and bear fruit normally.
Scab - fruits and leaves turn black, how to treat?
Scab pear is one of the most common diseases. With severe damage, not only the quality and quantity of fruits is reduced, but also the trees shrink and freeze. The rapid development of the disease occurs if frequent precipitation and high temperatures contribute to the constant wetting of the plant.
Scab - a disease of fungal nature. The first sign is the appearance of rounded yellowish spots on all aboveground organs of the plant: branches, fruits, pedicels, leaves and petioles. Gradually, the spots necrotic, acquire a black color with a dark olive bloom. Hillocks form on the petioles and shoots in the lesions, which later transform into ulcers, fissures and dents. Fruits form dark spots with a light rim. The flesh beneath them lumps, cracks appear, the fruits deform, and their quality and quantity are noticeably reduced.
The fight against the disease must be carried out comprehensively .In autumn, the affected leaves should be raked and burned, and the soil should be dug up under the trees. Thickened crowns should be thinned, removing dry and damaged branches. Damaged young shoots must be removed immediately. During leaf fall, it is recommended to treat with ammonium sulfate( 10‑20%), silicate( 0.1%) or urea( 8%).
In the spring, it is necessary to carry out a threefold spraying of protective action with fungicides: Bordeaux mixture( 1%), copper chloroxide. The first time the trees should be sprayed before blooming buds, the second - after flowering, and after another 2 weeks to carry out the treatment of the third time.Reducing the risk of being affected by scab helps planting resistant varieties: Bere Bosk, Vrodliva, Tavricheskaya, Exhibition, Kushcheryanka, etc.
Fruit rot or moniliosis
It affects the pear and the apple tree, less often other seed seeds. Sometimes found on stone cultures.
Symptoms of the disease can be detected not earlier than the middle of the growing season , when the fruits begin to pour. Small brown spots appear on the surface of the fetus, which quickly increase in size and can cover the entire fetus within a week. On the surface appear yellow-white or ash-gray pads, arranged in concentric circles. The flesh becomes loose and tasteless.
Fruit rot can also affect skeletal branches. At the same time, dark indented spots appear, which sometimes can form a branch in the form of a ring, leading to drying of the upper part.
Often the fruits are stored on plants and serve as a source of infection for the next year. Crop may suffer from this disease even during storage. In this case, the fruits become black with brown flesh.To prevent infection by moniliosis, it is necessary to carefully remove the affected fruit, including those remaining on the trees.
Particular attention should be paid to the destruction of insect pests, since it is damaged fruits that are affected by rot in the first place.
For the control of fruit rot the same measures are effective as for the control of scab. In the spring and autumn it is recommended to spray the Bordeaux mixture, and during the growing season to use fungicides( Fitosporin, Topsin, Folicour).However, it is necessary to carry out the treatment at least one month before harvesting, or in the lines indicated in the instructions for the preparation.
Black Fungus - Black Plaque on Fruits and Leaves
Black Fungus appears most often after the petals fall or when the fruit is poured. Dark spots appear on the branches, fruits, and leaves, with patina that do not have clearly defined edges. The appearance and taste of the fruit are reduced. The defeat of the shoots and leaves leads to stunted growth, reduced frost resistance and bookmark fruit buds.Unlike scab, soot stain is easily erased. This feature makes it easy to distinguish one disease from another.
The main causes of damage to pears with soot are:
- Crown thickening;
- Poor air circulation in the garden or low location;
- Low crown illumination;
- Damage by insects, since it is on their secretions( honeydew) that spores begin to develop.
To control the fungus, it is necessary to reduce the population of the sucking insect pests ( aphids, medianits).To protect the plants can be sprayed with copper fungicides. But most often, a special treatment against a black fungus is not required if treatments have been carried out from other fungal diseases.
Mealy dew - the leaves began to curl and dry
Pear mealy dew is considered one of the most dangerous diseases. The fungus infects the leaves, which can curl, shoots and fruits, leading to stunted growth and development, deformation and gradual fall of .The infected flowers become covered with a powdery touch and fall off, the ovaries do not form. As a result, up to 80% of the crop may fall off before the fruit is formed.
Favorable conditions for the spread of the fungus are considered high humidity at moderately high temperatures, but spore germination and contamination can occur in almost any conditions.
The fungus winters well on damaged shoots and does not freeze even in the harshest winters, so in spring and autumn it is necessary to cut the damaged branches and burn, and to treat the trees with colloidal sulfur. In order to limit the development of the disease during the growing season of plants, it is necessary to spray systemic fungicides.
Rust - why did yellow spots appear and what to do?
Signs of rust, as a rule, appear on all green frequent plants immediately after flowering. A characteristic symptom of the disease is round, large yellow spots, sometimes with a purple rim, on the lower side of the leaf blade yellow-green .Over time, black dots appear on the surface, spots bloat and burst. In affected plants, immunity and winter hardiness are reduced.Pear is only an intermediate host for this fungus. The main host plant is juniper. Therefore, to avoid infection, you should not plant these plants near.
Most often, the disease appears in the fall, in wet weather, in regions where the host plant is found in its wild-growing form or in home gardens. At the first signs of rust, it is recommended to treat with a systemic fungicide.
In spring, trees must be sprayed twice with Bordeaux mixture( 1%): during bud break and after flowering. In the fall, affected leaves and fruits should be destroyed, and shoots with signs of damage should be removed. Trees are recommended to be treated with urea solution( 7%) after the leaves fall. . You can also use fungicides: Bayleton, Scor, Topsin M, Fundazol, Delan, Tarcel.
In regions with a high probability of rust, it is better to grow varieties that are relatively resistant to the disease: Skorospelka, Duchess summer, Ilyinka, Summer Williams, etc.
Black cancer: signs and methods of treatment
The disease affects the bark of skeletal branches and trunk. On the cortex near the lentils, numerous small indented necrotic spots appear. On thin branches, lentils begin to grow, on thick - abundant gamma-therapy appears. The resulting wounds gradually increase in size, and the bark around becomes brown. Reddish spots may appear on the leaves and fruits. Several types of fungi can cause similar symptoms, and not only pome crops, but also stone fruits are affected by the disease. With a strong infection, the tree dies.Chemical methods of combating this disease does not exist. Therefore, the focus should be on prevention.
For this, diseased plants are best removed, and at the initial stage of infection, prune all damaged branches to healthy wood. The wounds on the shtambe must be cleaned to healthy wood, treated with blue vitriol solution and covered with clay with the addition of mullein.
Cytosporosis - the bark bursts and the
branches dry up. Cytosporosis is a disease of old weakened gardens that are in poor physiological condition and constantly freeze slightly. On the annual shoots appear numerous black bumps and branches die .On the thick branches appear ulcers, which constantly grow, until they completely cover the entire branch. The bark becomes red-brown and dries. Gumming may occur.
is not used to combat disease chemicals. To avoid cytosporosis, it is necessary to remove the affected branches and trees, which are the main source of infection. When creating gardens, it is necessary to give preference to zoned varieties that will not freeze, and also to maintain a high agricultural background.
Bacterial burn - pear leaves turn brown
Bacterial burn is considered one of the most dangerous diseases that affects more than 100 plant species. In infected plants, the flowers turn brown and fall, the tips of the branches turn black, and the leaves and shoots are covered with watery black spots .The tree quickly takes on the appearance of a scorched fire.
Bacteria that cause disease can spread very quickly through tree loans to cause tissue death. The rapid course of the disease cannot be defeated. You can only prevent infection of other plants, so the sore tree must be removed and burned, and the roots uprooted. How to deal with this disease?
If the disease was noticed at an early stage, it is necessary to cut the affected branches, and treat the cut and tools with a solution of iron( 0.7%) or copper( 1%) vitriol. Antibiotic spraying of plants will be effective:
- Streptomycin( 50 μg / ml);
- Chloramphenicol( 50 µg / ml);
- Rifampicin( 50 µg / ml);
- Gentamicin( 50 μg / ml);
- Kanamycin( 20 µg / ml).
It is also possible to treat the plants with the Bordeaux mixture and spray them with copper-containing preparations 7–8 times a season.There are no varieties resistant to the disease, but susceptibility is different. The most susceptible varieties are: General Leclaire, Triumph Pakgama, Durandu, Santa Maria, Williams.
Bacteriosis: ways of pest control
The first signs of the disease appear with the blooming of young leaves .At the ends of the laminae, dark areas appear, gradually spreading over the entire lamina and petiole, which later begin to dry and may turn black. The disease affects the vascular system, which is easily seen on the cross-section of a branch in the form of black dots or circles.
. The degree of damage can vary, but trees of all ages are susceptible. To combat bacteriosis, it is necessary to prune the , grabbing 30–40 cm of healthy wood, process the cuttings with copper sulphate( 3%), and also spray with Bordeaux mixture.
wood disease The causative agent of the disease is a virus that is transmitted from tree to tree by mechanical means, by pruning or grafting. The branches of the affected plants are flattened, and inside there are dead sections of .Well visible grooves, necrotic lines and spots. The leaves are chlorotic, early acquire autumn color and fall.Sooner or later, the plant dies, so these trees are better to clean and use healthy material when planting.
Septoria, or white spot on the leaves
Disease of abandoned and aging gardens. On the leaves appear small spots of light brown color, gradually graying, but with a dark rim. These leaves dry out and fall earlier than usual, and the viability and productivity of trees is reduced. Plants weakened by septoria are poorly resistant to low temperatures and often freeze .
As a rule, does not perform special treatments for septoria, because the prophylactic measures used for scab effectively prevent white spot.
Prevention of diseases of pears
Avoiding diseases is not easy, especially in summer cottages, where the pathogen may appear due to careless neighbors or abandoned wild gardens. However, most pear diseases can be prevented.
It is necessary to realize that prevention includes a complex of agrotechnical measures that are recommended to be carried out regularly. The following preventive measures are worth highlighting:
Pruning to form the crown Spraying Bordeaux oil Whitewashing trunks Loosening the soil under the tree Sanitary pruning and cleaning
- Growing healthy planting material ;
- Processing the tool after pruning diseased trees;
- Cleaning leaves and windfalls;
- Deep loosening of the soil under trees;
- Regular lightening of the crown of the , removal of weak, diseased and dried branches;
- Cleaning and whitening of the trunks , treatment of frost and injuries;
- Early spring and autumn spraying of with Bordeaux mixture or other preparations according to the treatment calendar;
- pest control .
Growing pears and obtaining a decent crop requires attention and certain knowledge. It is necessary not only to take care of the tree properly, but also to learn to see the first signs of a lesion, to distinguish diseases characteristic of a given culture, and to take the necessary measures in a timely manner. And in order not to collide at all or to minimize the number of diseases it is always useful to pay attention to simple methods of prevention.