The principle of operation and the device of domestic air conditioning

  • Conditioner device
  • What you need to know about the principle of operation of the air conditioner
  • Working in the cooling mode
  • Conclusion

In today's world, it is hard to imagine your life without air conditioning. He is the best helper in the heat, and also serves as a heater in the cold period of time. At first glance it may seem that there is nothing intricate in the device, but it has a very complex structure and principle of operation. Often, without knowing these two fundamentals when operating the unit, people make mistakes, which, in turn, lead to the failure of the air conditioner. Below we describe the principle of operation and the device air conditioner.

Device conditioner

The unit consists of two components, the so-called split-system: internal and external units. Both units are interconnected and cannot work without each other. To understand the principle of operation of the unit, let's begin, perhaps, with an external unit. It consists of the following elements:

  • cooler, which creates air flow to blow the condenser;
  • condenser - performed in the form of a radiator, in which the refrigerant is conditioned and cooled;
  • compressor, which compresses freon and under pressure drives it along refrigeration circuits;
  • control unit in the form of a board, but it is rarely placed in the outdoor unit of the air conditioner;
  • four-valve valve mounted on models that have a heating function. Its purpose is to change the direction of the refrigerant, and the external and internal units of the air conditioner change places;
  • filter of freon system, which protects from debris and dust particles;
  • protection panel that protects the inside of the case.

The device of the indoor unit is practically the same as the external system, but it has some important distinctive elements:

  • plastic panel, the purpose of which is to pass air into the unit;
  • coarse and fine filters, which are a system that provides cleaning and protection from debris and large particles. It is recommended to clean the filters at least two or three times in six months;
  • air cooler blowing the room is already heated or cooled air, and it works both in one and the other side;
  • panel with indicators that indicate the current operation of the air conditioner, possible errors that occurred during operation, as well as, on some models, the time and temperature in the room.

Each of the elements of the unit are interconnected by a system of copper tubes. Aluminum tubes are also often used. Refrigerant( freon) is circulated through these tubes. In order to protect the device from overheating, it is blown by fans.

What you need to know about the principle of operation of the air conditioner

Air conditioning - a device is not simple and very capricious. If you do not follow his condition and signals, then he will become unusable.

At the core of the principle of operation of the air conditioner is physics, namely the reaction of the fluid. During evaporation, heat is absorbed, while condensation causes its release. In a sense, the device is similar to a refrigerator, since its principle of operation is based on the evaporation and condensation of a refrigerant, which, with increasing or decreasing pressure and temperature, changes its property.

In the process of evaporation freon takes heat. At school, chemistry conducted the following experiments: wiped your hand with a solution containing alcohol, while you felt cold. Alcohol during evaporation took away body heat. Conversely, when the vapor condenses into a liquid, it produces heat. Heat, as we know, is energy, but according to the law of conservation of energy, energy does not disappear anywhere and does not arise. For this conditioner and has two units - external and internal. Below are examples of how air conditioning works in an apartment.

Cooling mode operation

The principle of the air conditioner in the cooling mode - freon evaporates in the indoor unit, and condensation occurs in the external. When working in heating mode, the process is reversed. Here's how it happens: under pressure from the evaporator through the tubes, freon gas enters the compressor, the compressor compresses it to a certain pressure, thereby heating the gas to an even greater state. After that, the refrigerant is blown by the fan, and turns into a liquid state. The air drawn in by the blower cooler accordingly heats up and leaves the unit. Further, the liquid freon in a warm state and under pressure falls on the TPB( thermostatic valve) or choke, where the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant decreases, and also part of it evaporates. Liquid and evaporated freon gets from the choke to the evaporator, where it finally evaporates and absorbs the remaining heat, and the air supplied by the fan from the room is cooled and fed back. The gaseous refrigerant, in turn, is returned back to the external unit. The process is cyclical.

The process of heating the air conditioner apartment is reverse cooling, so there is no point in describing it.

Since the split system of the air conditioner has an electric motor and a compressor in it, it consumes electricity. And as you know a lot. However, it is worth knowing that the unit transforms almost three times more energy than it consumes. This is especially noticeable when the device is used as a space heater, as it consumes only one kW of electricity, and transforms it into heat energy exceeding the figure of 3-4 times consumed.


We hope that this article has helped you to understand and understand what is the principle of operation and the device air conditioner. Because, without knowing how and why a lot of electrical appliances work, sometimes it is simply impossible to properly operate and maintain it.

The principle of operation of the refrigerator

The principle of operation of the refrigeratorRules Of Operation

Contents: Refrigerator arrangement based on compressor operation Unit operation Structure of the compressor in the refrigeratoroperation. In this article we will talk about w...

Read More
What to do if things got colored after washing?

What to do if things got colored after washing?Rules Of Operation

Contents: What clothes are painted Special means for restoring color We restore things with hydrogen peroxide How to restore white products with starch? Everyone has...

Read More
The principle of the photoepilator

The principle of the photoepilatorRules Of Operation

Contents: What is the operating principle of photoepilator photoepilators What are the photoepilation technology Pros and cons photoepilators Contraindications M...

Read More