- №1.We decide on the main tasks of the greenhouse
- №2.Where to put the greenhouse?
- №3.Greenhouse frame material
№4.Does a greenhouse need a foundation? №5.What is the best foundation for a greenhouse? №6.Types of greenhouse coatings
- Wooden frame
- Plastic frame
- Aluminum frame
- Steel frame
No. 7.Greenhouse form №8.Sizes of the greenhouse №9.Attention to the complete set №10.The best manufacturers of greenhouses
- glass coating
- polyethylene coating
- polycarbonate coating Other materials for hiding greenhouses
Garden beds attract summer residents like a magnet. Constantly there is a desire to grow a new variety of cucumbers or to expand the planting of carrots, but not all such experiments can be carried out in the open air. Avid gardeners know that there are crops that can not withstand heavy rainfall, frost or the scorching sun and require shelter. That's when the need for a greenhouse becomes acute. It is necessary to make only a superficial search for possible options, as it turns out that greenhouses can be of different shapes, with different frameworks and covering materials. The experience of numerous summer residents collected by us and useful tips will help to choose a greenhouse that is ideally suited to specified conditions and goals.
№1.Deciding on the main tasks of the greenhouse
Surely, anyone who is looking for a greenhouse, understands why he needs it and for what purpose it will be used. However, before you begin to deal with the advantages and disadvantages of different materials and forms, it is necessary to very clearly describe the tasks assigned to the greenhouse. Some summer residents will be quite enough to make her look nice and look good on the site. Those who consider the construction as the basis for the business or household support will look at the appearance of the building, but will not emphasize it when choosing a greenhouse.
Typically, greenhouses are built to grow vegetables and berries for their own use, but some gardeners plan to do business in the future. If in the first case financial investments are not so significant, then in the second they will become a serious investment, the maintenance costs will largely depend on its size.
Another question that requires a clear answer is the type of greenhouse model: collapsible or stationary .If you are in the country all year round and you are not afraid that in your absence someone could damage or even steal the structure( and this happens), it is better to choose a stationary model - there is less trouble with it. Collapsible greenhouse - ideal for those who are at the cottage only in the warm season, it will have to be assembled and disassembled twice a year.
The choice of certain parameters of the greenhouse also depends on how plants will be grown , because each crop has its own requirements for light and humidity. The height of the greenhouse also depends on the characteristics of the plants. For example, for tomatoes and other tall crops it is better to choose a rectangular structure.
№2.Where to put the greenhouse?
Choosing a place for a greenhouse is no less important than the selection of the most appropriate design. If the greenhouse is not positioned correctly on the plot, the money for its purchase and installation can be considered wasted, as well as efforts to grow plants. When choosing the optimal place for a greenhouse, consider the following factors:
- light level - a key parameter when searching for a suitable place. A greenhouse during the day should receive the maximum possible amount of light , not be shaded by trees or houses. Otherwise, the cost of artificial lighting will increase, but it will not help grow the crop in the expected amount. Experts advise to locate a greenhouse so that one end looks to the west and the other to the east. With this arrangement, it is possible to achieve maximum illumination. If the plants will be grown in the winter time, then artificial lighting is indispensable, so it will be necessary to think in advance about leading the communications;
- winds .The greenhouse must be placed in the most peaceful and quiet place of the section, protected from winds and drafts, because they will significantly cool the structure, which will lead to serious heating costs in the winter season. A nearby house can be a good protection from the winds, but it will cast a shadow, so it’s best to protect the greenhouse with a hedge or a small fence at a low height located at a distance( for example, for a greenhouse 2-2.5 m high, the hedge can be positioned at a distance7-7.5 m);
- topography and soil type .The greenhouse must be installed only on a flat place , if there is none, you will have to artificially level the ground. Sandy and swampy soils, like lowlands, are not very suitable for greenhouses, and clayey soil will need to be covered with gravel first, and only then with a layer of fertile soil;
- usability placement .Many gardeners place greenhouses on the outskirts of the site. This is justified if for all other factors this is the most suitable place. The farther the greenhouse is located, the less convenient it will be to maintain it and the more expensive it is to bring all communications.
Places where you should not put a greenhouse
№3.Greenhouse frame material
The framework determines the resistance of the greenhouse to all negative environmental factors: winds, snow weight, mechanical damage, etc. It is better to spend one time on a more reliable and durable construction than to repair or change it every year. Today, manufacturers offer frameworks made of wood, plastic and metal .Let's figure out which one is better.
Wood - is the most affordable material for the construction of the greenhouse frame, so its popularity is consistently high in Russia, despite its imperfections. Many craftsmen who decide to build a greenhouse with their own hands, choose the tree, since it is just in the processing of and has a small weight of .Other advantages among are:
- high environmental friendliness;
- corrosion resistance;
- good thermal insulation quality;
- low cost.
The main disadvantages:
- low strength, according to this parameter, wood is inferior to plastic and metal;
- ability to absorb moisture and rot;
- the need for constant care to protect against the effects of moisture, mold and pests;
- low durability and the need for ongoing repairs.
If you do not consider a system for removing water from the greenhouse, the wooden frame will not last long. Popularity such structures hold only at the expense of low cost.
PVC frame is one of the most suitable options for greenhouses, but is not often used here because of the high cost , which is explained by the complexity of material processing.
Benefits of the :
- high aesthetics;
- resistance to alkalis, acids, fertilizers and other chemicals;
- resistance to corrosion and rotting;
- low weight and ease of installation with your own hands;
- low thermal conductivity.
Aluminum frames are assembled from pipes or profiles, their characteristics are almost identical, and the main advantages of are as follows:
- rust resistance;
- minimal care and ease of installation.
- high price;
- low thermal insulation.
Steel Frame - is the best choice for today in terms of price and quality. The main advantages of the are: strength, durability, ability to withstand heavy loads, and all this at a fairly small price. The main disadvantages of are low thermal insulation properties and susceptibility to corrosion.
The steel frame can be made of:
The difference is significant, each material has its own advantages, and the controversy over which option is better reminds reasoning, what was the first, the chicken or the egg.
The frame of the steel pipe - the ideal strength and durability. He is not afraid of snow and wind loads, he does not bend and does not deform in winter, but you will have to pay for all this: the pipe frame is much more expensive than the similar one from the profile. Moreover, it is worth considering the large weight of the structure and complexity in transportation and sometimes in installation.
The frame from the profile is cheaper, it is simpler to install, it is not a problem to install it with your own hands, but it is inferior in strength to an analog from a pipe, therefore it may require reinforcement.
The steel is corroded, and is galvanized or painted with to protect the frame. The second option is cheaper, but involves periodic tinting in order to avoid the appearance of corrosion on the metal and rust stains on the covering material. The galvanized frame will cost a little more, but it is considered to be the preferred option, as it will not need additional protection for the next 10 years at least.
In order for the metal frame to last more than one season, pay attention to the following parameters:
- the less elements were used to produce arcs and gables, the better. Ideal - one-sided arches and welded gables ;
- profile cross section - 20 * 40 mm, it is impossible to find more;
- metal thickness - not less than 1.2 mm ;
- the distance between the arcs is at least 0.67 m , otherwise with the first light snow covering material together with the frame bend.
№4.Does a greenhouse need a foundation?
Experienced gardeners prefer to build a foundation for a future greenhouse. It helps to solve a lot of tasks:
- heat preservation and protection of plants from frosts;
- protection of soil and greenhouses from the flow of rain;
- ensuring reliable fastening of the frame;
- protection of the frame material from destruction.
And if in some cases it is still possible to do without a foundation, then you must equip it with if:
- the greenhouse is used all year round;
- frame is made of wood;
- design is recessed into the soil below the level of its freezing;
- greenhouse has a large size( more than 6 m in length);
- construction is located on a slope or in a poorly guarded place.
№5.What is the best foundation for a greenhouse?
Depending on the tasks pursued, choose one of the following foundation options:
- belt , which is organized using concrete, less sleepers, bricks or gravel. Previously, the arrangement of such a foundation was considered mandatory, but now it is performed by many gardeners. The building is almost capital, it can not be moved to another place;
- block foundation is made of reinforced concrete blocks, it is suitable for regions with loose soil;
- pile and point foundation is easy to set up and allows you to build a solid reliable greenhouse;
- the lumber base has recently been used more and more often, it can be equipped with even not the greatest professional in the field of construction. The tree will require pre-treatment with antiseptics, but a greenhouse with such a foundation can be easily transferred from one place to another - ideal for growing vegetables.
№6.Types of coverage for the greenhouse
It is easy to see that the largest area of the greenhouse is covered with covering material, therefore gardeners pay maximum attention to their choice. At the moment, is actively using the following materials:
- plain and reinforced polyethylene film;
Each of these materials deals with its direct functions in different ways.
Previously, glass was almost the only suitable material for decorating a greenhouse. Today everything has changed, but it continues to be used in view of such advantages :
- good light transmittance;
- high thermal insulation performance;
- resistance to temperature extremes, chemicals;
- heavy weight, requiring a very good frame;
- fragility. Hail can damage the material, and using laminated or tempered glass is too expensive;
- long and laborious installation process;
- lack of filter against infrared radiation, which can be harmful for some plants.
Glass choose with a thickness of at least 4 mm .The larger the sheets, the higher the light transmission( reduced frame area), but the higher their fragility.
polyethylene coating It is worth taking a look at any dacha cooperative, to notice that plastic film is used for arranging greenhouses most often.
Advantages of the :
- good light transmission and the ability to gently diffuse light;
- low price;
- ease of use and low weight;
- protection of plants from light frosts( up to -30C);
- suitable for greenhouses of any shape.
- fast wear, especially in the attachment points, so you have to change the film every year;
- accumulation of condensate on the surface of the film, which can lead to a number of diseases in plants.
For low cost and ease of use, gardeners forgive plasticity for fragility.
If you look at it, the material is presented on the market by several varieties:
- plain plastic film .It is sold in rolls of 120-300 cm wide, it requires special care when mounting on the frame, since the slightest cut may soon increase many times. Particularly dangerous places to guarantee better to stick with tape;
- PVC film is more expensive than polyethylene, but at times stronger, can last 5-7 years, retains well the heat accumulated during the day, retains infrared rays;
- reinforced polyethylene film can serve several seasons in a row, as it is supplied with an internal frame made of fiberglass, polypropylene, twisted polyethylene or other materials. Can withstand hail and strong wind.
The most modern and well-balanced price and quality material for covering greenhouses is cellular polycarbonate. Please note that the market also has monolithic polycarbonate, but it is not suitable for arranging greenhouses. Cellular polycarbonate is characterized by a special structure: inside it there are partitions( honeycombs), filled with air. Such a structure provides with a lot of advantages:
- is of high strength, 200 times higher than a similar parameter for glass. Rain, strong wind and even hail will not harm polycarbonate;
- excellent light transmission and much better than glass ability to retain heat;
- simplicity of work, because the material bends well, is easy to cut and drilled, has a small weight;
- relative durability( up to 15 years);
- excellent appearance.
When choosing a polycarbonate for a greenhouse, it is worth to pay attention to thickness: it should be not less than 4 mm , and better than 6 mm, for arranging the roof of the greenhouse it is better to look for sheets of 7-8 mm thick. Without special protection, the material does not stand up to sunlight, so must always have an protective layer in place - do not believe sellers who talk about the use of protective additives in the mass, this is all short-lived material. When heated, polycarbonate tends to expand, so experienced specialists recommend mounting at a temperature of at least + 100 ° C and attaching sheets with overlapping.
Other materials for hiding greenhouses
The following materials can also be used to cover the greenhouse:
- spunbond is a non-woven material obtained from polymer melt with the addition of stabilizers for resistance to ultraviolet rays. This is a dense canvas of white color, often referred to as agrofibre. It has good strength, light transmission, high thermal insulation properties, resistant to decay, temperature changes and chemistry, will last up to 5 seasons;
- Plexiglass is a durable material suitable for northern snowy areas. Of the minuses - the high price;
- glass fiber is made from polyester resin, reinforced with reinforcement, retains heat well.
№7.The shape of the greenhouse
To ensure a good harvest, it is not enough to choose a suitable frame and covering material, and you need to find the optimal shape. The most common options are:
- arched greenhouses , as well as domed and droplet-shaped, retain heat well, are simple to arrange, do not contain sharp corners, and therefore require much less covering material, they do not linger on precipitations. Such designs can be transformed, but they are limited in the choice of coating - mainly polycarbonate is used. In addition, access to the extreme beds will be difficult;
- greenhouses with a sloping roof will require more material for construction, but the area for planting in them is much larger. The design provides excellent lighting even with a cloudy sky, withstands snow loads well, but costs more than arched;
- single-sided greenhouses often equip near the wall of the house, which allows you to save money. It is better to direct the slope of the roof to the south side;
- greenhouse-pyramid is an option for those who love everything unusual. The structures are complex in execution, in demand among gardeners;
- polygonal greenhouse is a spectacular and expensive construction, but due to the presence of a large number of faces, the structure warms well at any time of the day.
№8.Sizes of the greenhouse
Everyone decides for himself whether to purchase a ready-made greenhouse or construct it independently, what type and size it should be, but when choosing, take into account some useful recommendations. The optimal width of the greenhouse is 3-3.5 m. , if it is already, then the required number of beds will not fit, and you will have to save money on the aisles. The length can be any, a common option - 4-6 m. Making an greenhouse longer than 6 m is not recommended - it will be more difficult to care for plants. It is better to make two greenhouses 6 m each than one at 10-12 m. The optimum height to the ridge is 2.5 m, the height of the low wall is 1.5 m. The doors should be wide enough( about 1 m) so that you can easilyIt was to call in the greenhouse with a garden cart.
№9.Attention to the complete set of
. If you, like many gardeners, opted for the finished greenhouse , then when buying an , pay attention to what is included in the package. In addition to the frame and covering material, there must also be seals, as well as doors and vents. The location of the latter is of great importance: in the summer heat, without normal ventilation, the plants in the greenhouse will burn, so ideally the doors should be on both sides, the presence of air vents is also necessary. The prefix “economy” in the name of the greenhouse model means that the greenhouse can be used only in warm weather or substantially modifies its design, since often the step between the arcs is too large. The responsible manufacturer will always provide the assembly with assembly instructions.
# 10.The best manufacturers of greenhouses
The secret of choosing a quality greenhouse is simple: do not buy at too low prices( often Chinese-made and very poor quality products) and trust large producers, and it is advisable to contact at the company's store or at the company's website, rather than to an intermediary. Little-known one-day firms are not the best option - they can close soon, you can’t make any claims, and you can’t buy a new greenhouse for a couple thousand rubles saved.
Among the products represented on the domestic market, the products of such companies show themselves best:
- Volya is the largest domestic enterprise in the sphere, has been operating since 1993, produces polycarbonate greenhouses, film greenhouses, various materials and accessories for greenhouses, as well as industrial greenhousesand a number of related products and irrigation systems;
- company "New forms" produces only polycarbonate greenhouses. The frame is distinguished by a reliable zinc coating, firmly welded, polycarbonate is represented by products from different manufacturers. Product warranty 7 years;
- "Plant of finished greenhouses" has its own production of polycarbonate with a thickness of 4 to 16 mm and a steel square pipe. Warehouses are located in all regions of the country;
- "People's Greenhouse Plant" independently produces a metal square tube for the construction of the frame, ready-made greenhouses complete with domestic polycarbonate 4-10 mm thick with a protective coating. The range also includes a number of related products;
- "Rus-Toeplitz" offers easy-to-install greenhouses from painted and galvanized pipes with polycarbonate coating;
- "Greenhouses of the North" .The company has been operating since 2010, it produces galvanized profile frames with polycarbonate coating of various shapes and sizes.
The choice of ready greenhouses is impressive, and gardeners "with hands" can try to build a greenhouse on their own. Anyway, when choosing and constructing a greenhouse, consider the nuances described above.