14 tips on how to choose wood varnish for interior and exterior: varnish types


  1. №1.What is the difference between different varnishes for wood?
  2. №2.Types of varnish for wood
  3. № 3.Oil varnish for wood
  4. №4.Alkyd varnishes on wood
  5. №5.Alkyd-carbamide varnish
  6. № 6.Nitrocellulose varnishes
  7. №7.Polyurethane varnish
  8. №8.Acrylic varnish on a water basis
  9. No. 9.Polyurethane varnish on a water basis
  10. №10.Epoxy varnish
  11. №11.Polyester varnish
  12. №12.Spirit varnish
  13. №13.Priming varnish
  14. №14.Applying varnish for wood

Houses and fences are built from wood, it is used for furniture and decoration. This is a beautiful natural material with unique properties, but without special protective equipment, wood is unlikely to be durable. She is afraid of humidity, temperature changes, fire and pests. Often, to protect against external negative factors, the tree is simply painted, but its unique texture and color is lost. Lacquers help protect the wood and preserve its natural beauty. Almost a thousand years have passed since the appearance of the first such composition, during this time the varnishes have been modified, and today such a range of different tools is presented on the shelves of the store that the head can spin. We understand how to choose a varnish for wood for interior and exterior work, how different types of varnish differ and what is important to consider when buying.

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№1.What are the different varnishes for wood?

Lacquer is called a stinging agent consisting of a solvent, resins and polymers. After application to the surface, the solvent evaporates, leaving a dense, durable film. This barrier protects the tree from all sorts of negative factors. Since wood was previously the main building material, first varnishes appeared as early as XII century. This was the invention of one German monk, and the composition of the protective substance was kept secret for a long time. Attempts to develop a tool to extend the life of the tree were made constantly. Thus, in the 15th century, oil-type compounds appeared in England, and later began to produce resin-based lacquers in Holland and Portugal.

Since then, the range of such tools has expanded significantly, there were compositions with specific properties, so today it will not work just to go to the store and buy the first varnish for wood - it is important to take into account the weight of the nuances of different compositions, otherwise you can not only protect the material, but alsohis.

The following factors should be taken into account when choosing varnish for wood:

  • operating conditions .Outside, the material is affected by such factors as high humidity, constant temperature changes and ultraviolet, and therefore the composition needs to be chosen to protect it - only wood varnishes are suitable for outdoor work .As a rule, the manufacturer indicates on the packaging conditions in which the operation of the composition is possible. Parquet, furniture and wall finishing materials can be safely varnished for wood for interior work ;
  • wear resistance .To cover the floor with the same composition as the furniture is not always possible, since the load on the surface will be completely different. If even the least resistant nitrocellulose lacquer is suitable for furniture and other wooden objects that are not subject to heavy wear, then for the floor covering it is necessary to take stronger formulations;
  • toxicity .Most modern formulations have an unpleasant, pungent odor when dried, as contains organic solvents .Of course, this smell will disappear when the varnish is completely dry, and until then you, at best, have a headache, and at worst, you will get a serious poisoning. Polyurethane, acrylic, polyester lacquers and nitro lacquers are applied in special protective equipment in carpentry or non-residential premises. After drying, all these compounds are safe. If the work must be carried out at home, and at the same time the household is not going to leave anywhere, then it is better to take the least toxic composition - this is water-based varnishes , they practically have no smell;
  • drying time. The varnish layer can dry from 6 to 72 hours and sometimes longer. Water-based varnishes and oil varnishes dry the longest, alcohol and nitrocellulose varnishes - from 20 minutes. According to this parameter, all formulations are divided into slow- and fast-drying .Consider this characteristic of varnish when calculating the duration of the work;
  • resistance to high temperatures .Heat-resistant varnishes makes sense to put on wood in areas where the risk of fire is increased. It is important not only to choose a suitable composition, but also to correctly open the surface, since the result depends on the application technique;
  • Shine .Thanks to the varnish you can get a glossy or matte surface. The choice in this case is based only on aesthetic preferences, since performance does not depend on the degree of brilliance. Gloss gives visual volume, and a matte surface can highlight the beauty of wood. The degree of gloss is determined as a percentage of the reflected light flux. For example, high-gloss varnish reflects more than 90% of the light, glossy - 80-90%, and matte - less than 10%.There are also semi-gloss and semi-mat composites, so there is a big choice;
  • varnish components . single-component varnishes, those that are simply applied and form a protective film by evaporation of the solvent, are best suited to perform the work yourself. Professionals often use two-component paints , in which the protective film is formed as a result of a chemical reaction between two substances. As a rule, such compounds are more resistant;
  • need primer. Self-priming varnishes can be applied directly to the wood. The remaining compounds require preliminary preparation of the surface: if you do not prime it, then soon you may encounter peeling paint, cracks and craters.

On sale you can also find tinting varnishes .With their help, you can give the wood the necessary shade or even completely change the color. However, the classic version still remains clear varnish, which allows you to save the original drawing of the tree.

№2.Types of varnishes for wood

Depending on the type of solvent, the following types of varnishes are distinguished:

  • oil;
  • polyurethane;
  • alkyd;
  • acrylic;
  • nitrolak etc.

There are other types of varnishes, and each of them has its own indicators of wear resistance, drying time, toxicity and weather resistance. In order to choose the right wood varnish for interior and exterior use, it is necessary to know the basic characteristics of each composition.

№3.Oil varnish for wood

Oil( also called oil-resin) varnishes were previously used everywhere, but today their popularity has decreased markedly. is manufactured on the basis of resin and oil in various proportions. Previously, only natural resins were used, but with the advent of artificial resins and modified oils, the cost of the compositions decreased.

Depending on the amount of oil in the composition, such varnishes are divided into:

  • fatty, 65-85% oil;
  • average, 55-65%;
  • lean, 35-55%.

Fatty oil varnishes do a better job of protecting the coating than lean ones, but they dry longer. Typically, this type of varnish is used for floor protection in residential areas. These are thick formulations that are difficult to apply with a brush, so they are often slightly diluted. The shelf life is short, the drying time is from 24 to 72 hours or more.


Alkyd Varnishes for Wood

The advantages of include the following qualities:

  • resistance to moisture, temperature extremes, some formulations receive resistance to sunlight and even fire;
  • wear resistance;
  • low price;
  • long shelf life.

In addition, alkyd compounds perfectly underline the wood pattern, and you can apply as many layers of varnish as you like to achieve the required color depth, but the surface treatment process will be quite long. The composition dries for a long time - this is its main disadvantage, you have to wait 48-72 hours. If it is critical, then it is better to take a varnish with special additives that speed up the drying process. Also note and unpleasant smell during drying.

Use alkyd varnish, mainly for flooring. : moisture and abrasion resistant coating comes out. You can apply the composition to the heated floors. Much less often such a varnish is used by to cover the furniture of .If we add the urethane groups to the alkyd varnish, we get an even more interesting coating in terms of performance. From the previous composition of this differs faster drying( about 6-12 hours) and increased service life. The smell is just as unpleasant as alkyd varnishes.

№5.Alkyd carbamide lacquer

In this case, besides alkyd resins, amino formaldehyde resins are included in the lacquer composition. These are two-component varnishes, the drying of which is possible only with the introduction of a special acid-containing hardener. The additive is mixed with varnish before application, the shelf life of the mixture is small - from several hours to a couple of days, so the amount must be accurately calculated in advance.

Alkyd-carbamide lacquer creates a strong film on the tree and well protects the material from moisture. The composition is used predominantly in for covering parquet and solid floor boards. You can use it and to protect wooden furniture , as well as other items that are inside the room.


nitrocellulose varnishes This varnish is a mixture of cellulose nitrate, organic solvent, resins and plasticizer. This is quite popular wood varnish for interior use. It is well suited for furniture, it can give a matte and glossy surface, but is not suitable for floor protection.

Basic advantages of varnish:

  • high drying speed, from 20 minutes to 5 hours, average time - 1 hour;
  • high polishing ability;
  • varnish allows you to create a smooth hard surface with excellent decorative qualities;
  • composition penetrates deep into the pores of the wood and provides good protection.

Among the deficiencies of , it is worth noting the unpleasant smell during drying - toxic solvents evaporate, so when working you must carefully protect the respiratory tract. After drying, the varnish is absolutely safe for health. The composition does not protect the wood very well from moisture and sunlight, the coating strength is average, therefore it is used by for processing furniture and walls inside premises.

№7.Polyurethane varnish

Polyurethane varnish can be called one of the most popular compounds. Due to its high strength, many consider it universal. If we say that yacht varnish is in the group of polyurethane varnishes, it becomes clear that the performance of this composition is exceptional.

The main advantages of are the advantages of :

  • increased adhesion with the base;
  • high hardness of the coating, which perfectly protects the tree from moisture, chemicals, sunlight;
  • high drying speed, 4-12 hours.

The unique properties of the composition allow the use of its for outdoor use. They cover the decks of yachts, stairs and railings of private houses, sheds, facades, as well as parquet floors, furniture and other wooden objects. This is the universal composition of the .Among cons only the high price and the need to strictly follow all the requirements for the process of applying the composition - it is important to protect the surface from contact with moisture, since even a drop of water can greatly reduce the performance of the varnish.

No. 8.

Water Based Acrylic Varnish This varnish can be called one of the most environmentally friendly and safest .During the work it does not give unpleasant smells, therefore its use is allowed even in children's rooms. Water-soluble varnishes have one significant minus - they dry for a very long time. To fully form the film, you will have to wait about 2 weeks. In addition, the tree before applying lacquer better primed. On sale you can also find compounds with a small amount of organic solvent( up to 15%).

Water-based acrylic lacquers do not support burning, well emphasize the natural pattern of wood, but do not provide an adequate level of protection from moisture. Wear resistance is also not up to par, but manufacturers produce compounds with special additives that can significantly increase the mechanical resistance of the coating.

# 9.Polyurethane water-based varnish

Composition combines the advantages of acrylic water and polyurethane varnishes, developed not so long ago, sold as a one- and two-component mixture. The varnish is distinguished by high strength, wear resistance, elasticity, resistance to aggressive substances, the coating is environmentally friendly, durable and does not crack for many years, however, the price of the composition is still quite high.

No. 10.Epoxy varnish

Epoxy varnishes, as the name suggests, are made on the basis of epoxy resin. The film from it hardens under the influence of a hardener - these are two-component varnishes. Among the main advantages of are high hardness, strength of the resulting film, moisture resistance and resistance to impact. Varnish is suitable for interior work for flooring, as well as for exterior work .Plus, the coating dries very quickly, no more than 12 hours.

# 11.Polyester varnish

Multicomponent composition based on polyester resins. Applied with a special gun, requires high professionalism and sufficient accuracy in the work. After drying, a sufficiently thick durable film is formed that protects well against moisture and aggressive substances. Varnish uses for processing floors, furniture and some musical instruments.

No. 12.Alcohol varnish

This is not a very common formulations, the scope of which is very limited. Alcohol varnishes( polishes) are made on the basis of ethyl alcohol and resins. Alcohol evaporates quickly, and therefore the drying time of varnish is minimal - from 20 minutes to an hour. The coating has a beautiful gloss, but very poorly protects the surface from moisture. The composition is used in the processing of musical instruments , less often - in the joinery for furniture processing .

No. 13.Primer varnish

Primer varnish is only needed to improve the adhesion of wood with a finishing coating. The composition also helps to achieve a more even coating and isolate the wood from the water residue. It is necessary to choose a primer varnish that is most suitable for the type of finishing coating.

# 14.Applying varnish for wood

The process of coating wood varnish is simple and consists of several stages:

  • removing the layer of old paint or varnish, you can use sandpaper;
  • wood sanding and thorough dusting;
  • using wood tinting lacquer can be opened with wood stain;
  • application of primer;
  • applying a protective varnish with a brush, roller or spray.

The easiest way to work is to use a roller; it can be used to very quickly lacquer a fairly large surface. The brush can be used with a roller to handle hard-to-reach places. To avoid any traces of it, it is better to take a brush with a slight fluff at the end. The sprayer is used in work by professionals, with its help it is possible to very quickly coat with lacquer a solid surface area. When processing furniture it is better to use two layers of lacquer, to protect the floor - three. Each new layer is applied after drying and small grinding the previous one.

Properly selected and applied lacquer will preserve the original look of the wood for many years.

Tags: Wooden beam
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