- №1. Than a double-glazed window is better than usual glass, or the Design of a double-glazed window
- №2. Number of glazing units - key feature
- No. 3. Type of glass in insulating glass
- №4. Distance between glasses and soundproofness
- №5. Type of filling of double-glazed chambers
- №6. Remote frame
- №7. How to read the double glazing formula?
- №8. Insulating glass and climate of the region
- №9. What does the cost of a double-glazed window depend on?
- №10. Visual inspection
The glass part of the window occupies about 90% of its area, so the heat and noise insulation of the entire structure depends on it for the most part. If you want a really warm and quiet window, it's not enough to buy a profile from a well-known manufacturer - It is also important to choose a suitable double-glazed window, and here we are faced with some difficulties connected with the huge assortment. Manufacturers offerDouble-glazed windows, differing in the number of cameras, the type of glass and many other parameters
№1. Than a double-glazed window is better than usual glass, or the Design of a double-glazed window
Even the simplest modern double-glazed windows will be times warmer than the old window with ordinary glass. This was achieved through the implementation of a number of design features. A glass packet is today called a complex construction consisting ofSeveral glasses connected to each other by a spacer. The space between the glasses is calledcamera, it is mostly filled with air, but can be filled with inert gases to increase thermal insulation. Two glasses form one chamber, three - two cameras, etc.
Within the distance frame there may be a moisture absorbing substance that absorbs excess moisture and prevents fogging. Double-glazed windows are inserted in a profile made of PVC, wood or aluminum: the palm tree of the championship, which is held for a year by the plastic profile.
If a multi-compartment unit is used, thendistance between the paneswithin the same design may differ, but it still will not be more than 20 mm. Reducing the distance makes it possible to negate the thermal convection between the glasses, and as a result, it is possible to keep a significant part of the heat of the inner glass and not let it out onto the street. This is the basis for a more effective insulation of insulating glass in comparison with old windows. To create the most warm and quiet windows manufacturers introduce and many other technologies, such as the use of special glasses, seals, filling the chamber with argon and xenon.
№2. Number of glazing units - key feature
In warm Europe, single-chamber double-glazed windows are considered to be the most popular, and two-camera windows are rarely installed there. In conditions of severe domestic climate, single-chamber designs can not even be looked at - optimal in Most regions will have double-glazed windows, and in some particularly cold areas - three-chamber.
The more chambers in the design, the warmer the window will be, and physics explains it very simply: in several chambers it is possible to conclude a larger heat-shielding layer of air, and it prevents convective heat transfer. So, for example, the average single-chamber glass unit has a heat transfer resistance of about, m2K / W, two-chamber m2K / W, and three-chamber m2K / W and more.But a large number of cameras have their own drawbacks, so it is not appropriate to insert a three-compartment glass in each window.
Consider the advantages, disadvantages and uses of insulating glass with different number of cameras:
- single-compartment glass unit- the cheapest option, it has minimal weight, and the simpler the design, the more reliable it is in the window opening and the easier it is to install it. The advantages of insulating glass with one camera include a high level of translucence, but in practice, single- and double-chambered double-glazed windows on this indicator differ little. The main minus of the design -Insufficient thermal insulation, therefore it is unreasonable to use such double-glazed windows in regions where the temperature falls below -50 ° C in winter. They produce heat from the apartment, and because of the structural abilities they have the property of fogging.Sound insulation level is weak, so even in warm regions, such double-glazed windows are not recommended to install in bedrooms. It is advisable to use the structure for windows leading to a glass loggia in unheated, service and technical rooms, as well as in southern latitudes. Manufacturers also offerSingle-chamber double-glazed windows with low-emission glass and filling the chamber with argon- this option almost catches up with double-glazed windows according to the level of thermal insulation, it is cheaper at the same time, but still not suitable for windows overlooking noisy busy places;
- double-glazed windows- "gold standard" in the conditions of our climate. It consists of three windows and two air chambers. The level of heat and noise insulation double-glazed windows is more than 30% higher than single-chamber. It costs, of course, more expensive, but you will spend less on heating. Under the condition of severe winters, the price difference between single and double-glazed windows pays off in 1-2 years. The most popular is the glass unit with a thickness of 4 mm and the chambers between them of 14 and 12 mm (38 mm in total). Such structures are installed in residential and commercial buildings, as well as outside the city;
- three-chamber glass unit- a rescue for the northern regions of the country, where the temperature lasts about -400С for a long time in the winter. If the winter temperatures are significantly higher, the difference between the two- and three-chamber insulating glass will be insignificant and not very noticeable. The width of the three-chamber insulating glass unit reaches 58-60 mm, and the presence of four glasses greatly increases the weight of the structure. To maintain this severity, either a very wide profile or a division into numerous sections is needed to reduce the load on the hardware and fasteners. All this increases the cost of construction, in addition, the triple-glazed window passes a little less sunlight. With all this, it makes sense to be reconciled only in an extremely harsh climate.
Double-glazed windows with four or more chambersare considered an exclusive, and their need is under big question.
No. 3. Type of glass in insulating glass
The classic option is to use in insulating glassordinary float glass 4-6 mm thick. The technology makes it possible to obtain a perfectly flat and equal in thickness glass, which perfectly passes light from the street. The standard is 4 mm thick glass, thicker (5-6 mm) is recommended to be used in noisy areas and on the last floors, where gusts of the wind have decent power. The usual double-glazed window has good heat and sound insulation properties, it is well opposed to fire, butperfection does not have a limit - today there are glasses where these or those characteristics are significantly improved.
In addition to the usual, can be used andspecial double-glazed windows:
- energy-saving low-emission double-glazed windowsallow you to keep the heat in the apartment and reduce the cost of heating. Unique properties of ordinary glasssprayingsubstances that pass the long-wave radiation, but delay the short-wave, in simple terms, the light comes in, and the heat does not come out. Today, most ofteni-glasses with silver ion deposition: they show excellent thermal insulation properties, but are afraid of atmospheric influences.K-glassescheaper, more resistant to negative environmental factors, but in terms of energy conservation are less effective. Energy-saving, as a rule, is only one glass in a double-glazed unit. In the summer it perfectly reflects heat from the street, and in the winter it does not allow home heat to leave the apartment (see. illustration). Filling the chambers with argon allows for even more thermal insulation. It is estimated that when using low-emission glass it is possible to increase the resistance to heat transfer single-chamber double-glazed window up to, 6 m²K / W, and a two-chamber up to, 5 m²K / W (level of usual three-chamber);
- sun-protecting double-glazed windowsare irreplaceable in those cases when the window faces the south, and the sun's rays literally blind the household and spoil the wallpaper, pieces of furniture, carpets, etc. Protection from ultraviolet radiation havetoned in the mass of glass, glass with a tinted film, tempered glass and glass with a mirror surface. Sun protection glass can be simultaneously energy-saving if the inner glass has a coating with silver ions, which reflects the heat radiation from the radiators back to the apartment;
- soundproofed double-glazed windowsdiffer using the multilayeredtriplex glass and soundproof film.To increase the sound insulation using a special acoustic mounting foam. The complex of such solutions allows to reduce the level of street noise by 35 dB or more. Besides,glass triplex - this is increased safety and thermal insulation.Noise isolation depends on many other factors, as will be discussed later;
- fireproof double-glazed windowscan withstand high temperatures and be absolutely safe for humans through the use of a metal mesh on which glass is fixed, or thanks to laminated glass triplex;
- shockproof double-glazed windowswithstand serious mechanical stress, prevent breaking, and if broken, the fragments do not have sharp edges and are retained by the film. Similar properties were achieved through the use of triplex glasses, which, we recall, also provide excellent sound insulation and can delay ultraviolet radiation.
Some manufacturers offer even moremodern and smart double-glazed windows. So, for example, in Japan inventeddirt-repellent coating, which eliminates the need for permanent washing of windows, and this is a significant saving, if it is a question of high-rise buildings. Dirt to such a glass almost does not stick, under the influence of sunlight it is destroyed and washed off by rainwater.
Some manufacturers offerDouble-glazed windows, which make it easy to change the glass transparency leveland if necessaryturn it into a dullto shield from prying eyes from the outside. To solve the problem of education, ice sheets are produceddouble-glazed windows with electric heating. Heating the glass causes snow and ice to melt, but at the same time acts as an additional source of heat in the apartment.
In addition, today you can choose double-glazed windowswith decorative glasswhich can have any necessary color or even simulate a stained glass pattern. Such products are carried out on an individual project.
№4. Distance between glasses and soundproofness
Modern double-glazed windows can effectively solve not only the issues of thermal insulation, but also the absorption of street noise. Urban residents should appreciate this property.
The noise insulation characteristics depend on such parameters:
- the width of the insulating glass unit and the number of chambers;
- distance between the panes;
- The thickness of the glasses and the combination of glasses of different thicknesses;
- type of glass.
The wider the double-glazed window, the better its sound insulation,and a double-chamber double-glazed window with a width of 42 mm will be much "quieter" than a two-chambered 28 mm wide. When the camera is enlarged by 3 mm, sound insulation grows by an average of 10%, and a double-chambered glass unit is already 40-45% more efficient in terms of sound insulation than a single-chamber unit. At the same time, the thermal insulation characteristics increase with the chamber's increase to 16 mm, in the interval 16-24 mm stabilize, and further deteriorate due to convective heat transfer.
Distance between the panesshould not be more than 20 mm, but, as a rule, it is 6-16 mm, and the more glass is used, the smaller the distance between them, since the total width of the glass unit should not exceed 60 mm. And then the producers go for a trick, and docameras of different thicknesses, seeking to destroy the symmetry of the system leading to resonance.
A great effect in terms of noise insulation has anduse of glass of different thicknesses. When a sound wave collides with the same barriers (glasses of the same thickness), it easily passes through them. If the barriers have different parameters, then the sound wave will be more difficult, and it will lose a huge part of the energy. Glasses of different thicknesses do not resonate and make the apartment quieter by about 30%. In a double-glazed window, only one glass should be 6 mm thick, the others should be ordinary, 4 mm thick, so that the structure is not over-weighted.
If, in addition, to use a triplex glass in a double-glazed window, which alleviates noise well, it is possible to achieve the highest results.
№5. Type of filling of double-glazed chambers
The glazing unit can be filled with one of the following gases:
- dry air- the most common and the most affordable option;
- argonhas a higher dynamic viscosity and prevents convection between the glasses, so the glass package, filled with argon is about, times warmer than usual. In addition, argon protects the coating of i-glasses and is the best option for the ratio of price and quality;
- other inert gases, in particularkrypton and xenon, have more outstanding thermal insulation properties and "warmer" air in, and, times, respectively, but this filling of chambers is very expensive, so today it is not used.
A promising direction is productionInsulating glass with vacuum inside.Vacuum does not conduct heat at all, therefore it will provide maximum thermal insulation, but only the manufacture of such The double-glazed windows differ in a number of technical difficulties, therefore it is poured out and not massively is used.
№6. Remote frame
On the remote frame in the double-glazed window literally keeps everything. She holds the glass and sets the necessary distance between them. It is better to choose a double-glazed unit withframe is not made of aluminum, but steel, because its thermal conductivity is lower, butit is even better to use a fully fiberglass or plastic frame.
The glasses are connected to the spacer frame by means of sealants based on butyl and thiokol, which isolate the entire structure and give it the necessary physical properties. In fact, all known manufacturers of double-glazed windows use a similar method of connection, but there are also grief-companies that glue the whole "pie" with double-sided tape.
In addition, thin decorative frames can be installed inside which form an interesting layout.
№7. How to read the double glazing formula?
The characteristics of a double-glazed unit are often given in the form of a formula that would be nice to be able to read correctly, so as not to fall for possible tricks of sellers. The formula is given in the form "the thickness of the glass and its type-the thickness of the chamber and its filler-the thickness of the glass and its appearance... and begin with the outer (turned to the street) of the glass.
For example,glass packet, which is described by the formula 6М1-16-4М1-12Ar-4I, consists of three glasses and two chambers. The outer glass is ordinary and has a thickness of 6 mm, followed by an air-filled chamber 16 mm in thickness, further - ordinary glass 4 mm, chamber in 12 mm, filled with argon and low-emission i-glass thickness 4 mm. Such a double-glazed window will perfectly preserve heat and provide a good sound insulation.
The specialist of the company, which is engaged in the manufacture of windows, should choose the right option, but it's best to be aware of such subtleties to choose the right glass.
№8. Insulating glass and climate of the region
When choosing a double-glazed window, first of all, it is necessary to start from the weather outside the window and the personal requirements put forward to the structure. For warm regions, a single-chamber or single-chamber low-emission double-glazed window will suffice. In other cases it is better to look towards two-chamber structures.
Each type of double-glazed windows is characterized by its indicator of resistance to heat transfer: the usual single-chamber this indicator at the level of, 7 m2 * C / W, and for a wide two-chamber - already, 2 m2 * C / W.In order not to overpay, it is important to take into account the real needs for heat savings. So, for example, for the Moscow region, according to construction standards, it is better to use window blocks with a resistance to heat transfer of at least 5 m2 * C / W. This requirement corresponds to a two-chamber conventional double-glazed window and a single-chamber with i-glass and argon filling.
In pursuit of quality double-glazed windows,do not forget about the profile: if it is thin, and there are cracks in the construction, then the house will still be cold and noisy.
№9. What does the cost of a double-glazed window depend on?
The cost of a double-glazed window is affected by a number of factors:
- type of glass. Energy-saving, tinted, shock-resistant and other specialized glasses are more expensive than usual, but in some cases you can not save;
- number of camerasand the total width of the glazing unit. Often in inexpensive profiles with a thickness of 60-64 mm are inserted inadequately wide double-glazed windows. Outwardly everything looks fine and can be executed qualitatively, but for severe winters such an option does not fit;
- gas, which filled the camera;
You can save on buying an insulating glass unit ifcarefully consider the requirements that are put forward to the window unit in each room. Companies often impose on the client the choice of a single-type design for all windows, although often this is not necessary. For a bedroom, for example, noise insulation and heat protection is important, and in the kitchen it is possible to put far not the most "Warm" and "quiet" window - here it is important that it can open skillfully and completely, and lightly, and forming a small gap. For the first floors, it would be appropriate to have a window with a tint or tamper proof.
However, with economy it is important not to overdo it. Too cheap proposals immediately sweep aside, like frankly inconvenient options. For example, a blind window unit will cost inexpensively, but in operation it is inconvenient. On the other hand, too intrusive offers of the manager of expensive functions also should not be trusted.
№10. Visual inspection
When the glass unit is ready, it is necessary to inspect it. There must be a marking indicating the date of manufacture and the manufacturer, some companies assign each individual item their own number. No chips and cracks and should not be in sight, the glass should have a smooth smooth surface, and the double-glazed window - the correct geometry. Do not interfere to measure the diagonals of the structure and compare them: with a discrepancy of more than 3 mm, you can talk about a poor-quality product.
Windows are installed, at least, for 10-15 years, so when choosing them, the poet does not need to spend a little time collecting information and studying the market.