Today there are a huge number of different breeds of chickens, each of which is distinguished by its unique features.
Against the background of all other breeds, maran can be called one of the most original and specific, since these hens carry eggs of an unusual brown color .But the value of the breed is not only in the unusual coloring of eggs.
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- Video review of this breed
This breed was bred by French breeders in 1985.However, the unsurpassed qualities of maran could only be assessed in 1914, when the creators presented their new breed at the La Rochelle exhibition.
Since then these chickens have spread all over the world, poultry breeders from various countries of the world willingly start them.
The name of the breed comes from the name of the city where it was bred - Maran.
The location of this city is the western part of France. The terrain here is mostly marshy, and because of the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean in the west of France, it is rather cold.
Experienced poultry farmers easily distinguish maran from other breeds. First of all, looking at these chickens, one cannot help but notice their proud, important walk.
In addition, birds have a very spectacular appearance: bright colors and unusual plumage, tight enough to the body. In sunny weather, feathers shine and shimmer in bright colors, which gives the hens an even more beautiful look.
Distinctive features of hens of breed maran
- Large sizes.
- Extruded form of the torso .
- Small head.
- A six-prong comb that hangs to the side of the .
- Reddish-orange eyes .
- . Earrings of rather large in males.
- A small tail , which hangs at a 45 degree angle.
In addition, chickens of this breed can be recognized by strong, well-developed bright legs with 4 clearly divided toes.
Paws, as a rule, do not have strong plumage, but a small amount of fluff is present on the thumbs. Sometimes the outer parts of the thighs are covered with feathering.
Another distinctive sign is the down collar that adorns the neck of males.
Conditions for keeping
Chickens Maran are calm in nature, so they almost never have conflicts with other poultry.
However, despite their calm and peaceful nature, they are quite mobile, therefore they should be kept in a spacious and free aviary. The best option for a ram is walking.
It should be noted that laying hens that have been in the fresh air for a long time will be carried much better.
Despite the unpretentiousness and resistance to disease, these birds do not like high humidity, and, therefore, the coop must be dry. To do this, it is recommended that you ventilate the room as often as possible, and if necessary, provide it with heating or install a fan.
In addition, rams need high-quality light mode: for full growth, development and good egg laying in winter, they need to provide lighting for 10-11 hours a day.
This breed is very well bred not only in industrial farms, but also in private farmsteads.
Maran refers to the meat-chickens breed. At the same time, both the eggs and the birds themselves are quite large.
- The weight of an adult female is approximately 2.5-3.2 kg.
- Adult Rooster - 3.3-4 kg.
- The weight of a young female is from 2 kg.
- Year Old Rooster - from 3 kg.
- The weight of one egg is 80 g.
- An egg from under a young chicken weighs approximately 65-70 g.
With a good quality of care and proper keeping of hens, one hen gives up to 150 eggs per year.
If we talk about such a breed as dwarf maran, then the characteristics will be as follows:
- Rooster weight - 1.1-1.2 kg.
- Chicken Weight - up to 1 kg.
- The egg weight is about 40 g.
Laying hens. The main diet of maran consists of the same food that other breeds of chickens eat. In order for the birds to gain weight well and carry a sufficient number of eggs, it is necessary to provide them with a full and balanced feeding.
That is why experienced poultry farmers always carefully calculate feed consumption rates for their pets.
One laying hen should eat about 75 g of feed during the day if it eats only feed. At the same time feeding should be divided into two times.
In addition to dry food, must also be given various greens and vegetables.
For example, green grass, finely chopped cabbage, turnip, rutabaga. Rushing chicken must necessarily receive such feeding. It should be given three to four times a day. It is the quantity and quality of fresh greens that feed the chicken that is responsible for how bright the yolk of the egg will be.
Compound feed, you can buy ready-made, but you can cook it yourself. Standard feed consists of the following components:
- 12% wheat grain.
- 45% Corn .
- 7% sunflower meal .
- 7% barley .
- 8% Pea .
- 4-5% fodder, fish, meat and bone meal and herbal flour.
- 7% shells , limestone, chalk.
- 0.3% Salt .
For good digestion of food, it is recommended to give the bird small pebbles and quartz sand.
The main part of the diet of chickens( about 70%) should be carbohydrate food, and the rest is protein.
Nutrition value of standard feed:
- Proteins - 15-18%.
- Fat - 3-5%.
- Dietary Fiber - 4-6%.
Young hens that are still growing, but have already started laying eggs, should be provided with a more nutritious diet.
Ready-made feed already contain the necessary additives for poultry, but they may not be enough. Since calcium is a very important element in order to form a strong egg shell, chickens are recommended to be fed with calcium supplements.
So, calcium is contained in crushed chalk, large shell rock, bone meal, crushed eggshell.
Sometimes calcium supplements are mixed with the main feed, and sometimes given separately. Calcium-containing additives in the trough can be poured in any quantity, since the bird itself determines how much it needs.
To ensure the maximum balance of the required substances for chickens, they must be fed according to a certain pattern.
- The first three days of life - chopped boiled eggs and cottage cheese every 2 hours.
- 3-6 days - carefully crushed millet or corn grits is added to the eggs.
- From the 6th day of the , a grated shells or cockleshell is inserted. Feed the chickens should be 5-6 times.
- From the 10th day of the , the number of feedings is reduced to four.
- From 14 days - vegetable food( for example, you can give nettle, alfalfa, carrots, clover).
Chickens should also be given every 4-7 days water with a weak solution of manganese.
Chickens Maran show the same unpretentious content as adult birds. The first week of life, they should be in brooder( temperature 30 degrees), and after 7 days they can be released for 2-3 hours on the street.
From the age of 30 days, the nutrition and lifestyle of the grown chickens becomes the same as the adult individuals.
Species: Copper Black, Wheat, Cuckoo, and Other
Although all the maran chickens carry brown eggs, there are several varieties of this breed, differing in different color choices.
Copper Black. Considered to be the most common color option for the Maran species. The rooster has a black breast with multiple reddish patches. His back and neck are reddish-red, and his tail feathers are bluish-black.
The female is completely black. There are small reddish spots on her breast, and a red necklace on her neck. The hen of black and black coral is noticeably paler than the bright cock.
Wheat. The feathers on the head and neck of the rooster are painted a bright golden color, and the breast is black. The feathers on the contour are painted in red-brown, and the steering - in black. The hen is almost all golden-reddish, and its head and neck are a little darker — light brown. Feathers on the abdomen and breast painted in beige.
Muckwort. There are two types of cuckoo coloring:
- Golden cuckoo - a clear cuckoo pattern is more pronounced on females.
- Silver cuckoo - the feathers of chickens are painted in silver-white color. In this case, the roosters have a clearer and more vivid pattern.
Blacktail. Almost all the torso of birds has a reddish color with a golden sheen. The tail is black, painted in small brown spots.
Black. The hen maran of this species is almost completely painted black. At the same time, they have no color blotches.
White. Birds are completely white.
Colombian. A rather beautiful and unusual color: in this case the chicken is completely white, and a black necklace adorns its neck.
Silver black .This color is very similar to the color of black and copper chickens, but in this case the feathers are painted in silver and black.
Dwarf maran. Such birds differ from ordinary marano in their miniature size. At the same time, they also carry eggs that are considerably smaller than usual ones.
This breed is bred just like any other. You can put eggs under a hen or chicks in an incubator.
It should be borne in mind that experienced poultry farmers consider eggs of intense dark color to be the most suitable for obtaining the best and healthiest chickens. This is due to the widespread belief that when the helminth gets into the egg, its shell loses its color and becomes light brown or completely yellow.
In order to get dark brown eggs from under all the chickens in the chicken coop, it is necessary to select the darkest eggs each year for hatching. Females that carry eggs of insufficiently intense color are best used for meat.
Since the eggshell of the representatives of this breed is rather firm and durable, it is necessary to ensure that the weak chicks, who could not penetrate the shell and get out, did not die when chickens hatch.
To do this, it is recommended to maintain the humidity of the room with eggs at 75%.In addition, it is advisable to follow the process of chick removal to help the weakest, if necessary, hatch from eggs, carefully breaking the shell around the place of biting.
Diseases and treatment
The most common diseases of chickens include the following:
- Causes: impaired water-salt metabolism, impaired kidney, heart, liver.
- Symptoms: The abdomen is enlarged, the abdominal cavity is tense. Hard, tense gait, lethargy.
- Treatment: Elimination of the root causes, abdominal piercing with a syringe and pumping out fluid. Treatment with diuretics( field horsetail, bearberry).
Treated with worms birds are treated with piperazine, phenothiazine, hygromycin. The drugs are mixed with food in doses indicated in the instructions. It is necessary to regularly clean the room, wash the feeders, drinking bowls with boiling water.
Disinfection of the room with such drugs as a solution of xylonaph, fluorochlorophenol, caustic soda or a solution of ash alkali. Requires regular cleaning of the chicken coop from litter.
The disease is infectious, so sick birds quickly infect healthy ones. If untreated, chickens may suffer from scabies for years.
The disease is treated fairly easily: must hold the affected chicken's paws in warm, soapy water for 30 minutes and then smear them with creolin solution.
Chickens are affected by wingless insects, food for which are skin particles and growing feathers. As a rule, these pests can be found in a sick chicken in the area of the cloaca and under the wings.
A box with a mixture of fine sand and wood ash is installed in the hen house as a treatment and prophylaxis. Affected down and feathers of chickens are burned.
The merits of
- The meat and eggs of Maran chickens are with excellent taste.
- This breed is perfectly bred by in any adverse weather conditions.
- The hens of the breed maran have good immunity and resistance to diseases.
- Chicken eggs are distinguished from other breeds by the unusual in brown.
- eggs and bird carcasses are quite large.
- Almost never penetrates worms due to thick and durable shells.
Perhaps the only drawback of Maran chickens is the difficulties that sometimes arise in chickens hatched from the eggs due to the thick shell.
Thus, most poultry farmers, in addition to the positive qualities listed above, note that the roosters of this breed are distinguished by good activity, which favorably affects the fertility.
With proper care and the implementation of all recommendations for the breeding and care of your pets will delight you with excellent performance indicators. Both the hens themselves and their eggs of an unusual chocolate color will be a real highlight in your household.
Video review of this breed
We invite you to watch a video review of this breed with a description and owner review.