What is the purpose and how does the float switch work?

Reliable, practical and convenient float switch provides the correct automatic adjustment of the operation of electric pumps in sewage, drainage, drainage and water supply systems, plays the role of a water level sensor and protects the equipment from "dry move. "

A properly connected device monitors the functioning of the communication elements and turns on or turns off the pump when the permissible level of water or other liquid in the system changes. Placed in various storage tanks, tanks, tanks, wells, etc.

The content of the article:

  • Construction device and unit capabilities
  • General device classification
    • Terms of making the correct purchase
    • Nuances of electrical characteristics
    • Additional selection criteria
  • Features of the installation of the float
    • Simple installation for one module
    • Rules for mounting two or more products
  • The principle of operation of the float in different systems
    • The role of the switch in the water supply complexes
    • Contact with drainage or sewage system
  • Equipment maintenance and repair
  • Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Construction device and unit capabilities

The float-type switch has an elementary design. Inside the case, made of durable heat-resistant plastic, is a working electrical switch. There is also a lever for transferring contacts in the switch and a steel ball, which changes the position of the lever element when the position of the float itself changes.

Devices of this type belong to universal versions of household equipment, because they work equally well both in the case of overflow and when the storage tank is empty.

Internal view of the float

Despite its structural simplicity, the float switch demonstrates high efficiency and can simultaneously solve several problems at once. The presence of this device greatly facilitates the management of equipment and prolongs its full, high-quality functioning.

A cable consisting of three wires — blue, brown, and black — branches off from the switching node. One of them (black) is common, brown comes out of the normally closed, and blue comes from the normally open switch contacts.

The operation of the float switch

When the float in the tank is in the lower position, the circuit is closed between the blue and black wires. If the device moves to the upper position, the contact between the brown and black elements is closed. In each case, the wire that is not involved in the wiring diagram must be reliably and qualitatively insulated.

Special requirements are also imposed on the supply cable and the box box. The first element simply must have the highest possible level of moisture resistance, and the second part must be completely sealed and impermeable to water.

The outlet of the device is reinforced with an additional high-strength sealer and is equipped with practical tools that neutralize mechanical stresses in the cable.

Pump float switch

A float switch protects the pump from idling that occurs when the accumulated liquid is almost completely pumped out of the tank.

The insulated hollow part of the cable entry is filled with polymer resin. This eliminates the ingestion of moisture or any other liquid in which the equipment operates.

The case and the cable sheath have high strength and heat resistance. Due to this, they are practically invulnerable to the effects of such elements of the aggressive environment, such as liquid oils, fecal water, urinary and fruit acid, gasoline, etc.

Float switches of different sizes

To more accurately control the operation of the pump in the communication system, several float switches can be placed inside the tank with liquid. Each of them will perform a specific function and greatly facilitate the process of equipment operation.

The inside of the switch body is filled with air. Therefore, the device tends to float to the surface and occupy the highest possible position. When the liquid level in the tank drops, the float naturally drops down.

The length of the wire provided for moving the mechanism adjusts the spread between the upper and lower positions of the float. The base starting point in relation to which the movement takes place is determined by the load moving along the switch cable.

The plastic casing has a smooth, non-porous surface. It does not stick to pollution and does not stick fragments of human waste, trapped in waste or sewer water.

Sand, paper and any other solid or dense pieces and elements slide off the unit without affecting its performance, buoyancy and functionality.

The float switches are multifunctional and capable of solving a whole complex of tasks of different levels of complexity.

Only a few modules mounted in one tank provide:

  • efficient operation of the main pump of the communication system;
  • full work of the auxiliary pump.

In addition, they can play the role of an emergency controller, clearly fixing a sharp decrease in the level of liquid in the tank and act as a sensor-alarm for overflow.

Drain pump with float switch

A drainage pump equipped with a float-type switch will help in the period of melting snow or in the rainy season to drain the area adjacent to the household or pump out water from the pool for routine cleaning and further full operation

This will make it possible to reduce the load on the equipment and protect pumping system from excessive wear, the transition to the "dry run" and other unpleasant, but potentially possible incidents.

General device classification

Modern float switches are divided into two types. Lightweight modules are designed for pumping complexes that discharge or supply consumers with running water for domestic purposes. Heavy instruments are used in the management of drainage and faecal pumping equipment.

Pump with float switch in operation

How many floats to place in the tank is determined separately in each individual case, and depends on the number of pumps connected and the overall system needs for safety aggregates

To buy a float switch for a pump you need with a clear understanding of the tasks that need to be solved. Lightweight items attract customers with low prices, but can only work in clean water intended for drinking and household needs.

Heavy aggregates function efficiently in an environment of any level of aggressiveness, however, it is considered impractical to use them for ordinary water due to its high cost.

Terms of making the correct purchase

Before buying a float indicator, it is necessary to designate the area and method of using the equipment, the necessary electrical characteristics, module dimensions and cable length.

Float switch

When an old model pump is used in communications that is not equipped with a switch, there is always the risk that the equipment may fail due to a sudden excess of load

To avoid trouble, you should separately purchase the float element and connect it to the system with your own hands or by calling a professional to the house.

If the float is planned to be equipped with a drainage or water intake systemit is enough to purchase an inexpensive lightweight module. He has a good swimming ability, clearly reacts to the water level in the tank and immediately sends a signal to other elements of the system if any changes happen.

For drainage and sewer systems fit heavy floats without a sinker, designed to be in a hostile environment of high density.

Nuances of electrical characteristics

The current and voltage of the float switch must clearly correspond to the parameters of the electric pump. The voltage level is typically 220 V. Allowable variations of this indicator in the range of 5-10%, both upwards and downwards.

As for the current, this value at the switch must exceed the parameters prescribed for the pump. In the documentation of the float is usually written the maximum permissible value for reactive and active loads. When connecting pumping equipment usually take into account the number corresponding to the reactive position.

Additional selection criteria

The temperature range of the float switches is quite large. Thanks to it for water intake from a well or a well pump station You can choose any unit that is most suitable for the tasks for all other parameters.

Float switch

The average temperature range for the floats is 0-60. However, some manufacturers produce even more heat-resistant modules that can withstand temperatures up to + 70

But on the size of the outgoing connecting cable will have to pay special attention. Usually the length of this element is from 2 to 10 meters. Devices with a short wire are more suitable for shallow depth tanks, and parts equipped with a long cable will work successfully in wells and modern ones. storage tanks great depth.

Features of the installation of the float

Correctly install the float switch in several ways. Before starting work, first of all, you should make sure that the current consumed by the pump is less than the maximum permissible current value specified in the equipment operation documents.

Simple installation for one module

The most simple, fast and not too laborious method of installation is reduced to the installation of the float in the tank by means of a waterproof cable and a special sinker, which is usually included in the basic package unit.

Installation work is carried out in the following order:

  1. The sinker is strung on a cable. Then, by experiment, the length of the free-flow arm of the float device is determined.
  2. Then the position of the sinker is fixed on the cable with a special practical latch.
  3. The cable is fastened to the outside of the tank by means of connecting elements.
  4. When the preparatory work is done, the float is connected to the pumping system. Installation and adjustment of equipment are carried out according to the diagrams contained in the documentation attached to the device.

Upon completion of all necessary actions, the equipment is necessarily tested for operability. To do this, the pump under the control of the owners starts up in normal mode for 2-3 hours.

Tank float switch

It is permissible to install a float-type switch on the supply cable only if only one such unit will operate in the tank. Also, there should be no prerequisites for the device to get caught or hang inside the tank.

If the water flow is normal and does not fail, then the installation and the subsequent connection were made in compliance with all the rules.

Rules for mounting two or more products

If according to the project documentation it is required to install several float devices, it makes sense to use the rod-type installation method. The role of the fastener (rod) will fit a piece of durable plastic pipe. It is clearly and securely fixed inside the tank, intended for filling.

Then floats are mounted on the rod base. They are evenly distributed over the entire length of the pipe so that after fixing and adjustment around each module there was free space, providing the devices with the ability to clearly perform their functions, while not interfering each other.

The outgoing cables from the switches are attached to the rod with clamps. This method allows you to install almost any number of switches, thus taking control of a complete complex consisting of several pumps.

If necessary, it is permissible to use two or more rods and mount the required number of floats on them, corresponding to the number of pumps or control panels used.

The principle of operation of the float in different systems

The scope of float type switches is very wide. The element functions correctly in standard water supply systems, effectively controls the filling and emptying of the tank's storage tank capacity, protects equipment from idle operation and prolongs its operational life.

The role of the switch in the water supply complexes

A device placed in a container floats to the surface when the tank is filled with water and switches off the active pump in a timely manner, preventing it from overflowing in this way. When the water level drops, the float lowers with it and immediately activates the pump for subsequent filling of the tank with water.

Being on the surface of the tank (when the tank is full), the device will give a signal to work automatic water supply station and turn it off when it sinks to the bottom (when the container is empty).

Pump with float switch

Many manufacturers of modern household pumps initially complete their products with a practical, convenient, high-strength, heat-resistant and waterproof floating switch. Having purchased such a unit, the owners will no longer have to pick up a float to it and mess around with the correct connection of the device to the pumping water equipment.

Close the valve or lower the valve with a servo drive, the float will command, being on the surface of a container filled with liquid. Down on the bottom (with an empty tank), the device will again open the valve or gate valve, re-activating the filling of the tank with water.

At the control room or directly to the operator, the float will send a signal when it appears on the surface of the filled tank. The device will inform about the absence of water in the tank when it sinks to the bottom of the working capacity.

Contact with drainage or sewage system

For drainagefecal and sewer pump heavy float switch recommended. It is adapted to work in high-density liquids and easily copes with the tasks assigned.

The device accurately monitors the operation of the pumping complex and, floating to the surface when the container is full, immediately activates the equipment. Shutdown occurs at the moment when the device sinks to the bottom as a result of emptying the tank.

Drainage and sewage system

The presence of a float-type switch in the drainage and sewage system allows the pump to be automatically shut off at the moment the reservoir is empty. The signal to stop the operation will give the regulator barorele, located in the float device

The functionality allows the connection of two pumps to one float switch. In this case, the swing units will work in turn. One will begin to fill the tank when the float is in the lower position, and the second will turn on when the switch is on top.

However, experts point to a low system efficiency and pay attention to potential drops in the supply of domestic water during the filling of the tank.

Equipment maintenance and repair

The float-type switch is a constructively simple and affordable device. It functions reliably and qualitatively even in an aggressive environment and is not afraid of intense loads. Subject to the operational rules stated by the manufacturer, it develops the entire warranty period and after it also continues to fulfill its duties qualitatively.

Pumping fluid from the reservoir

The presence of a float allows you to keep the pump under control and program it for the future. For example, the drainage unit can be installed in a place of constant flooding. When the water level reaches the set level, the switch will lock it in and immediately signal the pump to start pumping.

If the module is used only in a complex of facilities engaged in water disposal or water supply, regular maintenance is not required. The aquatic environment is considered the least problematic and does not have any negative effect on equipment.

Float switch in aggressive environment

The float switch, which controls the drainage system, is subjected to heavy loads, as it is constantly is in a liquid medium containing a large amount of impurities, fragments of fine gravel, sand and organic residues

If the field of activity of the float is located in more aggressive, difficult conditions, for example, in sewer or faecal pits, the device requires more serious attention.

Plumbers recommend at least once a month to thoroughly flush the float from a hose, in order to avoid sticking of the latter to the pressure pipe or the walls of the pump in the process of daily work. If the equipment is rinsed regularly with a stream of water, it will last much longer and will not lose its working capacity even over time.

The most common failures of the unit include the burning of contacts in the electrical cable, damage to the insulating layer, violation of the tightness of the case and the penetration of moisture there. In the event of such problems, all defective items must be replaced immediately, since they are not subject to repair.

Disassembled float switch

The internal structure of the float controller is not difficult. The device, as a rule, is reliable, works for a long time and does not give the owners any trouble

If the electronic module itself has failed, the owners will have to discard it and install a new one in the tank as soon as possible. It is not worth buying the first float element, even if its price is pleasing with its attractiveness.

It is better to contact a specialized service center and purchase branded certified detail with documents that fully meets all the requirements for equipment such type

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Rules for the installation of a mechanical float valve switch to protect the storage tank from overflow. Curious moments of work that should be taken into account.

How to install a float switch in the tank with the option to control the water level and connect it to the alert circuit. All the subtleties of mounting and connecting equipment with their own hands at home.

About the features and nuances of the functioning of the float switches and the area of ​​their application tells the head of one of the largest service centers.

To pump equipment served for a long time, high quality and fully, you need to equip it with one or more float switches. These small structurally simple units will take over the basic parameters of the control of the communication system and protect the equipment from excessive loads and "dry running".

Installing floats is not too complicated, and even an inexperienced home wizard, having handy step-by-step instructions for installation, will cope with the work without any problems. If there is no 100% self-reliance, it is appropriate to contact plumbers. They will complete the communication complex with the necessary number of control details.

Please write comments in the block below, ask questions, post a photo on the subject of the article. Tell us about how to choose the float switch, how to connect the device and how it serves now. Share useful information that may be useful to site visitors.

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