Maple bredai grain-growing systems asdthis ancient art. But if evergreen pine needles make the shape of a tree unchanged throughout the year, sakura is especially attractive in spring, during flowering, then maple is a bright autumn palette on unusual openwork foliage.
Maples are distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. In the bonsai culture, Far Eastern, Chinese and Japanese varieties traditionally dominate, but the growing popularity of this crop line has allowed for the inclusion of varieties from Europe, the Caucasus and the North American continent in the list of species.
Species of maple for growing bonsai
Especially appreciated are plants with small foliage and short internodes that allow you to create unique in shape and harmonious, natural in appearance miniatures.
Among the species suitable for growing bonsai maple is Japanese and Norway, English, field and rocky. Maple trees of the maple-shaped maple with fancifically rugged leaf plates are in special demand. The leaves of this species remain red, contrastingly edged, light yellow or purple, not only in autumn, but throughout the year. Do not confuse this species with red bonsai, also grown as bonsai. His five-fingered leaves only by autumn gradually change their outfit and the appearance of the crown as a whole. From the United States and Canada, bonsai fell into the sphere of interest of connoisseurs of a majestic, easily forming, unpretentious and also having varieties with variegated or silvery foliage.
It is not surprising that small trees with red, yellow or any other bright foliage are most attractive for flower growers. Therefore, unscrupulous sellers often “play” on this by offering blue maple seeds for bonsai. No need to believe empty promises. If seedlings appear from such seeds, at best they will turn out to be an ordinary maple with green leaves. And although it is impossible to grow blue maple, bonsai with purple, carmine, red or orange leaves is a reality.
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There are many examples of varieties used for red maple bonsai, however, due to the low content of chlorophyll supporting the sapling, these plants are weaker than their green counterparts and need special attention.
Decorative forms are more likely to suffer from sunburn, frost and cold wind, and their brightness depends on the choice of location. In the shade of red, burgundy and crimson shades may disappear.
Another highlight of the Japanese maple bonsai is plants with leaves that are strongly dissected and resemble palm branches. These types look great in cascading drop-down compositions, but are not suitable for beginners due to a rather capricious temper and soreness.
But the dwarf maple varieties in bonsai are unpretentious and help the person with their formation. He does not seek to grow up, but form a dense crown, covered with shallow, preserving natural appearance of foliage.
Conditions for growing maple bonsai
Maples feel good in central Russia, but in the form of bonsai, this tree suffers more from external influences and needs careful choice of place of residence.
The most common long-sided and fan-shaped maple trees in bonsai can be sore and have difficulty in growing:
- in direct sunlight, especially in the southern regions;
- in the wind or drafts;
- in thick shade.
However, when it comes to choosing between light and shade, it is better to put the pot in the sun, which in the central part of the country will not cause serious harm. In the sun, the tree forms smaller leaves, which eliminates the removal of buds and does not weaken the plant. In addition, the colors of the foliage in full sun are brighter and more attractive.
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If in the summer, as in the photo, bonsai maple is taken out into the open air, it must be protected from the wind, otherwise the plant with the trimmed root system risks losing its balance and fall out of the shallow pot.
Maples, both in nature and in domestic conditions at low temperatures, do not tolerate excessive humidity and insufficient fresh air. In such conditions, bonsai is affected by harmful fungi that cause powdery mildew and anthracnose.
Watering is a mandatory and very important part of caring for bonsai maple. In summer, the intensity and frequency increase, if necessary, use a careful sprinkling. In winter, when the leaves fall, and the plant hibernates, the need for moisture drops sharply.
In the spring with waking up, maple is fed up, and for maple, the presence of iron in the mixture is important. This is taken into account in the preparation of the substrate. Bonsai soil for maple must be nutritious, aerated, with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. In addition to the traditional components, a clay substrate for bonsai is added to the soil, which secures the root system and structures the soil mixture.
Transplanting and replacing a container when growing bonsai from maple coincides with root pruning, which is carried out at intervals of 2–3 years. In parallel with the formation, dead or damaged rhizomes, clods of adhering soil are removed.
Reproduction of maple for bonsai
. All species of this plant are easily propagated by cuttings and rooted layers. For the cultivation of maple bonsai suitable and seeds, which before sowing should be subjected to stratification.
For this, seed is added dropwise to wet sphagnum, sand or peat, after which the container with the seeds is sent to the refrigerator. For the preparation of seeds of the palm maple, for example, 3-4 months of stay in the vegetable compartment are sufficient. The field of this when warming the shell will necessarily open, and friendly shoots will appear to the light.
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The bent maple seeds for bonsai are transferred to a sand-peat mixture or planted in well-moistened peat tablets. In the conditions of a greenhouse in the light, but not under the direct rays of the sun, a plant in a month gives a couple of true leaves.
When their number reaches 4–5, it is time to transfer the young maples into their own pots and begin forming bonsai.
Crown Formation of Maple Bonsai
How to grow Maple Bonsai without pruning and pinching a crown? It's impossible. These techniques, along with the formation of stems using wire, are an integral part of ancient art.
Pruning of the branches is carried out when up to five pairs of full-fledged leaves are revealed on the shoot. Usually shortened on 2-4 sheets, and separately plucked large leaf plates, leaving their cuttings.
Over time, the stalk will wither and fall away, and too large leaves will be replaced by small, more appropriate bonsai. In mid-summer, healthy green foliage trees defoliate or pluck growth buds, resulting in:
- growth retardation;
- to the gradual formation of shorter shoots;
- to increase the density of the crown.
On red maple trees for bonsai, such an operation is not carried out, since it can weaken an already sensitive plant.
It is better to carry out all procedures related to pruning not in spring, when sap flow is actively taking place, but in summer or autumn. The same applies to the artificial aging of bonsai-grown maple trees. In the second half or at the end of the growing season, the wounds inflicted are overgrown, and the tree is restored better.
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