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Evergreen and deciduous plants, united in the genus Euonymus, are familiar to many Russians and residents of other countries of the world eoscletes. Shrubs and small trees do not give edible fruits. Moreover, all their green parts contain dangerous compounds for humans and other mammals, so plants can be potentially dangerous.
But many of the two hundred species are actively cultivated by humans. What is the reason for the popularity of culture, and where can it be found?
Features of Eosklet Shrub
The genus of Euonymus is extensive and diverse. Among the plants there are large, reaching a height of 9 meters, and tiny 15-centimeter specimens. Part of the shrubs with the onset of autumn drops the foliage, and some species and carry away the leaves under the snow. At the same time, all representatives of the genus are perennial ornamental plants, many of which have found application in gardening of public gardens, parks, gardens and country plots, and some even interested indoor-room aficionados.
The main decoration of the euonymus is the unusually bright foliage and the original fruits, which no other family or family has equal.
Root system of euonymus
All shrubs of euonymus, whatever type they belong to, have a superficial root system. The roots diverging in different directions from the stem help the plant to grow stronger and receive nourishment on the slopes of ravines, in the underbrush under large trees on a variety of grounds.
The depth of the rhizomes depends largely on the type and density of the soil. Unlike many cultures that feel uncomfortable when groundwater is near or, conversely, excessive dryness of the substrate, the euonymus learned to adapt, which was the key to their surprising unpretentiousness and vitality.
The branches and leaves of the euonymus
The above-ground part of the euonymus is lignified and still young shoots of different years. On adult branches, except for gray, brownish or almost black bark, in some species, cork growths of various shapes and intensities can be seen.
As an example, there are two plants that are common in landscape design: warty spindle tree and winged spindle tree.
- In the first variety, the bark is covered with rounded or shapeless protuberances resembling warts. With age, these formations grow and merge, giving the branches an unusual look.
- In winged euonymus, cork growths run along the shoots, form a kind of blades or wings, and even increase the decorativeness of the crop in winter, when there is no foliage on the shrub.
Shoots are covered with smooth, dense leaves, in most cases with serrated edges and opposite each other. The size of the leaves of euonymus varies depending on the variety and lifestyle of the plant.
In deciduous species, the foliage is noticeably larger, and it becomes especially attractive at the time when the rest of the plants on the site lose their decorative effect. In place of summer, green color come all shades of pink, bronze, purple or crimson.
Evergreen Euonymus is distinguished by small, often round or oval foliage, which also becomes reddish, purple or burgundy by winter, but does not fall.
Among these plants there are many varieties and varieties with variegated leaves, on which the traditional green color is combined with silvery, yellow or white tones.
Flowers and fruits of euonymus
Leaves - not the only decoration of the bush of euonymus. If many ornamental plants attract attention with their flowering, then it is not about representatives of the genus Euonymus.
The flowers of eoskletov, wherever they grow, as on selection, small, subtle and have an unpleasant odor. The corollas, opening from May to June, not exceeding 1–1.5 cm in diameter, consist of 4–5 petals, the same number of small stamens and pistil. Flowers are either individual or collected in loose inflorescences of 3–12 pieces. The main pollinators of the plant are all sorts of small insects, attracted by the specific "aroma" and feed on the mucus secreted by the flower.
After pollination in place of a whitish, greenish, or brown corolla, a boll is formed. By August or September, the seeds inside it ripen. And the euonymus fruit, hanging from a branch on a thin long petiole, is colored in the brightest colors from white, yellow and pink to dense burgundy. The structure and color of the euonymus boxes is unique.
None of the genus has such a variety of fruits, which, moreover, are also revealed, revealing to the world the dense colored seedlings with seeds attached on the inside of the leathery “cover”.
- may vary in size and color;
- from the outside are covered with thorns, like those of the American euonymus;
- have wings, can be tetrahedral or rounded.
Black, reddish or brown eosculette seeds partially or entirely hidden in the thickness of the red, orange or carmine prisemennika. And that, in turn, hangs down from the inside of the opened fruit. Such a complex design is designed to draw attention to the seeds of birds, eating bright, berry-like perceptionists and spreading seeds far around.
But for people to feast on the catchy fruits of euonymus is dangerous.
Due to the high content of alkaloids, getting into the body, sweetish, with an unpleasant aftertaste, the flesh can cause serious poisoning with all the accompanying symptoms up to seizures, loss of consciousness and heart failure.
Where does euonymus grow?
Reading the description of various species of euonymus, you might think that it comes from the tropics, with their unusual rich flora. But it is not. It is possible to find representatives of the genus Eosculettes in the neighboring birch grove or in the undergrowth of a pine forest.
About 20 species of this plant are the indigenous inhabitants of the middle zone in our country and in Europe. But this is only a small part of the species diversity. Of the almost two hundred species, the overwhelming majority for permanent residence have chosen the Asian regions. In China alone, 50 species have been found that are nowhere else in the world. A lot of wild bushes of euonymus in the Russian Far East, on Sakhalin, in Japan and on the Korean Peninsula. Some of the varieties come from the Himalayas, their unique plants are in the North American continent and in Australia.
Unpretentious, frost-resistant eosculethus shrubs that easily adapt to the growing conditions most often inhabit the lower tier of deciduous or coniferous forests, and can grow on inconvenience, former logging and along ravines. Interestingly, some European and Asian species turned out to be so tenacious and persistent that, once in America, they began to force the local flora out of their habitat. If neither the slow growth of the culture, its reproduction would become a serious problem.
Using an euonymus in landscape design
For several centuries that the euonymus has been used by man, the plant has earned many names and nicknames. In the Russian outback, bushes with elegant fruits are called the eyes of God, wolf earrings, or a seedling. But in the west, other names for the bush of Euonymus shrub are the burning bush, spindle and strawberry bush.
With all the difference in comparisons and images, one thing caused them - the unusual appearance of the leaves of euonymus and its fruits. Euonymus became a burning bush due to the similarity of the red-orange crown with tongues of flame in the wind. Moreover, the plant for more than 200 years is recognized as a symbol of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. Residents of Canada and the USA, where the euonymus has been growing since the time of the first settlers, are respectful to him.
The extraordinarily bright foliage and fruits of euonymus pushed the person to use this perennial crop in gardening.
Due to the slow growth of shoots, decorative and unpretentious plants of this kind are used to create hedges and borders.
ESClets of large shrub forms are ideal for:
- to hide outbuildings from prying eyes;
- become framing fences;
- to become the center of a composition of lower herbaceous plants;
- to be planted under deciduous trees;
- strengthen the slope and prevent the ravine from growing.
Such plants are easy to form and can be turned into elegant trees.
Evergreen forms - a real find for gardeners who want to achieve year-round attractiveness of the site.
In addition to the leaves of Euonymus leaves that remain on the shoots, dwarf, small-leaved, and groundcover varieties are bred, providing the broadest opportunities for implementing any ideas in landscape design.