Potatoes are rightly called the second bread. Everyone treats him with respect and reverence. Happy owners of summer cottages and gardens always provide a good place for culture. About sprouting and how to prepare potatoes before planting, we will tell in this article.
Table of Contents
- Do I need to sprout potatoes before planting and what are
- for when and how long to sprout potatoes
- What are the tubers to take
- Why potatoes degenerate
- How to sprout potatoes for planting
- how to grow potatoes
- How to sprout potatoes for planting
- how to germinate
- Planting sprouted potatoes
- Sprouting methods
- In the dark
- In the light
- Pre-seed test
- in polyethylenelack of empty nests and abundant harvest. Unprepared seed will slowly germinate, grow poorly, yield a meager crop.
At what time and for how long to sprout the potato.. To germinate the potato 30 - 40 days before the intended planting. If planting is planned for the beginning of May, then it is possible to start seed germination in early April. During this time, the tubers go through several stages of preparation.
Rejected weak, rotten, damaged seeds. Tubers with very large, fragile processes are also not suitable for planting. During transportation, thin long roots will easily break and the potatoes will not germinate.
What are the tubers that should be taken
? Prepare the planting material necessary since the fall .For landing fit a medium size, the size of a little more than an egg. This is the most optimal size. A small variety will be weak, will give a non-viable root, will not provide the shoots with sufficient nutrition.
It will be right to cut a large tuber into pieces, with such a condition that every one has eyes.
Why potatoes degenerate
If you are irresponsible in the preparation of planting material, the culture starts to degenerate and loses its positive varietal qualities. This is because the landing get weak, non-standard options.
Large . planting potatoes are also not suitable for .It will be difficult to "wake up".Such seeds are sluggish, inactive, "lazy."
How to sprout potatoes for planting
The preparation is as follows:
- The tubers are removed from the vegetable storage , sorted again, the seeds are removed with signs of disease, rotted. Selected specimens should be thoroughly washed. In the soil for a long time, bacteria that are dangerous to root crops can persist.
- Then is recommended to protect the planting material from harmful spores and bacteria as much as possible. For this, you can use boric acid( 10 g per liter of water).
- At the next stage, , the tubers are dried .Better to do it in the shade, in the barn or in the attic.
- After a potato dries, it is necessary for to warm the for several days at room temperature.
How to get planting material fromseedsWhen sprouting potatoes, it is better to use your own planting material. For this, even during the flowering and growth of the foliage, the most powerful, strong bushes should be noted. Then during the harvest, put the tubers from these bushes on the seeds.
Immediately after digging, the potatoes must be subjected to the first preparation procedure for storage. Her need to "green."For this, the tubers must be laid out in the sun. For uniform exposure to sunlight, they need to be turned regularly. How much should green? About 3 weeks.
The seeds treated in this way are hard, the skin peels , which greatly improves its storage. In addition, it becomes inedible for rodents( green potatoes contain poisonous solanine).
Next, the tubers are stored in a dark, cool room( basement, cellar, specially a vegetable storehouse).The optimal storage temperature is + 5 °.If the temperature is higher, the seeds will begin to germinate. If the temperature drops to 0 °, the potatoes will freeze.
How to quickly germinate potatoes for plantingFor the quick germination of potatoes, if the recommended dates of germination were missed, you can use the most effective methods, which include germination in the light and wet germination.
Thanks to these types of processing, sprouts on potatoes will appear in record time : in a week, in two. Still it is possible to recommend the use of plant growth stimulants and fertilizers. They stimulate intensive root growth.
Planting Sprouted Potatoes
When planting sprouted potatoes, it is necessary to take into account the region, planting type, ripening time and soil characteristics.
"Flat" type of landing the most common. Suitable for good, sunny areas. Potatoes are planted in the hole and covered with earth without a hill.
Method "comb" is designed for the territory of Siberia. Potatoes are planted on a hill in shallow holes. Immediately fertilizer is applied. As the grows, the bush is spud, sprinkled with .
. This way the plant is protected from temperature fluctuations and adverse weather conditions. The risk of potato freezing is reduced.
The trench method is used on light peat and sandy soils. In such a soil, plants lack moisture. For this type of planting, a moat of about 10 cm is dug, fertilizers are applied.
Well spill, fall asleep soil. Top can be filled with mulch to preserve moisture.
There are several variants of germination. They all help prepare the seeds before planting. Which option to choose, a personal matter of each gardener. The most popular methods are as follows:
In the dark
This method is quite simple and effective. In the dark, the emergence of seedlings is slow, and the shoots are thin. It is necessary to periodically control the length of the shoots. To slow down their growth, you need to reduce the temperature in the room.
The recommended time for germination is about 20 days. A necessary condition for this type of germination is to maintain a constant level of humidity. Tubers should be sprayed regularly.
In the LightOne of the easiest ways to grow a crop is in the light. Potatoes are displayed in transparent bags or wooden boxes and placed in a bright room with a temperature of about 15 °.
Prerequisite - the presence of sunlight. Without light, it is also able to germinate. But such a seedling will be weak, inactive.
If the sun is too intense in the room, tubers should be covered with , covered with newspapers. Germination rate depends on the room temperature. The warmer, the faster the shoots will sprout.
If the place chosen for germination has no natural light, fluorescent lamps will do.
- At the very beginning it is recommended to decontaminate and feed the tubers. Disinfection can be carried out with a solution of potassium permanganate( approximately 2 g per bucket of water).
- After a week to process the tubers with a complex of mineral fertilizers.
- Then the temperature in the storage area of the is preferably lowered to 20 ° , after a week to 15 °.This can be achieved by opening all the vents and doors.
- A couple of days before planting, the potatoes need to be hardened. For this, the seeds cover the access of light and reduce the temperature in the room to + 10 °.After this procedure, germination increases significantly.
The fastest and most effective way to germinate. Tubers are laid out in one or two layers in peat, hay or sawdust. A prerequisite is that the substrate should not dry out, otherwise the tender shoots will dry out. Usually sprouts are formed within 20 days.
The boxes should not be sealed , the water should not stagnate. It is important and the constant flow of air. The room should be heated, with a temperature not lower than + 12 °.
It is better not to water the soil in the boxes, but to spray it with water with fertilizers dissolved in it( potatoes like potash salt and superphosphate).
- First, seeds must be treated with fertilizer or an EM drug. This nourishes the tuber with vitamins and starts the mechanism of growth and development.
- Spread the tubers in prepared boxes or boxes.
- Sawdust is poured with water, then squeezed slightly and are distributed over the potato, completely closing it with .
- Boxes can be put one on another. The main thing is to ensure that the filings do not dry out.
- If it is not possible to place the boxes in the room, it is possible to arrange the planting material for germination directly on the garden. To do this, it is necessary to use a slurry “cushion” with a height of at least 30 cm. The process of laying the seeds is the same: lay out the tubers and sprinkle with a moist substrate.
box It is necessary to control the so that the length of the sprouts does not exceed the diameter of the of the .Such seeds are not viable. During landing, they are badly damaged.
Pre-planting wiltingIf there is neither a suitable room, nor the possibility of seed germination in a wet substrate, a simpler germination method can be used - “wilting”.To do this, just pour the potatoes on the litter in a heated room.
In a couple of weeks the potatoes will ripen for planting. Heat and light will start the process of germinating seeds. The higher the temperature, the faster the sprouts will appear.
Effectively can sprout potatoes in your own apartment .To do this, come to the aid of strong plastic bags. They need to make several small holes for ventilation.
You can put about 10 tubers in each pack. Then the package is tied and is suspended in an apartment on the sunny side.
Periodically it is necessary to turn the bag over so that the sun's rays evenly affect the tubers. Too intense sunlight should be avoided.
Ready-made seeds can be shipped directly in packages, but very carefully, so as not to damage the sprouts.
Sprouting in boxes with supplements
The planting material prepared in this way is of high quality and strong.
Potassium chloride Saltpeter Superphosphate
- This will require cellophane-covered crates. In several layers laid out potatoes, which is surrounded by peat, humus or sawdust. You can have several layers.
- When everything is laid, you need to shed boxes with water .In a week, when the sprouts hatch, they need to be shed with a nutrient mineral mixture. To do this, take 10 g of potassium chloride and nitrate and combine with 50 g of superphosphate. Stir the mixture in a bucket of clean water and pour over the tubers. Fertilizers can be replaced with a glass of wood ash in 10 liters of water.
- After a couple of days, repeat the vitamin watering.
- A week later, the tubers will be ready for planting.
This method of germination is convenient with a small amount of planting material and if germination is planned to be carried out in an apartment. To do this, pre- tubers are placed for a week in a box with wet sawdust. After that, the seeds are distributed in clay pots with nutrient soil.
Regular feeding of tubers with mineral fertilizers is recommended. At night, it is better to take the pots to the balcony in order to prepare the tubers for possible temperature changes. Hardening at temperatures below + 10 ° is not recommended.
Potato seed dressing
The process of preparing the seed before planting should include the procedure for tuber dressing. It includes seed treatment with insecticides, growth promoters and fertilizers.Especially important is the processing of potatoes against insects - pests, such as wireworms, Colorado potato beetle, and Medvedka. In addition, these drugs protect against decay, bacteria, diseases. The most well-known drugs "Maxim", "Prestige", "Cruiser".Processing methods are indicated on the instructions.Maxim Prestige Cruiser
Also are shown root biostimulants. Their list on the market is huge. The drugs "Poteytin" and "Mikom" are widely known. To increase the resistance of tubers to diseases they use copper sulphate, superphosphate, and trace elements. Details on spraying options can be found in specialized stores.
A very convenient and easy way, in the absence of a suitable room. Sprouting in the garden can begin when the snow melts and the air temperature warms up to + 10 °.A layer of dry straw, sawdust or peat is laid on the ground.
Lay out dry potatoes in 1 - 2 layers of .The resulting ridge is covered with a film that protects against night frosts and creates a greenhouse effect favorable for germination. The process will take from 1 to 3 weeks.
If a layer of manure is put under dry litter, the germination period will be significantly reduced.
Potato seedlingsThe most effective method for obtaining early potato harvest is seedlings. For this, prepared tubers are planted in pots, boxes or bags with peat and humus, placed in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
potatoes. should be monitored to maintain 's comfortable temperature and humidity. Planted green seedlings planted in open ground can be when the soil warms up sufficiently and the danger of frost has passed.
Secrets to improve the yield of
To increase the quantity and quality of the crop, the following tips from experienced gardeners should be taken into account:
- Processing with mineral complex is recommended on the day of planting. Tubers are soaked for several hours in fertilizer, dried and planted immediately.
- A large number of planting potatoes are easier to fertilize by spraying .It is necessary to perform the procedure every week for a month.
- The day before planting it is recommended to treat the tubers with a growth stimulator. This activates germination, speeds up metabolism and increases yields.
- If there is no specially planting material, you can prepare the seed yourself from ordinary potatoes. To do this, large tubers are cut into several pieces, so that each have eyes. Such manipulation is performed not only for reasons of economy. In the tuber cut, the stress hormones are produced, and the process of accelerated regeneration and rooting begins.
- Mulch will help to keep moisture and nutrition in the soil for a long time.
Do not be lazy when preparing seed potatoes for planting. There are many ways to handle planting material. This can be done with minimal financial and time costs: in the basement, in the garden, and even in your own apartment.
Well germinated tubers are capable of producing an early, abundant harvest. And the use of all the secrets and recommendations proposed in this article will help to increase the yield of potatoes by several times .