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In the summer, grapes bloom, grapes, and shoots, as well as shots, as well as you can, and you, you can get to get to you, and you, you can get to get to work, you can get to get to the grapes, and you can get to get to work, you can get to get to the grapes, and you can also get to get to you, and you will be able to get to you and to get to you, you can get to get to the grape, to get to the grapes, to grow grapes, to plant and grow, to grow grapes, to plant and grow, to grow grapes.harvested next year. The high temperature and the abundance of sunlight causes the rapid growth and development of the vine, respectively, and the work on the control and adjustment of the bushes is plentiful.
Flowering of grapes
Grapes - wind-pollinated culture. Insects to a small extent also help pollen transport, but not their leading role. The grapes bloom in June for about 2 weeks. For different zones of growth, years, varieties are deviations. Usually the process takes place without human intervention, but sometimes help is needed.
If during the flowering period there is rain and cold weather, then the set of berries is low. Reason: in rainy weather the sticky secret is washed off, to which pollen sticks. A relatively low temperature significantly increases the time of its germination. All this leads to pea grapes, when small, seedless seeds are present on the hrona, along with large berries.
The appearance of the brush is significantly affected by pea, which is important for table varieties: non-commodity type. Although for any varieties insufficient pollination reduces the harvest! And the varieties with functionally female flowers, in which their own pollen is sterile, will hardly be given without additional pollination and without transfer of pollen from other varieties of berries.
In this case, we conduct artificial pollination. We make two blades of wood or plywood, on which we attach rabbit skin with a stapler or small nails. You can take two rabbit tails and nail them to sticks.
Now alternately with light taps we collect pollen from the inflorescence of a pollinator variety and transfer it to the pollinated gron. Periodically, the blades beat around each other, getting rid of recruited sterile pollen. The action is carried out on dry inflorescences, after a drop of dew or drying of raindrops.
Watering the grapes in the summer
Depends on the weather, the state of plantings, the soil. Pour over the sprinkling, drip into the zone of the roots, into the pits near the bushes or along the grooves. We select the appropriate method of irrigation based on local conditions. In the country, with a small area of the vineyard, it is convenient to dig a piece of pipe or a plastic bottle when planting. Thus, it is the grapes that we water, and not the weeds nearby, and in small doses: the water comes to the right place, unproductive evaporation is minimal.
Number of waterings - depending on the needs of the plant and the weather. If the lower leaves begin to turn yellow, water urgently. On light soils, moisture penetrates into the depths faster, but it is necessary to water more often, as it is worse retained. On heavy soils in the rainy season there is an excess of moisture. In this case, you need to drain, loosen the soil for air access to avoid the death of the roots.
It is convenient to combine watering and giving of top dressing using a solution of organic and mineral fertilizers instead of water.
Watering by sprinkling has a significant minus, since, when watering correctly in summer, we still have reflected spatter from the ground. Namely, the causative agents of oidium are preserved, which with drops fall on the leaves. ..
Culture takes out a lot of nutrients from the soil, they need to be replaced with fertilizer. Organic fertilizers are applied in the fall, in the summer - except during watering, when we add diluted urine, mullein or other to the water. When feeding grapes in July and later, we do not introduce mineral nitrogen: the growing season will increase, the ripening of the berries will move away, the plant will chase the mass and will not have time to enter the rest stage. Winter hardiness will be like a banana. Maybe a little higher, but still not enough. ..
The removal of potassium is large, we make mostly chlorine-free forms of its fertilizers - chlorine damages grapes.
Phosphorus requires a lot, taking into account its availability in the soil. The fact is that a high content of copper, manganese, lime in the soil reduces the availability of phosphorus for plants; the roots cannot “pull” it out of the soil. Part of it is good to give in the form of foliar top dressing, that is, to spray the leaves with a solution of phosphorus salts.
In general, foliar feeding method has several advantages: the batteries are used more economically, as they are not bound by the soil and get directly to the plant. It is convenient to feed the plant with iron solution of blue vitriol: its deficiency disrupts photosynthesis, leading to chlorosis. Especially good foliar feeding solution of microelements, which the plant needs in small quantities, but without which it is impossible to do. Top-dressing with such a solution before flowering increases the number of enshrined berries. In this case, the solution should be diluted, and its acidity is close to neutral in order to avoid leaf burn.
Protection of grapes from pests and diseases
High temperature, alas, favors the development of not only grapes. Describing how to care for grapes in the summer, you should definitely pay attention to protection from diseases and pests. This is a large, extensive subject, so we posted articles dedicated to this subject on our website. And in this text we just casually mention that there are a large number of diseases and pests of grapes that can reduce or destroy the entire crop. Spraying medicinal preparations.combined with spraying with stimulating and nutrient solutions saves costs.
The unmistakable formation of a bush is of tremendous importance: this is how we achieve the correct ratio of the root part, leaf surface, buds and shoots, inflorescences. Any deviation from the optimum leads to a decrease in yield and weakening of the bush. And not only this year, but also in the next few!
The main pruning is usually carried out in the spring, but there is enough work in the summer. To speed up ripening, the grapes are chased: we shorten the shoots, leaving 10-12 leaves above the bunch. In addition to embossing, other techniques are used to speed up the ripening of berries:
- Ringing. In June, under the lower brush we remove the bark and cambium with a ring, 3-5 mm.
- Long escape we turn in a ring, inclined or horizontal.
- Twisting the Vines. Above the last bunch we twist( do not stop, just twist) the vine. In addition to speeding up the ripening, the bunch will be more sweet.
It is worth noting that if we need to accelerate ripening, maybe we just made a mistake when choosing a variety for planting?
Weed the grapes, removing, in part or in whole, fast-growing small shoots from the buds on the ponghons of this year. They thicken the bush, reducing the illumination, which reduces the sugar content and yield, leading to the defeat of diseases. The butchers grow stronger when the vine is not full, when there are “extras” that are not used for filling berries and budding, growth of shoots of the substance.
Formation is carried out all the time, it is not only responsible, but also a complex set of techniques in the description.
Video will help with proper care of the grapes in July, with the demonstrated trimming techniques. To understand whether the bush is loaded enough, observation of the crown of the escape will help. Normally, it remains bent around mid-August. Bending due to uneven growth of wood. The alignment of the crown is a sign of overloading the bush, urgently need to remove excess shoots, otherwise the budding of the buds will be broken and the harvest of this year and the next 2-3 years will suffer.