- №1.Construction of plastic windows
- №2.What should be the profile?
- №3.The thickness and width of the profile
- №4.The number of air chambers profile
- №5.The number of cameras double glazing
- №6.Type of glass in glass unit
- №7.Which seal is better?
- # 8.Ventilation of plastic windows
- №9.What are the ventilation valves?
- No. 10.The method of opening a plastic window
- №11.Accessories for plastic windows
№12.Necessary things for the window №13.Design of plastic window №14.Which manufacturers can you trust? B).
- Locks and locks
.aspd. Newspapers and bulletin boards today are literally full of suggestions from different manufacturers. In such a saturated market it is difficult to make a deliberate choice, and often consumers are guided by the lowest prices and attractiveness of advertising. The fallacy of this approach declares itself already in the first winter, when drafts appear, freezing, and the glasses begin to sweat. Do not repeat the mistakes of thousands of users -
plastic window selection should be done deliberately.
Some knowledge of the theory will help you to understand which design will be preferable in the conditions of a particular house or apartment.
№1.Construction of plastic windows
In order to properly navigate the market for a particular product, you need to know what it is made of and how. The main structural elements of the plastic window are the frame, sash, double glazing, fittings, gasket and glazing bead. The frame and sash consist of a plastic profile reinforced with a steel profile.
The frame is the basis of the design, it is installed in the window opening. The frame profile of the consists of several chambers, each of which has its own purpose: for draining condensate, placing a reinforcing bar, fixing accessories, etc. The double-glazed window occupies the main part of the plastic window construction and is held due to hidden beadings. seals are used to make the structure tight. An important role is played by the accessories, the quality of which largely determines the durability and reliability.
Due to the design of the plastic window receives a number of advantages of the , among which has a higher level of heat saving compared to conventional wooden windows, high level of sound insulation and protection against unauthorized penetration.
№2.What should be the profile?
The profile made of PVC is harmless, attractive and resistant to various chemicals, but the plastic would not withstand serious deformations and temperature drops, therefore, in addition, the profile is reinforced with steel. The thickness of the metal should not be less than 1.4 mm. : the thicker the metal insert, the more heavy the glass unit can be installed. The profile must be reinforced with galvanized steel only.
High-quality plastic has a uniform color, smooth and grain-free surface, and has no odors. Pay attention to the type of surface: matte plastic will literally absorb dirt, which subsequently will be almost impossible to eliminate from the surface. The glossy plastic, even the most inexpensive, will be much more convenient to use .The quality profile is durable enough and should calmly withstand 50-60 years of operation.
profile thickness and width
The thickness of the profile is usually understood plastic thickness of the profile .First of all, this parameter determines the strength and mechanical resistance of the material. In , depending on the thickness of the external and internal walls of the profile, it is divided into three classes:
- class A assumes the thickness of the external walls from 2.8 mm and the thickness of the internal walls from 2.5 mm. European standard are those windows in which the thickness of the external walls of the profile exceeds 3 mm. It is that such structures can be installed in residential premises;
- class B .This profile has external walls with a thickness of 2.5 mm and internal thickness of 2 mm. Such structures are not so durable, they keep heat less well and do not protect well enough from noise, therefore they can be installed only in non-residential premises;
- class C .These include profiles that do not meet the requirements of the previous classes. Today, such structures are practically not used.
Another important design profile parameter is width, or installation depth .This parameter in no way can be less than 50 mm , and for normal operation the window should be 58-70 mm, because then the requirements for thermal and sound insulation of the room will be met. For the noisiest and coldest areas, profiles with a greater thickness, which can even reach 130 mm, are suitable.
№4.Number of airbags of the
profile. The profile inside consists of several cavities, so-called cameras, which should not be confused with double-glazed windows. The profile chamber is a cavity extended to its entire length and filled with air or reinforcing material. In terms of the number of such cavities, 2, 3, 4, and even 8-chamber profiles are distinguished, but is the most popular 3- and 5-chamber designs. As a rule, manufacturers allow to look inside the profile, showing their products in section and showing the design features of the cameras.
As the number of cells increases, the insulating characteristics of the profile material increase. If the 3-chamber profile is perfect for windows that face the south side in a quiet courtyard, then the 5-chamber profile will be indispensable for windows that face the north side or the noisy road.
№5.Number of chambers of a double-glazed window
A double-glazed window, the light-transmitting part of a window, consists of two or more glasses, the space between which is filled with air or an inert gas. Camera called the space between the two glasses.
single-chamber double-glazed windows are used in quiet areas with a mild climate. The dual-chamber double-glazed windows are the most in demand, which perfectly quench the street noise and allow you to maintain the optimum temperature in the room. For maximum protection against noise, it is recommended to choose double-glazed windows in which the space between the panes has a different thickness of .Even better, the inner glass will be thinner than the others, which will ensure maximum noise insulation.
On sale you can find double-glazed windows and with a large number of cameras - 3 and even 4 .But it is worth bearing in mind that the more glass packs in a design, the greater its total weight, and the more reliable and sturdy accessories should be.
№6.The type of glass in glass
The quality of glass is as important as the number of cameras in the glass. Today, manufacturers can use such types of glasses as:
- float glass. The technology of its manufacture allows to obtain extremely smooth and completely identical in thickness glass with enhanced transparency;
- triplex, or laminated glass. Such glasses consist of several layers of glasses, each of which is laminated with a film or a special liquid. Due to this, the material gets additional strength and breaking resistance, it is difficult to break it, and even if it is damaged, such glass leaves no sharp fragments. Moreover, triplex will more reliably protect the apartment from noise;
- selective glasses are coated in the manufacturing process or after it in vacuum with special substances that transmit long wavelength radiation, but retain the short wavelength, allowing the apartment to keep warm in the apartment in the winter and not let the heat in the summer. Selective glasses can be of two types: i-glasses have silver ion deposition, have high efficiency and excellent translucency, but are afraid of weathering, therefore they can be used only from the inside. In contrast, k-glass are more resistant to external negative influences, but have somewhat lower efficiency;
- colored float glass has the ability to reduce the transmission of solar thermal energy. These glasses are painted in bulk and can have almost any shade. Of course, the transparency of the material is lower, but along with protection from the heat, you also get a pleasant cozy atmosphere;
- reinforced glass is characterized by the presence of reinforced mesh, making it more secure and fire resistant;
- tempered glass resembles triplex in its properties, but is manufactured by special chemical or heat treatment. With the destruction of such a material forms a mass of small safe fragments.
№7.Which seal is better?
Compactor is another important part of the plastic window, which ensures proper tightness and protects the room from external noise, cold, dirt, etc. Today such materials are used as seals:
- rubber .This material is obtained by vulcanizing rubber with sulfur. Among all the possible seals, this is the cheapest , therefore it is used in most plastic windows. It perfectly seals all the cracks, but it has one serious drawback - it “dubes” at low temperatures, and constant temperature differences can lead to its cracking;
- silicone is an excellent safe and durable material that boasts high durability. Silicone does not change its initial properties during the whole period of operation, and temperature differences do not affect it at all. The material calmly transfers the temperature from -40 to + 1500C.Moreover, moisture and sunlight are also not able to spoil such a seal. Among the disadvantages of the material is the high cost, due to which the compactor is not so common;
- EPDM sealant, or ethylene-propylene rubber .The material is used quite often, as with good performance can boast a reasonable price. This compactor is not afraid of exposure to precipitation, sunlight, high and low temperatures, mechanical effects;
- TPE seal( thermoplastic elastomer). Under normal temperature conditions, the material behaves like rubber, and as the temperature rises, the material softens like thermoplastic.
No. 8.Ventilation of plastic windows
Plastic windows, if they are of high quality and installed correctly, are characterized by high tightness of the design, therefore external air flows will not penetrate inside the apartment. In principle, lack of drafts is one of the main advantages of the structures, but what to do with ventilation? In the houses of the old building, as a rule, there is no ventilation provided, as fresh air penetrated through the cracks in the windows and doors. New owners of plastic windows after their installation may notice that the air in the apartment has become stuffy, musty, and condensate is collected on the windows. All this is evidence that normal ventilation is not ensured.
Manufacturers of plastic windows offer to solve the problem of ventilation of a room in several ways:
- mode of micro-gap ventilation .At a certain turn of the handle between the frame and the sash of the window, a small gap is formed, which is not capable of greatly reducing the heat and sound insulation characteristics of the structure, but provides fresh air;
- use vents .Since plastic windows are made to order according to individual parameters, it is possible to obtain a structure not only with any number of double-glazed windows and any profile width, but also with the required number of partitions. The vent allows you to let in fresh street air right up to the ceiling of the room, where it mixes with room air. As a result, it becomes easier to breathe indoors, and there are no direct flows of cold air per person. The disadvantage of this old and proven method of ventilation is that the construction of the plastic window becomes more complicated, it becomes more expensive and heavier, and there will be less sunlight penetrating into the apartment;
- comb on windows - a simple, convenient, cheap and effective method of ventilation. In this case, the window design includes a special regulator that allows you to fix the sash in the desired position. As a rule, 4-5 modes are provided, allowing to leave both a micro gap between the frame and the sash, as well as a fairly impressive space;
- ventilation valves is the most effective and convenient option, providing the necessary level of ventilation in the room. Since today manufacturers present several types of valves, this issue requires separate consideration.
№9.What are the ventilation valves?
most commonly used in plastic windows are these types of ventilation valves:
- slot-type valves . can be automatic or mechanical .This is a system consisting of an outer lower intake valve and an upper inner exhaust, which are profiles with openings. Fresh air enters the lower valve, heats up and exits through the upper valve already at room temperature. Thus, it is possible to achieve preservation of the optimum temperature in the room and to ensure the flow of fresh air;
- valves of the faltsevy type provide fresh air due to the presence of faltsevy cuts. Dismantling the window is not required, the cost of copan is small, the sound insulation will be maintained at the proper level, but the throughput is not the highest;
- valves of the surface type are practically not used in residential premises - they have found distribution only at production facilities. It is necessary to install such valves during installation of plastic windows, otherwise the structure will need to be dismantled. The valve of laid on type differs in the big capacity, worsens warm and sound insulation of the room.
When choosing a ventilation valve, it is worth considering some of its parameters, the most important of which is the throughput capacity of the : it is necessary to push off from the indicator of 30 m3 / h per person. It is important to pay attention to the features of winter operation, so that one day it simply does not freeze. That is why the valve must have high-quality thermal insulation .
It is also worth paying attention to the ventilation adjustment method, which can be automatic, manual or mixed. The automatic regulation of the ventilation valve is ensured by the presence of a hygro-regulation sensor, which is responsible for monitoring the humidity level in the room. The process of regulation of ventilation is provided by changing the cross-section of the valve through the valve, which in some cases can be completely closed. Similarly, it is possible to reduce the heat loss of the room as much as possible, because the air from the street will be let in only when humidity in the room rises, for example, with a large number of people. With the manual setting of the , the user will have to decide for himself when to ventilate and when not. This setting is more coarse.
It is worth noting that sometimes the ventilation valves are not installed in the window construction itself, but in the wall near the window. This option will require much more time and effort.
# 10.The method of opening a plastic window
There are several basic options for opening a window design:
- pivoting, the most familiar to us;
- movable. It is used when there is no space for a swivel and folding option, or the design is too heavy.
# 11.Accessories for plastic windows
No matter how high-quality double-glazed windows or window profiles, when using cheap unreliable fittings, the entire structure will lose its previous characteristics within a few months after use. In order to withstand the heavy weight of the glass unit, the windows sang must be very strong and reliable.
The handles of the are another weak point, and they often become loose. Owners of plastic windows can name a lot of problems that they encountered in the operation of these structures, and many of them are associated with fittings. From all of this, we conclude that even such small things, which at first glance are handles and hinges, should be given maximum attention.
Today, window manufacturers offer a lot of different variants of accessories. Window fittings - this handles, locks, locks, latches .People like to rank even ventilation valves, mosquito nets, window sills, and ebb, as accessories, but they are not accessories.
Window handles are used several times a day, so they must be particularly durable. The handles differ not only in their production and color, but also in function:
- standard .Allow to open and close a window, to leave in the slightly opened position. They do not have any bells and whistles, so they are cheap and most widely used;
- anti-burglary .Externally identical to the standard handles, but they do not allow opening the window from the outside thanks to a special mechanism that blocks the window when externally applied;
- handles with lock will be useful in those apartments where there are small children. It will be impossible to open the window if the key is not inserted, but it can be opened without the key;
- removable handles will also keep the nerves of parents of young children who may inadvertently open the window, which can cause disastrous consequences.
hinges The main thing is that the hinges are made of durable material and withstand the weight of the glass unit. According to the installation method, the loops can be of the following types:
- standard overhead. Consist of two metal cards, can be swivel or swivel-folding. After installation they can be closed with decorative overlays for beauty;
- screw hinges previously used only for wooden windows, today are beginning to be used for plastic structures. They are attached to the sash and frame with threaded pins, and one loop can have 2-6 such pins: the more of them, the more reliable the design will be;
- mortise hinges - one of the best and most common solutions for plastic windows. They are not visible, they provide a large opening angle for the sash, and there will not be a blow through these hinges;
- anti-burglar hinges , the name of which speaks for itself, will provide the user with maximum security, because they can not be disassembled with the windows closed.
Locks and lockswith one or more constipation;
bolts; children's locks, which block the opening of the sash, but do not prevent it from reclining.
No. 12.Necessary things for the window
Installing a plastic window, you should not save on the little things - it does not bring much benefit. It is much more reasonable to provide the structure with everything necessary so that its operation is as durable and comfortable as possible.
What are the necessary elements to supplement the plastic window? Among the most important are:
- mosquito net. Everyone is convinced of its necessity with the arrival of spring and summer, because this simple detail protects the house from poplar fluff, leaves, insects, dirt particles, without interfering with free air circulation. Typically, the mesh is inserted into the frame and easily removed from it, but you can provide it with your own hinges - this is an option for large windows;
- window sills play a decorative and functional role;
- frames - patch slips for the design of the window opening, made of the same material as the window sill;
- slopes are strips that are inserted between the window profile and the walls. It is important that these elements are made as qualitatively as possible, otherwise they will be covered with mold because of high humidity;
- outflow is installed from the outside and is designed for quick removal of precipitation. It may seem that this part is not so necessary, but without it the waterproofing of the window is gradually broken.
# 13.Design of a plastic window
We are accustomed to standard plastic windows in white frames, but the design options are much and much more. Here are just the basic techniques that are used to give the window an individual style:
- laminating the frame with a film allows you to arrange a profile for wood of any breed;
- decorative layout - division of the window into zones, often rectangular, but can be triangular and rounded. They not only decorate the structure, but also make it stronger;
- tinted glass will give the room a unique shade, reduce the impact of ultraviolet rays, and it will be difficult for outsiders to see what happens outside the window;
- stained glass pattern on glass;
- smart glass changes the degree of transparency depending on the light. This happens under the influence of electric current. While this solution is rarely used, it is a great alternative to the usual blinds;
- decorative triplex is not only protection and additional security, but also the opportunity to make the interior unique. Through the use of layers of glass of different transparency and with a certain pattern, you can achieve the most incredible results;
- mirror glass protect from prying eyes and sunlight.
It should be noted that plastic windows can be not only rectangular in shape, but also oval, arched, etc.
№14.Which manufacturers can you trust?
Today, dozens and even hundreds of companies are engaged in the production of plastic windows, but not everyone does their work in good faith. Let us dwell on the largest manufacturers that have established themselves in the domestic market with high-quality, durable and durable products.
The German company , which has become not just an industry leader, but a synonym for quality. The first production appeared in Berlin in 1980, and already then the company was a pioneer in the field of high-performance extrusion. In a very short period of time, the manufacturer gained confidence both in Germany and throughout Europe, and in 1995 entered the domestic market. The demand for plastic windows of the manufacturer was so high that it was decided to open two plants in Russia : one in Khabarovsk, the other in Voskresensk not far from Moscow. At the Russian factories, German technology and quality control are fully observed, so the windows are identical in all indicators, which is confirmed by various tests.
Moreover, the company's engineers participated in drawing up the GOSTs for plastic windows, and these documents are accompanied by drawings of KVE windows, which means that the manufacturer’s windows became the national standard. The designs are, indeed, very high quality, durable and thought out in all respects, but they are also expensive.
The Swiss company since 1948 is true to its philosophy of creating solutions for minimum energy consumption. Production of windows and doors - the basis of the company. Here they are trying to constantly improve the designs in order to achieve ever higher rates of heat and sound insulation. Today Rehau windows are one of the best in Europe and the world .They are able to withstand even the most terrible frosts, winds and heavy rainfall, being a defense no worse than a brick wall. For example, a window with a 6-chamber profile and a depth of 86 mm replaces a brick wall 1.3 m thick. The company's products are notable for a wide range of products, frost resistance and environmental friendliness. An excellent choice for the harsh domestic climatic conditions! True, and will have to pay a lot.
This is German company , existing since 1969.Today it is one of the world leaders in the manufacture of plastic windows and doors .The manufacturer has a huge research center, whose employees are constantly working to improve the design of windows and manufacturing technology.
Today, dozens of factories of the company operate in different countries on almost all continents, but everywhere the activity is carried out under the close supervision of the employees of the company's main office. Veka windows are also produced in Russia , which allows domestic buyers to receive quality goods at a better price. The windows of the manufacturer undergo any climatic conditions and loads: from winter in the Far North to high humidity and strong wind loads.
This company was the first in the world to introduce plastic windows , invented multi-chamber profiles, co-extruded acrylic coatings, offered a lot of unique ways to decorate the profile. It all began in 1895 with the creation of Dynamit Nobel. Concern produced explosives and artificial materials. After numerous transformations in 1954, the company appeared Trocal , which introduced the world the first plastic window. All subsequent years were marked by constant new developments, the introduction of innovative technologies. The result was the popularity of the company's products worldwide.
Today, the company attaches great importance to the production of not only high-quality and durable windows, but also completely safe for health. The assortment of various designs is huge, operates production in Russia, several valuable developments have been made for the production of windows specifically for our market.
The history of by the South Korean company LG Chem begins in 1947, but the production of plastic windows here came in the 80s. Today, the company's windows have proven to be concise design, high quality, excellent value for money and performance.
SALAMANDER Industrie-Produkte GmbH
This German company was formed in 2002 as a result of the merger of two well-known PVC profile manufacturers: SALAMANDER and BRÜGMANN.SALAMANDER company is known as the largest manufacturer of shoes. The search for new materials for its production ultimately resulted in the creation of PVC profiles. Since then, many innovative ideas have been born in the company that have conquered the whole world. Products today are manufactured in many countries, incl.and in Russia .Modern German equipment is used at domestic plants, and strict quality control is in effect.
The company has been operating since 1951 in Germany .Today, factories and representative offices are located around the world, and products have become a symbol of high quality, because they meet the most stringent requirements in terms of design, safety, comfort and energy efficiency. Products are developed taking into account the peculiarities of different climatic zones, due to which it gained wide popularity in different countries of the world. The company's products are valued for their perfect performance, highest quality and record-breaking durability.
The Deceuninck Group
Another is the German company , which manufactures PVC windows systems. She regularly is included in the world rankings of the best in its field .For more than 75 years of its existence, the company has subdued more than 90 countries, its plants are located in 19 countries. Russia has a wide network of representative offices of the company. The manufacturer offers several types of profile systems with different widths and design features, which allows you to find the perfect solution for housing located in any climatic conditions.
This is the leading domestic manufacturer of plastic windows , which has been operating since 1999 and uses Austrian technology. The company is constantly expanding production, introducing new technologies, introducing new models and designs. Since the manufacturer uses the best world experience and adapts designs for domestic conditions, plastic windows come out reliable, durable, they have excellent performance and at the same time are inexpensive. The network of offices throughout the country is very wide, there are special training centers where they teach the correct installation of structures, which is no less important than high-quality production.
Domestic manufacturer plastic windows, appearing on the market since 2000.Immediately, modern Austrian equipment was purchased, thanks to which the company was able to produce high-quality products and sell them at low prices, as there were no transportation costs. Today, there are 4 manufacturing plants operating throughout the country, which produce windows in a large assortment.
Since the plastic window is set for a sufficiently long period of time, it makes sense to take the time to study the design features, familiarize yourself with the products of different manufacturers, on this basis to select the ideal window for specific conditions.