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Bees, like other insects, are susceptible to various diseases. In addition to the negative impact of the environment, cold, high humidity and other factors, there are dangerous diseases of infectious bees. If the cause of non-communicable diseases is most often the oversight of the beekeeper, then the source of infections become bacteria, viruses, pathogenic fungi, protozoa, mites of different species and insect-parasites.
It is from infectious, spreading from the insect to the insect of diseases, the largest number of adult bees and brood die. In order to timely take measures for treatment, and if possible to prevent the problem, it is important to know the existing diseases of bees and their signs.
Varroatosis of bees
The causative agent of varroatosis of bees is a parasite infecting insects and a beehive, which multiplies on larvae and pupae of worker bees and drones, and then, after the release of insects, feeding and living at the expense of bees. With a serious degree of infection with ticks, you can effortlessly see both the inhabitants of the hive, and the brood, as well as honeycombs and waste products of the bees.
The insects infested with ticks weaken and die, but the source of the variatosis of the bees most often become:
- infected individuals caught in a hive when insects are planted in a weakened family or when the apiary is moved in areas where the infection is spread;
- Bearing larvae or the mites themselves honeycomb.
To prevent the development of the disease in the apiary, it is important to be responsible for buying new families, queens and brood, monitor the epidemic situation in the area where the farm is located and monitor the cleanliness of the hives and honeycombs.
Varroatosis of bees is a quarantine disease, at the first signs of which it is required to take strict sanitary and hygienic and restrictive measures, as well as several sessions of fumigation with such drugs for bees as folbekse, and phenothiazine. As a therapeutic measure, the hives and their contents are treated with purified sulfur and varroatin.
Useful for the expulsion of malicious mites will according to ApiMax's instructions for bees. The natural preparation possesses not only acaricidal, but also antibacterial, stimulating action. After its application, the family gets rid of parasites and gets a natural safe feed by biologically active substances.
Nosematosis of bees
A characteristic sign of disease of bees is diarrhea. Stains from liquid feces with nosematosis are easily seen in all places of insects' stay. In addition, the disease caused by the simplest organisms manifests itself in abundant subsidence and even death of the queens.
The root cause of nosematosis of bees sometimes becomes poor care of insects unacceptable impurities in feed, poor quality of wintering or too few young individuals in the hive.
All these factors weaken the family, and pathogens penetrating the water in the beehive into the hive enter the nutrient soil and begin their destructive activity. The patient can be recognized by a markedly enlarged abdomen. Unless urgent measures are taken, the disease of bees threatens to lose most of the seven and weaken the remaining insects.
As a method of treating the disease, bees are offered sugar syrup mixed with fumagillin. On 25 liters of syrup should account for 20 grams of the drug. This amount of the drug for bees is enough for five families.
No less than treatment, prevention of diseases is important. With regard to nosematosis, care must be taken for the insect, and if there is the slightest suspicion, careful mechanical cleaning of hives, frames, entire inventory with complete disinfection of everything that bees have contact.
Acarapidosis of bees
Another disease caused by malicious mites is acarapidosis of bees. Parasites affect the respiratory tract of insects, and because of the gradual increase in the problem of immediately detecting the disease of bees and its signs is difficult.
The first manifestations of the ailment can be seen during the purifying spring circumnavigation, when a large number of insects with unnaturally turned wings are found at the tap hole. Such bees only creep, unable to fly. The spread of the disease contributes to high humidity and the lack of systematic care for the apiary, and a special danger comes from stray or acquired in an untested place of insects.
To the apiary not to suffer from the disease of bees, the methods of its treatment should be resorted to at the first signs of acarapidosis. To do this, mass outbreaks of bees are strongly encouraged. This can be done by placing the beehives to the south. As a result, the family will get rid of old and sick individuals. To the same will result in abundant top dressing at the moment of appearance of young bees before winter. We should not forget about medicinal preparations for bees. From acarapidosis of bees, it is effective to use folbekus and apiMax on the basis of a pine extract for bees.
Ascosferosis of bees
The spread of varroatosis of bees leads to the fact that insects become easy prey for other secondary infections. One of these diseases, accompanying the attack of ticks, is ascospenosis of bees caused by pathogenic fungi. The appearance of disease of bees and its signs contributes to high humidity, rainy cool weather, when the pathogens dissipate and multiply most actively.
Cope with the disease can be, strictly following the recommendations of experienced beekeepers:
- insects are transferred to clean hives, with a strong defeat, letting on wax all the frames with signs of disease of the bees;
- the dead brood and insects are burned;
- instead of old queens, young healthy people are planted, setting up a season without brood to prevent the spread of the disease;
- bees are offered healthy food, clean water, syrup as a top dressing;
- hives are insulated, cleaned;
- families reduce, and weak, on the contrary, try to strengthen young growth and strong brood.
For treatment use such effective preparations for bees as askosan and unisan. In addition to these compounds, ApiMax is used for bees, according to the instructions effective in attacking ticks and helping to cope with infections caused by other types of parasites. Prophylactic drug based on natural plant extracts is useful and as a preventive measure. In this case, it is added in com in the spring, immediately after the flight.
When the processing of the hives, the sorting and destruction of the bees and frames infected with the ascetic order is carried out, it is necessary to clean, flush and disinfect the inventory and working clothes of the beekeeper.
Foulbroods and other infectious diseases of bees
The list of infectious diseases of bees is not limited to the diseases described above. Insects and their brood on apiaries are affected by aspergillosis, perish from paratyphoid and viral paralysis. In the latter cases, the bees lose the ability to move. Without proper treatment and prevention, families are weakened and can disappear altogether.
Serious quarantine infections include several existing species of fouls that affect brood. There are European and American type of disease. But in both cases, microscopic pathogens can keep their activity for a long time on equipment, inventory, in the soil on the infected apiary. Infection in brood comes with food taken from honeycomb-inseminated honeycombs, in contact with diseased insects, through the use of dirty watermelons and feeders.
The external signs of this disease of bees are expressed in the variegated color of the brood, and in the later stages in its death, turning into a brown-gray rotting mass with a corresponding odor.
If veterinarians confirm the presence of foulbrood of one type or another, the apiary is declared a quarantine zone. The territory closes with a diameter of up to 15 kilometers. The bees are transferred to healthy hives. They are offered a dough or syrup with one of the effective preparations for bees. The affected brood is destroyed, the frames are re-heated to a technical wax.
As a preventive measure of such a dangerous disease, it is proposed to conduct regular audits of families, clean and disinfect hives, frames and all equipment used. In this case, bees need to offer only a quality healthy food, use clean water for drinking.
Preparations for bees
An example of effective means of struggle can be considered already mentioned ApiMax. It combines all the useful properties of pine extract for bees, as well as extracts of medicinal plants such as garlic, echinacea, pepper, eucalyptus and wormwood.
Trying not to use chemicals, some beekeepers resort to the help of natural preparations, for example to infusion of celandine. This plant has proven effective against all types of foulbroods, varroatosis, nosematosis and ascospenosis. Treatment of bees with celandine is carried out as required, and a preventive beehive, frames with insects and brood are irrigated in the spring and twice in the second half of the summer.
A good antiviral, antibacterial protection is a losewal for bees. This is a Russian drug effective against the causative agents of such dangerous diseases of bees as:
- immobilizing workers' insects filamentoviroz;
- fouls of European and American type;
- paratyphoid and other diseases, a sign of which is severe diarrhea;
- paralysis of bees, detected when the content of hives is in an inappropriate form, accompanied by mass death and the appearance of individuals with undeveloped wings;
- sack brood, which threatens the mass death of larvae.
According to the instructions for use, the lozewal for bees can be used as a therapeutic and preventive agent, which increases the immunity of honey insects.
Features of noncommunicable diseases of bees
The apiary can not live fully if the insects on it do not provide the necessary conditions. Violation of the rules of keeping bees entails not only the weakening of families, but also the development of first non-contagious, and then infectious diseases.
The causes of diseases of non-infectious bees are:
- unhealthy food and dirty, unsuitable for consumption water;
- non-observance of the rules of hygiene, insufficient control over the state of the hives, frames and amount of undermining;
- collection in territories treated with pesticides or other chemicals;
- Insufficient warming of hives or, conversely, their steaming;
- lack of a bribe in the absence of additional feeding.
Among the common diseases of insects caused by external causes, we can call pollen and nectar toxicosis. These diseases of bees are caused by the fact that the collection in the territory is conducted from dangerous plants. Honey-bearing insects with signs of poisoning are restless, they have convulsions, and in severe stages and death. Without the help of the beekeeper, all families can be seriously affected. Toxic to culture bees are destroyed, additional plants are planted, if this is not possible, the hives will have to be transported to another site.
Dangerous for bee colonies are toxicoses caused by chemicals and a drop. In this case, it is necessary to take all measures to improve the diet and protect the bees from sources of danger. As a method of treating the disease, bees are offered pure sugar syrup and water.
Beginners are often anxious when the uterus begins to lay unfertilized eggs. This condition is not a sign of the disease, but only means that it's time to appear in the hive drones. It is thanks to parthenogenesis in bees that the formation of male individuals takes place, which subsequently fertilize the uterus. However, in some cases, it is worthwhile to be pricked up. If the uterus fills with drone eggs cells designed for workers, this may indicate the need to replace it.