Commercially available various dimmers are able to extend the functionality of almost any lighting, to enhance their efficiency. But if the situation is not typical, for example, if the important small size, it can only help the homemade device.
In addition, production can be a cheaper option than buying that operates very convincing. We'll show you how to build a dimmer with your hands. In the present article, we discussed in detail what hardware would be required, in what sequence to perform the work.
The content of the article:
- When a purchase is - the worst option?
What you need to know about dimmers?
- Advantages of using the device
- How is it regulated?
The relative simplicity of the design
- Factors for complicating the circuit
- Existing device management types
- Type of accommodation unit
- The principle of operation of the dimmer
- Handwritten manufacturing dimmer
- Connecting the dimer to the chain
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
When a purchase is - the worst option?
Factory brightness controls are able to provide the expected economic results and to increase the comfort of living in all typical situations. In addition, the cost is different, which will make a purchase "on the pocket."
Yet, in some situations, you can not find the right size or power options, so the output can be homemade.
In most cases, the person concerned will be able to buy an inexpensive dimmer factory, workers who are satisfied with the quality of its
There are unusual situations, when industrial products do not meet the needs of the person. For example, it happens, if necessary Dimmer small size, there is a desire to improve the aesthetic qualities of its control panel.
Or for a person he believes necessary to increase efficiency, make it more convenient to control, to achieve any color effects, to improve any other characteristic.
Making a simple dimmer is a simple task, especially since only need all available instruments, the main of which is the soldering iron
And also to perform the assembly can, when available have the necessary components that will significantly reduce the cost of the procedure.
What you need to know about dimmers?
The verb "to dim" in English means "to become dull", "dark". This phenomenon is the essence of dimmers. In addition, the person additionally receives a number of advantages.
Advantages of using the device
Among the advantages it is necessary to allocate these additional features:
- reduce energy consumption - it leads to greater efficiency;
- replace several types of lighting devices - for example, one lamp can serve as a night lamp, general lighting, etc...
Furthermore, the user can obtain different lighting effects, for example, use a conventional lighting controlled dimmer as light music.
As well as its functionality allows you to work together with security systems or simply to imitate the presence of people in the room. What will the owner of any premises to protect their property from intruders or even prevent their unauthorized entry into the apartment, office.
The basis of the construction is a triac dimmer. It is important to remember that his power should be 20-50% higher than that of the load. In addition, it must withstand a voltage of 400 V. This will ensure product longevity
Additionally dimmer is able to make the management of lighting sources, other electrical appliances more convenient, efficient. For example, it is possible to use radio or infrared signals, which will perform the necessary manipulations remotely.
Or it is possible to use several lighting instrument control points instead of one. For example, if a user wants to make a more modern lighting in the bedroom, the controllers can be installed at the entrance to and next to the bed.
Such a decision would make the owners life more comfortable. Likewise, you can go to any other place.
How is it regulated?
If the person concerned has decided to self-assemble dimmer, then the procedure must begin to perform not thinking about how to do this, and with the definition of goals and objectives to be addressed.
It looks like a conventional sine wave current, and are dimmable to "cut" it. This will reduce the duration of the pulse and will enable appliance not work at full capacity
So before you begin the assembly need to decide what type of lamp to be used. This procedure is required because there are various principles of the brightness control.
- voltage change - this method is relevant when using outdated incandescent lamps;
- pulse width modulation - this option must be used to control the brightness of modern energy-saving lighting products.
Adjustable voltage LED lamps is ineffective due to the fact that they work in a narrow range and a small deviation from the norm just faded out, or does not cover. Would not allow the full potential of conventional devices, because for their produce specialized dimmers for LED-devices.
In addition, the use of simple, but older dimmers does not allow to save on electricity. After the excess power as heat dissipated just in the air.
Done right, the dimmer should provide just such a sine wave in which short pulses interspersed with long pauses. And what she duration, and the signal strength is less, the dimmer will light the lamp
With PWM will raise the brightness control that provides the opportunity to work lamps at 10-100% of their capacity. In this case, the user will get a nice bonus in the form of energy savings.
And you can also make full use of all the other benefits of dimmers, among them durability.
The relative simplicity of the design
Despite the fact that household brightness controls allow to obtain a significant visual and economic benefits, they differ a simple device.
Which ensures a long service life, and in the case when a person has decided to perform a self-assembly, and the simplicity of the operation. As a result, it will be able to cope with almost anyone, not even possessing special knowledge.
Homemade dimmer can be used in different areas, but it should be borne in mind that its production on one component soldering is complete. Since homemade need to give an attractive appearance
For example, the most popular modern dimmers are based on just a few elements:
- dynistor, common and its other name - Deacon;
- Triac, differently - Triac;
- pulse shaping unit.
Furthermore, in the structure requires the presence of several minor portions, without which the operation is impossible. These include capacitors, resistors (DC, AC). Each of the major listed semiconductor doing their part for lamp brightness control.
Triac is often compared with electricity for the door, and in which you can enter in both directions. That is, it is possible to pass a current to the lamps in an unlimited amount, but, if necessary, and return it back to surplus.
This figure represents a simplified diagram of the dimmer. Which indicates that there may be different features but the main control member will still be triac
Performing such a process enables the anode to the cathode. They are reversed depending on the direction of movement of electricity. In addition, it provides for the multi-layer wiring structure, which allows you to perform tasks as accurately as possible.
Needless performs dynistor switching direction, which is a bidirectional diode.
Factors for complicating the circuit
A person wishing to collect their own dimmer must think not only about the acquisition of the right of semiconductors. Since the structure will have to be able to carry out management, placement and even give adequate aesthetic properties, will take into account a number of points.
- view control;
- method of placement;
Since the listed items significantly affect the performance of the dimmer, then each of them should deal separately. Which will do the job efficiently.
Existing device management types
As the need to control the dimmer, then one should choose the best option. Because they are many, and each has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. This is a significant impact on the design.
Manipulation is possible to perform any of the following ways:
But most of all for all sorts of homemade dimmers using the first option. Since the mechanical control is easy to assemble and will have to pay less when buying components.
dimmer circuit makes it possible to understand how it works. Namely, when a current in the network, it passes through a resistor and one of the built-in diode, charges a capacitor. Excessive tension of which falls on the Shockley diode and triac. From his position, depending on the lamp load is transmitted
In this case, a person need only control, which can be rotary lever. If desired, it is possible to replace the pressure member. In this case, all manipulations will be carried out by conventional keys familiar on traditional circuit breakers.
Often used combined rotary-push devices. They enable operation on / off keys produce, the very same adjustment - swivel arm. That many users find it convenient.
Any of these embodiments the size and appearance may be similar to a conventional switch that will replace such a device. It is another advantage. Electronic control involves the use of all necessary sensors manipulation. They also take the form of traditional switches and easy to replace them.
Before mechanical counterparts sensory have a significant advantage in the form of a modern appearance. The downside is the higher cost of components. Remote control of the most comfortable, convenient, it is performed by means of conventional panels.
command signal types are different:
- an infrared signal.
In the first case, the user will be able to carry out the necessary adjustments to any of the building space, rooms and even from abroad. Which is convenient, efficient, but the accessories will be more expensive than purchasing a remote infrared signal.
The signal is able to convey the necessary information only if the mouse itself dimmer for incandescent lamps. And this will be done only in one particular place.
A simpler version of the assembly is mounted dimmer. And the most durable is considered a printed circuit board, which will prevent many types of early failure
Yet the specified feature is usually not considered a disadvantage, so more affordable kits with infra-red signal popular. It applies acoustic, but will then have to purchase a probe capable of trapping sound commands to the remote control methods: claps his hands, the sound of music and other similar noises.
Still, be aware that the latter option is more spectacular than effective. Since any party sounds, such as barking pet, loud conversation will lead to unauthorized changes brightness of the lamps. It will not always please the users.
At the same time, mounted in the structure of the dimmer is able to make an acoustic sensor any party memorable as causes lights to respond to changing the volume of music. That is, in this way, it is possible to replace the light music.
In addition, you should know that becoming increasingly popular management options using a computer at wired or wireless connection, as well as a smartphone, a tablet, which transmit the desired command signal of Wi-Fi.
Printed circuit boards are compact and durable in comparison with hinged scheme. In addition, they are more secure, which is important, since the dimmers are used in areas where people are
To be able to use any of these methods, the design of the dimmer must be equipped with the necessary elements. What makes it more difficult, so it is more expensive. As a result, the most popular for this control is traditionally mechanical.
Type of accommodation unit
Any modern dimmer switch can be placed in all three ways, as a household uses less total - only 2. One option is rarely in demand due to its structural complexity and performance.
Therefore, for housing or small commercial premises used such types of accommodation:
In the first case, replace the traditional dimmer switch in the second - it is installed out of sight, that is mounted in the transfer case, specially made niche. This means that in one situation a person must take care of the control panel with high aesthetic qualities.
And another caveat, this is of no importance. Since the instrument will be hidden from view. But only have to use the remote control method. Overhead are mainly mechanical or electronic variety.
The principle of operation of the dimmer
Most effective is a method of brightness control using pulse width modulation. Since it is most suitable for the modern energy-saving lamps.
The principle of operation in this case is the power supply short pulses between which is kept a long pause. Moreover, the greater the duration, the lower the brightness.
Connecting assembly of regulators is an important step, as it determines the functionality and comfort, the actual reason why people and carry out such work
At the same time the simplest devices can change the characteristics of light in the usual decrease / increase in the voltage is applied. But this option will benefit only when using incandescent lamps.
In the case of LED-devices paired with the device can only work dimmable LED modelAs usual svetodiodki not regulated.
Handwritten manufacturing dimmer
Initially to be defined with a number of parameters, including power, accommodation, management. Without this procedure workable regulator will create only a coincidence that rarely happens.
Further it is necessary to purchase or obtain ownership by another triac, Shockley diode, and the node that generates the driving pulse, for example, take out unnecessary device.
Additionally, you will need a capacitor and a resistor 2, capable of maintaining a certain power previously. One of which must be a variable. This feature will allow to change the voltage.
The following diagram shows how the user can control one light source using two controllers installed in different parts of the room, which is convenient
When it reaches the maximum possible value for dynistor used, it operates and delivers the necessary command pulse. Which is sent to the triac, and then falls to the lamps or other electrical appliances.
When will the power switch depends on the position of controls. Since this can be 220 V, and 40 V, if it is necessary for the person.
Since craftsmen made mostly false brightness controls, then set it in the chain is not difficult. Since this operation does not differ from a conventional switch assembly
All of the above structural elements are connected in one piece according to the attached circuit via wires and soldering. Contacts should be carefully insulated. Since the short-circuit - one of several common reasons for failure of electrical equipment.
Connecting the dimer to the chain
It is no less important part of the work than the actual manufacturing, as much on the quality of connect dimmer durability of operation depends. In addition, the connection affects the convenience and comfort of control, so dimmers can be divided and this characteristic.
They are as follows:
- type of switch - they replace conventional switches and regulate one lamp or group, for example, a chandelier with a large number of lighting elements;
- looping - can manage a single appliance, such as LED bulb, with a few knobs, for convenience located in different parts of the premises, buildings.
In the first case, using a network, comprising 3 wires, and grounding zero go to the lamp, the other appliance, and the phase at the gap. That is, the procedure is familiar to anyone who replaces conventional switches.
When performing inspection control, its installation and operation one should follow safety measures, since it is crossed by a sufficient voltage to cause injury
When installing two dimmers feedthrough from the junction box should bring to each one of the three wires. This is a prerequisite. Then the first two pins are used for both regulators compound. should be used to ensure the reliability of the jumper.
Another one of the free contact is connected to the phase, and the latter to the lighting device. After that compound is tested for operability.
During these operations, it should be remembered on safety measures - each of them can be carried out only after de-energizing the network.
Landmark selection dimmer to control LED ribbon acquaint next articleEntirely dedicated to this interesting topic.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The first video enable faster manufacturing procedure to deal with:
The next video will allow to get acquainted with the principle of the work of contemporary dimmers:
Any user, even with specialized skills, be able to deal with that, how to make a simple dimmer own hands. It's an inexpensive and simple solution. The main thing - to choose the elements of the necessary capacity and quality to connect them to each other.
At the same time it will be necessary to give the product a decent appearance, which complicates the task. But for this purpose you can use the shell of industrial controllers, and even second-hand.
Do you want to talk about how to collect the device to adjust the light intensity with his own? There is a desire to share the technological details or ask a question? Please write comments in the underlying unit, share useful information, experiences and pictures of the article.