Content of the article:
Undemanding frost-resistant varieties are often found on the summer cottages of gardeners in the middle lane. These include, for example, "Lydia" or "Isabella."But, unfortunately, they differ in small berries and inexpressive taste. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, there were species that give a large berry in the harsh climatic conditions of Russia.
Having bought varietal copies of modern breeding, one can hope for a good harvest, resistance to diseases and frost. By the way, the rich taste of a large beautiful bunch will not yield to overseas products. Growing grapes in the middle zone for beginners is recommended to start with the early varieties. Their maturation occurs in mid-August.
|from white to pink hue||from saturated lilac to violet|
|Amber Samara||Agate Don|
|Muscat Tsihmistrenko, muscat dessert||Kishmish unique|
|North early||Purple early|
No less popular are and such varieties: Kesha, Arcadia, Muromets and Cosmos. They all have large fleshy berries, the size of a small plum. Have a delicate aroma, sweetness and great taste.
When should you buy planting material?
To purchase a quality vine, use the advice of experienced winegrowers.
- Do not buy in the heat of the moment. If you decide to buy a seedling in the nursery, do not take the first one. Assess the situation, compare the types, prices. Well, if there is an opportunity to examine the adult specimens during fruiting.
- Consider purchasing cuttings in a large grape farm. Agree with the owner about the excursion, ask about the variety of varieties. Try your favorite bunch. And then ask to sell cuttings from selected grapes. So you are guaranteed to get the desired grade, and to it in addition to valuable advice and parting words.
- Autumn material is usually tougher than spring. If he suffers a winter cold, then in the spring quickly goes to growth.
- Beginners are not recommended to immediately take up the complex and expensive hybrid specimens. Often they require increased attention, a certain knowledge base and experience.
- Purchased seedlings should not be stored. They are recommended to soak in clean water and plant in the soil in a day.
Do not take the "elite" grapes on the market from obsessive sellers. Otherwise, you risk buying a "cat in a bag."
Where better to plant?
If you plan to plant one bush, then try to find a sunny place for it. It should be removed from trees and shrubs. For the future of a large grape farm, a place is selected with the following characteristics:
- a slope on the south, south-west or east side;
- well lit space during the day;
- place away from groundwater and marshy surfaces.
Do not plant a vine on the north side, under a tree or near a pond.
How to plant?
- The material purchased and soaked during the day is slightly pruned. The roots are shortened quite a bit, but the escape is reduced by 3 buds. If there are side layers - they are also removed.
- The prepared seedling is dipped into the mud in roots and placed in a prepared trench or pit.
- Ask the experts how to feed the grapes during planting, at what depth to place the heel of the chubuk and which drainage is better suited better for your area. Such advice would be better than general recommendations.
- If planting is done in the winter, then you need to make a mound around the sprout, and when cold weather sets in, cover it with a plastic bottle. The shelter can be filled with mulch or peat from above.
- Spring landing involves moistening the landing pit. After dropping the chubuki and compacting the soil around them, they make shading. Bright spring sun can burn young shoots.
- After a week, the spring seedlings are watered again, and after the soil dries out, the top layer is loosened.
How to care for a vineyard in spring?
After the start of growth of young copies, as well as one-year-old and two-year-old seedlings require the implementation of a number of mandatory procedures. Spring care of grapes is as follows:
- weed removal under the vine and around the bush;
- loosening topsoil;
- annual cutting of weak roots at a depth of 20 cm under the ground( soil is raked and pruned);
- spring preventive spraying plants Bordeaux liquid before the growing season.
How to water?
To ensure adequate nutrition for adult plants, it is necessary to conduct abundant watering several times in the spring-summer season. At a time - at least 15 liters of water under 1 bush. Water in the roots should not stagnate. Otherwise, the occurrence of fungal diseases and root decay can occur. This can be avoided by properly organized drainage. To understand how often to water grapes in the summer, you need to know the temperature regime of the region in the summer. In cold and rainy summer, you can pour bushes 2 times. If the temperature readings are normal, then you can spend 4 watering season.
If the weather is too wet, then the grapes should be given special attention. Special processing of grapes after the rain is required. High humidity provokes the immediate spread of malicious spores. It is necessary to spray the bushes with multi-purpose solutions that can protect against blight, mildew and oidium.
What is pruning and when is it done?
Middle-growers growers produce global pruning twice a year. Pruning grapes in the fall is necessary before shelter for the winter. Long shoots are shortened, after which they are convenient to lay in the recess and cover. Spring procedure occurs after the disclosure. Removed frozen and dry shoots. In addition, during the growth of the bush do pinching of the shoots and pruning them for the correct formation of the vine.
For a bush to be properly formed, it must be trimmed from the first year. Green shoots break off, not allowing them to braid branches. On young specimens clean flowering branches, not allowing the berries to grow. First year can be exhausted, giving all the power to grow a bunch. Left shoots direct and tie up.
If you expect to get a powerful plant, then all left sprouts should be directed upwards.
The correct formation of a grape bush from the first year is shown in a video that will help you understand the basic principles of the procedure and will prevent errors.
How to cover the grapes for the winter?
All hybrid varieties need a warm winter. Therefore, in the fall, before the onset of frosts, all shoots should be prikopat or covered with covering material. This will save the plant from freezing. After autumn pruning, the bush is well watered. Then all the whips are removed from the trellis and placed on straw or dry leaves. Top closed with spruce, wooden structure, or simply covered with a layer of earth.
If you do not know how to cover the grapes for the winter, you should watch the video and get ready in advance. It is impossible to refuse from carrying out this procedure, otherwise a healthy plant will not be able to grow.