Jak správně a bezpečně pracovat s mlýnem

The angle grinder in inept hands can lead to big trouble. When working as a grinder, one should not ignore the instructions and ignore safety requirements. Be sure to use protective equipment. The master is obliged to work only with a serviceable instrument, must be in a collected and concentrated state with extremely concentrated attention. A Bulgarian of any size is a source of increased danger; it can cause injury to both the operator and nearby people. How to work the tool?

Table of Contents

  • 1 The device and possibilities of the grinder
  • 2 General safety measures
    • 2.1 How to avoid the danger of getting injured from a defective disc?
    • 2.2 How not to work with a dangerous tool?_SD_3_3 Cutting ceramics in a straight line
    • 3.2.2 Grinding of large holes in a grinder: round, rectangular
    • 3.2.3 Video: review of diamond discs and bowls
  • 3.3 and the workman for the workmans for the workmans for the workmans, for the years, for the workmans, and the years for the workmans, for the workmans, for the yearsтал _ D _ ли 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 AS AS AS AS тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал тал талand petal disc
  • 3.5 How to sharpen chain saws grinder
    • 3.5.1 Video: how to sharpen the saw chain grinder
  • 3.6 grinder cutting of glassware
  • 3.7 grinder Work with natural and artificial stone
    • 3.0

      The Bulgarian is simple. The electric motor rotates the shaft on which the interchangeable nozzles are attached through an angular gearbox with great speed.

      Main LBM Parts and Controls

      The peculiarity of the grinder is that it is a multifunctional tool, and for each specific work and for each material being processed a different disc is required. For example, a disk on a tree can not be cut from the billet of metal. The flexible abrasive disc for polishing stone is not suitable for sanding wooden products.

      But not only the nozzles are diverse. Bulgarians also have several versions:

      • professional;
      • household;
      • without handles;
      • with one or two handles;
      • low, medium and high power.

      Powerful models are powered from an industrial three-phase network with a voltage of 380 V. Low-power - from a household outlet of 220 V.

      The main purpose of the grinder is to cut soft and durable products - from wood, plastic, metal, stone, concrete and other materials, as well as their stripping, cleaning and grinding. If the grinder is fixed permanently, you can sharpen drills, cutters, knives and other cutting tools.

      Bulgarian is indispensable in the production of construction works, in auto repair shops, utilities, in the conduct of rescue work, and in many other areas of human activity. In short - it is widely used in industrial production and in everyday life.

      General security measures

      Why does the grinder belong to a dangerous tool? There are several reasons for this:

      • in a rotating disk has a large open working segment that is not protected by a casing;
      • often has to work as a grinder without a reliable point of support;
      • abrasive discs tend to break apart into large and small sizes;
      • huge speed of rotation of the nozzles and high power in heavy models contribute to the fragmentation of fragments over long distances.
      When cutting, the product is fastened, the Bulgarian is holding tight with two hands, the operator is at the side of the

      . The danger of the Bulgarian is laid in the principle of operation. Cutting of the workpiece is carried out due to the contact of the rotating disk with the surface of the product. Moreover, the contact zone is one single support, because the worker keeps all the weight on the grinder. Such specifics require the skill of maintaining a stable tool in one plane. The slightest bias leads to a sudden unexpected jerk. A novice user should learn the basics of working with an angle grinder on low-power models designed for a disc diameter of 115–125 mm.

      A huge danger comes from the abrasive cutting disc. The slightest defect can lead to unexpected destruction with the pulling out of the grinder from the hands and unpredictable consequences. Therefore, before fixing it is always necessary to carefully inspect the disc for signs of chipping( nicks) or cracks( can be detected with idle rotation).These defects can appear not only during work, but also from careless handling of the instrument: falls, impacts and other external influences( for example, the instrument was lying on the floor - it was accidentally stepped on it).

      How to avoid the danger of getting injured from a defective disc?

      To prevent the disc from spreading during operation, the following measures will help:

      • checking the abrasive disc for defects before each installation;
      • inspection inspection of the nozzle before each commissioning;
      • work using personal protective equipment: gloves, goggles or a protective mask.

      The operator of the grinder is obliged to approach the tool in a calm state, must be attentive and careful. A person with an unbalanced psyche who cannot concentrate at the right moment - one cannot even take this serious tool in hand.

      How to work with a dangerous tool?

      When handling dangerous tools prohibited:

      • to work without goggles;
      • wear lightweight clothing with short sleeves that do not cover the body from hot sparks;
      • to work without a protective casing;
      • use the grinder at work without checking the condition of the abrasive disk at idle;
      • be in the area of ​​the cutting plane - you should stand on the side;
      • strongly press the tool with your hands - it cuts perfectly under the action of its weight;
      • constantly practice cutting grinder on yourself, which can lead to damage from a broken disc;
      • to work without interruption, because the hands accumulate fatigue from the weight and vibration of the grinder and can not hold it tightly;
      • work with a loose workpiece - someone must hold it tightly or securely fix the product in a yew, clamp, other device;
      • sand the parts with the side of the cutting disc - there are special attachments for this;
      • cut workpieces with a thickness of more than half the radius of the circle - usually the workpiece should not exceed 1/6 of the diameter;
      • allow unauthorized persons to enter the work area.
      Eye and face protection when working with grinders

      Video: how to work with angle grinders

      How to use grinders

      If you are well aware of the principles of correct work with grinders, then you can not fear for your health. Important notes on the preparation and operation of angle grinders:

      • grinding wheel diameter should not exceed the size, which is designed grinder;
      • when working, the grinder is firmly held with both hands;
      • operator must stand firmly on his feet so that nothing can unbalance him;
      • power cable should be pushed away from the place of work to avoid it falling under the rotating disk;
      • to make all movements in the working area from one place to another with the LBM turned off;
      • in the event of an emergency power outage, be sure to turn off the device, in order to avoid unexpected start.
      When working with a grinder, you should protect your body, hands and face from sparks.

      woodworking techniques As the angle grinder was originally designed for grinding and polishing materials, it can easily cope with similar operations on wooden surfaces.

      Nozzles for grinders on wood: cutting, grinding, cleaning, polishing

      These types of interchangeable nozzles are used for this purpose:

      1. Grinding plates are a multi-layer construction in which layers of rubber or plastic are adjacent to layers of emery foam rubber( less often - wool)flannels).These plates polish wood products and polish painted wooden surfaces.
      2. Flap discs - this is a hard base, on which are attached the grit sandpaper. These discs can be pre-rough grinding of wooden products.
      3. Wire Brushes — used to quickly remove old paint from painted wood — on which wire bristles are attached to a steel bowl.

      Grinding of soft materials, including wooden surfaces, is one of the safest types of work with the grinder. When working, nothing will jam, will not catch, will not wrap.

      Wood cutting

      Special discs for industrial wood cutting are produced in only one type. This is a disc with side teeth that increase the width of the cut. It is necessary to use them very carefully, sawing off boards no more than 40 mm thick.

      Cutting discs from the circular can not be used, as they are designed for a speed of not more than 3000 rpm( at the Bulgarian the speed is 2-4 times higher) .Cutting discs are made of hard, but brittle steel, which can collapse when the disc is jammed.

      Video: Sanding wood

      Working with ceramic tiles

      Ceramics grinder is cut using a steel disk with a fine-grained diamond coating. This is the so-called dry method of cutting.

      Solid and segmented discs for Bulgarian cutting of ceramic products

      Dry cutting discs are of two types: segmented and solid. They can cut ceramic floor tiles without coolant for 1–1.5 minutes. After that, the disk is cooled idle rotation. The segmented disc cuts well not only porcelain stoneware, but also natural stone: marble, granite, shungite, malachite and other types. Its slots serve to cool the disc during operation, but they also contribute to the formation of chips.

      You can cut pavement ceramic tiles with a continuous dry-cut disc with virtually no chipping, as well as the edge part of the cut with a side working face.

      Cutting ceramics in a straight line

      Ceramic tile is most efficiently cut by a continuous disc with a diameter of 115 mm, at a speed of 6–8 thousand revolutions per minute. The procedure is as follows:

      1. The tile is laid on a flat surface and secured with a clamp. As an option, you can hold the foot, protected by a special building boot.
      2. Soft pencil or sharp object on the ruler outlines the cut line.
      3. Exactly along the line, an incision is made; the depth of the cut — within 1–1.5 mm — depends on the ceramic material and tile thickness;
      4. Gash is done carefully, at a low speed of movement, then the movement of the grinder along the line speeds up( so it is easier to perform an even cut);
      5. Then the tile is shifted by a notch on the edge of the table or a thick nail is placed under the incision, after which it is broken down along the incision line.

      Grinder cutting large holes: round, rectangular

      Bulgarian is able to cut round holes in the tile.

      Cutting a circle with a grinder on an

      tile To make a hole, do this:

      1. First, the center of the future hole is marked on the ceramic tile.
      2. A through hole of small diameter( 3–5 mm) is drilled with a carbide-tipped drill.
      3. A circle of the desired diameter is drawn on both sides of the ceramic.
      4. Grinders with a solid disc are made cuts around the circumference on both sides to a depth of 1-2 mm.
      5. Inside the contour of the grinder, through long cuts are made by a grinder and pieces of ceramic are broken out with pliers.
      6. The internal surface of the cut hole is manually cleaned with an emery cloth or a file.

      If you drill holes with a diameter of 5–8 mm at a certain distance from each other with a drill near the contour line, and then grinders between them along the contour line, make through cuts and segment the inside of them - you can make rectangular and other holes of any shape.

      Video: review of diamond discs and bowls

      Work on metal

      Metal is the material for which this tool was originally created. With it, it is easy to cut reinforcement, round timber, pipes and all long rolled profiles. For this work, special cutting discs are used. Any work with metal is prohibited without removing the protective cover, canvas gloves and goggles. When cutting metal, a lot of sparks, pieces of abrasive disc and metal dust are emitted, which pose a serious threat to the operator and the environment. Cutting metal requires accuracy, thoughtfulness, slowness. For cleaning the welds, cleaning the surface from rust, scale, grinding and polishing special discs are made of hard wire, abrasive, foam rubber and other materials.

      Circles for working with a grinder for metal: cutting, grinding, grinding and sharpening

      Basic rules for cutting metal products

      When cutting metal, follow the following rules:

      1. The durability of the cutting discs and the grinder itself depends largely on the duration of continuous operation. Therefore, the work should make pauses after 5-7 minutes of cutting. Especially it concerns the household tool which is not intended for a hard work.
      2. All workpieces must be securely fixed with a vise or clamps.
      3. When cutting thick metal it is recommended to cool it. To do this, it is necessary to pour cold water over the cutting area.
      4. When cutting soft aluminum to reduce friction and better cooling of the disc, kerosene can be pitted into the cut without forgetting about fire safety.
      5. The main focus when cutting metal should be given to the cutting disc. You need to make sure that it is not trapped by the edges of the metal billet. Therefore, we must strive to ensure that the piece being cut free hangs in the air. This primarily applies to long profiles: pipes, angles, round timber, fittings and other long-length gauges.
      6. Cutting metal profiles: corners, brands, rails, channels should not be done in one go, but cut each shelf separately.
      7. In massive workpieces with a large thickness, all cuts are made straight. If it is necessary to cut a curvilinear contour, then segment rectilinear through cuts are performed first, with the removal of unnecessary sectors.
      8. No need to press the grinder when cutting. For its effective work enough and its own weight. Excessive effort can cause damage or seizure of the cutting disc. Such loads will cause overheating of the grinder. If the cutting is not fast enough, you need to change the worn disc to a new one.
      9. Cutting discs should not be used to cut edges. For these purposes, use other types of disks.
      10. Before starting work with metal blanks, it is imperative to think about protecting products made of plastic, glass, and wood. Sparks consisting of molten metal mixed with abrasive dust can stick to them, it will be difficult to get rid of the defects later.

      Features of cutting different types of metal
      Cutting disc for stainless steel

      All information is given in the marking, which is applied to the side of the abrasive disc. It is strictly not recommended to cut stainless steel with conventional discs, as they contain substances that can destroy the protective film. Over time, the site of such a cut will begin to corrode.

      Cutting disc for non-ferrous metals.

      There are types of cutting discs for hard steels and cast iron, for soft aluminum, copper, brass and other non-ferrous metals. Their main difference between them is in the composition of the fillers. In one discs added heavy-duty material that can overcome the resistance of alloyed steels. In others - a soft bunch, which does not form a salting. This important quality is necessary when cutting viscous materials - aluminum and other non-ferrous metals.

      Cut-off disk for thin-walled profiles and pipes

      The same applies to steel sheets. They are cut with special discs designed for different thickness of rolled products. Thin sheets( profiled sheet, tin, etc.) are cut with very thin steel discs with a small tooth, and thick metal( rebar, angle, channel bar) is cut with thicker abrasive discs.

      Deburring of welds, welds

      This work is carried out with the help of special grinding wheels, the thickness of which is 5–10 mm. It uses the method of inclination of the grinder to the treated surface at an angle of 30–40 degrees. This position of the angle grinder is given by the side grip.

      Rust removal

      They cope with this task using a special brush disc made of hard wire. For effective work, we use the techniques of tilting the brush disk to the treated surface at different angles. It is carried out by the grinder with the lateral handle.

      Grinding and polishing

      There are special discs for grinding and polishing. These works are performed with the protective cover removed, but in protective glasses. Grinding is carried out with smooth movements throughout the treated surface.

      Video: Bulgarian angle grinder-125 - cutting, grinding and flap disc

      How to sharpen a chainsaw grinder

      This work can be done only by an experienced Bulgarian user who knows the rules for sharpening chains for gasoline and electric saws. In his strong hands should be lightweight compact model grinder with a protective cover. Sharpening the chain is made directly on the arrow of the chainsaw. Be sure to note the beginning of sharpening the first tooth. For this purpose, a grinding wheel with a thickness of 2.5 mm is placed on the grinder. You need a sharp eye and precise movements of the arms with the grinder so as not to damage the carrier link of the chain. A competent, carefully executed sharpening of the chain with the help of a grinder will allow it to serve for 4–7 sharpenings.

      Video: how to sharpen a saw chain with an

      grinder. Grinding an

      glass product with a Bulgarian Before you cut glass, you need to understand the properties of this fragile transparent material. Glass has excellent strength characteristics. It has good strength, rigidity, hardness, thermal stability, excellent optical properties. At home, glass is not easy to handle. You need a special tool and specific conditions to, for example: cut a thick mirror, drill a hole in it, cut a curved surface.

      The diamond cutting wheel cuts and thick glass

      Bulgarian grinder glass can only be cut, and the work goes fast enough. To do this, you need to have a steel disk with a diamond coating for cutting granite, concrete and other types of building materials. When sawing, you need to continuously water the cutting area with cold water. Since glass is very durable, a lot of heat is generated in the cutting area. The heat adversely affects the edges of the cut and the cutting disc. Cooling will help the cut to be smoother and will not allow the diamond dusting to quickly erase. In this way, you can cut almost all types of household glass: ordinary, crystal, borosilicate( heat resistant), bottled.

      Working as a grinder with a natural and artificial stone.

      Granite, marble, concrete, brick and other types of stones have increased strength with which even a powerful grinder can cope.

      Steel disc with diamond coating for concrete and concrete

      For cutting stones, you will need a special cutting tool - cutting discs with diamond coating. The basis of this disk is a steel plate, on the outside of which the segments are located. Their jagged ends are covered with durable diamond grit. In the work, the diamond circles are very hot, so there are special slots for their cooling( perforation).When rotating through these slots, cold air is trapped in the cutting zone, cooling both the material and the disk itself.

      Diamond disc for concrete grinding

      Diamond discs saw the strongest natural finishing stones:

      • marble;
      • granite;
      • flagstone.

      But also artificial stone formations - concrete, brick and others are also cut with diamond tools. The age of concrete is extremely important - the older it is, the stronger it is - and fillers( sand, gravel, reinforced frames).Only powerful, professional Bulgarian, equipped with turbo diamond abrasive discs and having several speeds modes, can cope with concrete.

      Abrasive disk for cutting stone

      The diamond abrasive disc consists of particles of abrasive and a filler made of a binder material. Abrasive chips for different disks are prepared from electrocorundum, elbor and silicon carbide. Grain sizes of abrasive materials are classified according to the international FEPA system and are denoted by the letter “F”.In the Russian Federation, the properties and composition of abrasives must comply with GOST R52381–2005.Cutting discs for working as a grinder on stone contain abrasives from F220 - grain size 50–63 μm - to F16 - grain size 1250–1600 μm.

      The following materials are used as the bond:

      • bakelite and its derivatives( hardened, graphite);
      • ceramics.

      For a drive to be strong, durable, wear-resistant - it is reinforced with a net of fiberglass or other synthetic material. Thin discs are reinforced with two layers on the outside. Circles more than 3 mm thick are reinforced with additional nets, which are located in the thickness of the disk. Stones are cut by flat circles.

      Stone Cutting Technology

      There are two technologies for cutting stone products of natural and artificial origin:

      • dry cutting;
      • wet cutting.

      A lot of dust is generated when dry cutting. When wet - a lot of dirt. The method is selected based on the volume of work. If this is a one-time event, then you can get by with the dry method. If there is a lot of work, use the wet method( water cooling).When using water there is no dust, the cutting conditions are better, the diamond disc wears less.

      Video: how to cut brick and concrete - dry and wet cutting

      How to grind with grinder

      With a compact grinder and a diamond disc, it is not difficult to make cuts in solid plaster for the strokes for wiring.

      Forming strokes grinder with a diamond disc

      Markup is done in advance. The material is removed from the cut-out punch using a punch or chisel. The use of the grinder greatly accelerates the process of installing wires to sockets, switches and lamps. And the shtroba turns out equal, necessary width, with smooth walls. The only drawback is a lot of dust and dirt. Neither a gauze bandage nor a respirator saves them. True, craftsmen make a device in the form of an airtight casing for sucking dust from the cutting area. The design is quite bulky and slightly interferes with productive work.

      Curious possibilities of the

      grinder The skillful hands of a professional with the help of a grinder can demonstrate real wonders.

      A homemade grinder for smooth cuts.

      angle grinder can cut a tin or cut teeth on a rail;use the tool to cut car tires or level the surface of the anvil. Multifunctional grinder literally strikes the imagination.

      Such opportunities give it three factors:

      • a huge number of interchangeable nozzles of different types, purposes, made of different material;
      • the ability to change the mode of operation: adjusting the speed of rotation, the presence of additional handles;
      • possibility of fixing in a stationary position with the help of various devices.

      The Bulgarian is a high-speed tool because its design was developed to work with metal grinding wheels. Its speed capabilities make it possible to cut very durable materials: stainless steel, cast iron, concrete, natural stone. But in some cases it would not hurt her to have a range and low speeds, for example, for cutting wood and other soft materials. And the work in this direction goes.

      Some models of Bulgarians are equipped with an electric drive, which is controlled by high-frequency converters. By changing the frequency of the electric current, they are able to regulate the rotational speed from zero to tens of thousands of revolutions per minute.

      Such a wide control of the rotation speed - one of the most important parameters of the grinder - will give it additional applications.

      Video: Bulgarian

      features. It is always a pleasure to watch the work of a real professional. In our country there are a lot of men who are able to carry out jewelery work that is difficult and life-threatening with the help of a grinder. But in the household it is also needed, so many are happy to buy household models for their needs. People with a stable psyche, normal physical development, there are no barriers to using this tool.

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