Rules for the location and installation of outlets and switches in the apartment
With an abundance of household appliances and a variety of lighting devices, the need to increase the number of outlets and switches in the house or apartment has increased dramatically. In the current apartment of 100 square meters. m on the average there are a hundred electrical points. The question of their rational location and installation is far from idle and requires knowledge of regulatory documentation. Starting the transformation in the house or apartment, it is useful to get acquainted with the provisions of laws and the technical regulations for the installation of electrical appliances.
1Technical requirements for the installation of sockets and switches
- 1.0.1Video: inconvenient location of sockets and switches
- 2Security measures for self-installation
3Preparing for installation, proper design
- 3.0.1Video: Sockets in the kitchen
- 3.1For outdoor use
- 3.2For hidden location
4Set standards for location
- 4.1Height of the installation according to PUE
- 4.2Requirements for placement under GOST and SP
- 4.3Height according to the "European standard"
- 4.4Nuances for requirements in various institutions.
5Height of installation of switches and sockets in the apartment by own hands
- 5.1Posting in the kitchen
- 5.2Sockets and switches in the living room and bedroom
- 5.3Power points in the bathroom
Technical requirements for the installation of sockets and switches
Placements inside and outside the living quarters are selected based on 3 main criteria:
- functional convenience;
- aesthetic appeal.
Security includes 3 points:
- Natural gas.The principle of operation of the switch is such that when the lamp (or other consumer) is turned on, the power circuit is closed. This is due to the movement of the contact pair. At that moment a micro spark jumps between the contacts, which can ignite the gas. In the event of a leak in the gas supply, the switch may cause a fire or explosion. The same happens even if the switch or socket is faulty. Poor connection of wires that apply voltage to the device, loose contacts, etc., lead to sparking at the terminals. It is for this reason that in apartments with gas stoves and water-heating columns, the light switch is taken out of the kitchen. Usually it is installed in the corridor, separated from the kitchen by the doors. With regard to outlets, another logic operates. The gas is lighter than air and therefore primarily accumulates in the upper part of the room. Therefore, it is better to place the outlet in the kitchen closer to the floor, in this case the probability of ignition of the gas from the spark is lower.
- Water.Any liquid is an excellent current conductor. If water gets between different contacts, a short circuit occurs between them. But this is not the worst thing. In case of a short circuit, the circuit breakers will work and the electricity will be turned off. It is much worse if one of the contacts is wetted - the voltage across the water is transmitted in all "wet" directions. If a person (or an animal) touches the moisture, it will be shocked. In the event of a leakage from water supply systems (or water heating), the puddles formed on the floor become a zone of potential risk. Electric shock is fraught with human health - there are cases of cardiac arrest and the occurrence of a number of other neurological diseases. Therefore, the location of the outlets is planned taking into account the possibility of flooding. Placing them at a safe distance from the floor, as well as other sources of water in the house, has a well-founded argument.
- Mechanical damage.The vast majority of outlets, and switches are made of plastic. Plastic excellent dielectric and reliably protects a person from contact with the current. His only weak point is fragility. A strong impact can damage the body of the device with all the ensuing troubles - failure, exposure of contacts, etc. Therefore, they are planned to be placed in such a way as to minimize the threat of mechanical damage. Particular care must be taken when using external wiring when the socket and switch housing are completely outside the wall.
The factor of user-friendliness is difficult to overestimate. A person uses the switches and sockets many times a day. If this test discomfort, the device must be reinstalled, without delaying. It is also important to remember that switches and sockets should be well accessible in extreme situations. Do not clutter them with furniture or install in hard-to-reach places.
Video: inconvenient location of sockets and switches
Any interior is arranged for the taste and aesthetic preferences of the dwellers. Sockets and switches are also part of the interior. Therefore, their "artistic" design has the right to exist. You can always choose the color, size and shape. Modern industry offers a wide and diverse range of appliances for power supply and lighting control. With the help of imagination and fantasy, you can create unusual design solutions. But not at the expense of safety and ease of use!.
It is noticed that dogs avoid rosettes and try to stay away from them. At the same time, cats - on the contrary, are supportive of electric fields, often rest on refrigerators, televisions and computers..
Security measures for self-installation
During installation work, it is necessary to observe safety precautions.
On the scale of home repair it consists of three basic rules:
- Works are carried out only when the power is off in the network. If the switchboard is located on the landing, it is necessary to hang a sign with the words "Do not switch on! Work is underway. "
- Before any dismantling of electrical equipment, it is necessary to verify additionally the absence of voltage (using a phase indicator or a multimeter).
- Carry out the installation with rubber mats, galoshes or gloves.
Preparing for installation, proper design
Installation and reinstallation begins with the preparation of a detailed plan. It reflects the exact location of each device, size and quantity. When designing the project, the location of the power supply lines and junction boxes should be taken into account. Choose the correct height from the floor level. The more detailed the plan and the better it is tied to the "terrain the less it will take to implement it. Practice has shown that a well thought out project saves up to 20% of funds and up to 30% of the time.
Video: Sockets in the kitchen
In order for the project to fully correspond to the real picture, it should reflect:
- Door and window openings.
- Location of furniture, household appliances and computer network.
- Areas of increased danger: water supply and gas pipeline.
It is very important to correctly select the cross-section of current-carrying cables. The total power of consumers should not exceed the capacity of the conductor. Sockets and switches are selected factory-made and with nominal characteristics corresponding to the network parameters. (230 V and 6 A).
In children's rooms it is advisable to install sockets with automatic shutters. In the bathrooms - devices with the index IP 66 (the indicator of maximum moisture resistance). Outside the house, it is recommended to use sockets provided with a lid.
You should also follow simple rules:
- The distance between circuit breakers and engineering communications systems is not less than, m.
- Distance from the kitchen sink - not less than, m.
- The gap between the switch and the casing of the door (window) is from, m.
- For stationary electrical appliances (TV, washing machine, dishwasher, computer) separate sockets are installed, located to them in the immediate vicinity.
For outdoor use
Outdoor wiring has a number of undeniable advantages. First of all, it is the availability of the entire transmission line and the relative ease of installation. For this type of wiring, you do not need to bang the walls and install at each point junkets. In the case of reformatting the wiring, all lines are quickly and easily dismantled without disturbing the appearance. Also easy to assemble again. Using cable channels allows you to add new lines mobilely if necessary.
The twisted pair cabling on the insulators gives the interior an originality in the retro style.
However, some characteristics disadvantageously distinguish the external wiring from the hidden one. This is a greater risk of mechanical damage and contact with conductive (or combustible) wall surfaces. Therefore, during the installation additional protective measures are provided. So, for example, each point should be equipped with a substrate of a dielectric material. And the distance of the wire from the wall should not be less than 10 mm. When choosing switches and sockets, you should give preference to those devices that are made of high-quality plastic and have a thick-walled casing.
For hidden location
With the arrangement of concealed wiring, the risks of mechanical damage are much lower. Mechanisms are installed inside the wall, the cables "hide" in specially prepared canals - strobas. Such work, of course, is more expensive and time consuming, but this is more than paid off by reliability and compact appearance. A prerequisite for the installation of a modern switch or outlet is a receptacle, which is a plastic box of round or rectangular shape.
The jar is fixed in the thickness of the wall with the help of cement or gypsum mortar. During installation, care must be taken to ensure that the box is correctly seated, the edges of the jamb should not rise above the plane of the wall. To ensure that the solution does not fall into the inner space of the receptacle during installation, it is recommended that the holes be sealed with adhesive tape.
Set standards for location
At what level do you need to install sockets and switches from the floor? At non-professionals there are significant differences on this score, but the dispute is easily solved if you turn to the regulatory documents.
Height of the installation according to PUE
Rules for the installation of electrical appliances - the main document for guidance when installing a home network.
Requirements for placement under GOST and SP
GOST R50571.11-96 focuses on the installation of switches and sockets in the bathroom at a distance of at least 60 cm. from the shower door.
In the Code of Regulations (SP) 31-110-2003. the following information is provided.
Thus, it becomes clear that the height of the installation of outlets and switches in a residential building is not limited to strict rules.
Height according to the "European standard"
Strictly speaking, the term "European standard" is not a valid standard. Rather, it means a certain kind of design, in which the placement of electrical equipment is carried out in a certain way. Moreover, in fact, this type of installation is of North American origin. But since today the lion's share of household appliances in our houses is imported, the convenience for the outlet is placed precisely according to the rules of the "European standard".
This is also due to the fact that Western manufacturers produce their products with short power cords. For example, most refrigerators can not be connected to an outlet located at a height of 1 m from the floor. And using an extension cord means additional costs and security risks. Switches, by American standards, it is more convenient to have at a level of 90 cm. from the floor. This allows you to control lighting without raising your hands. Sockets are installed at a height of 30-40 cm. from the floor. In addition, the distance between the sockets horizontally is 180 cm.
Nuances for requirements in various institutions.
Some organizations that are engaged in specific activities, are prescribed individual rules for placing switches and sockets.
- In the nurseries, gardens, schools and summer camps, the height of the switches is set at the level, m. The same level is also determined for the sockets.
- In catering and trade establishments, the outlets are installed at height, m. Automatic switches - at height, m.
- Do not install light switches in buildings that are potentially explosive (including in kitchens that have gas stoves or speakers).
Height of installation of switches and sockets in the apartment by own hands
Let's list the main recommendations that are tested by practice and do not contradict the safety in living quarters.
Posting in the kitchen
- Washing machine and dishwasher - 15-20 cm. from the floor.
- Power of kitchen electrical appliances (kettle, toaster, multivark, etc.). The outlet block is displayed at a level of 20 cm. from the countertop.
- For extraction, a separate feeding point is taken away in 2 m from the floor.
- Built-in cabinets technique is best to connect from outlets located behind the walls of furniture. For free access to them, a hole is cut in the back wall. The optimal distance is 40-60 cm. from the floor.
- To illuminate the hanging cabinets it is recommended to place the sockets at a level of 10 cm. above the cabinet of furniture.
Sockets and switches in the living room and bedroom
- In the living room there is a power outlet for TV at height, m from the floor. At the same level, it is customary to install a socket to connect the router. A low-current cable for a computer network and a television antenna is also brought here.
- Near the desk there are several outlets. One unit consisting of 2 or 3 outlets is located at a level of 30 cm. from the floor. And the second block - at a height of 15 cm. from the level of the table top, to connect a table lamp or charge a laptop (phone, tablet).
- Sockets for a floor lamp, vacuum cleaner or music center are conveniently located at a height of 30 cm. from the floor surface.
- Control of the main chandelier or spotlights on the ceiling is carried out by a switch located at the entrance to the living room. As a rule, a switch with several keys is installed here - this allows varying the intensity of the lighting.
- The bedroom is equipped with one common switch at the entrance and two switches on either side of the double bed. They also install it on the outlet, which would be possible without getting up from bed, put on charging phone, connect an electronic alarm clock, etc. Comfortable height m. From the floor.
Power points in the bathroom
Due to high humidity and possible splashing, it is recommended to connect all sockets in the bathroom through the RCD. The distance from the washbasin and the bathroom (shower cubicle) to the outlet is less than 60 cm. is prohibited.
For electrical appliances, the recommended installation height of the sockets:
- washing machine - 1 m;
- water-heating boiler m .;
- additional power point for a razor or a hair dryer m.
Switches of light are installed outside, at the entrance to the bathroom.
Video: Sockets in the kitchen
Independent work on the replacement and transfer of "electrical points" implies direct contact with high voltage currents. Even weak electrical shocks sometimes lead to cardiac arrest or cause nervous breakdowns. Before starting work, turn off the power supply to the apartment..