Peach - the culture of whimsical and requires increased attention. One of the main conditions for the successful cultivation of the peach orchard is the proper formation of trees.
But any manipulation of the secateurs must be carried out correctly, timely and be reasonable. All the secrets of "green surgery" - in this material.
Table of contents
- Is it possible and why should a peach tree be cut?
- Choosing the right time: in spring, summer or autumn?
- Scheme of summer, spring and autumn pruning
- How to care after the procedure?
- Growing and care
- Summer inoculation, budding: how to plant a peach on a plum, apricot, etc.
Can I trim a peach tree and why?
Any garden crop is pruned with in order to increase fruiting and yield. A peach is also cut in order to increase its resistance to adverse climatic conditions.
The method of forming the crown of the tree directly depends on the winter resistance of the plant .For example, a peach formed by a “spindlebush”( “spindle”) would be wonderful to winter in the south — in Cherkessk or Makhachkala, but already in the Krasnodar Territory, Rostov-on-Don may freeze. Here it is better to grow it in a bowl.
In central Russia, the branches of the peach need to be lowered even lower and form a bush. And in more severe conditions, it should be laid horizontally at all - in a stanace.
In addition to the formative, the peach is “prescribed” regulatory, restorative, rejuvenating and sanitary pruning.
. Choosing the right time: in spring, summer or autumn?
Peach cutting begins from the 2nd year of life. By this time, the plant is already "open" - it has several side shoots. Future skeletal branches are selected from them.
There is no special point to start pruning before. Of course, pinching the apex will stimulate the growth of the side branches of the .
However, if you grab too much, the shoots will go at a sharp angle to the conductor. To fix this tree will take extra time.
Peach refers to crops that should be cut off in spring, summer, and autumn .
|Spring||Formation of seedling crown. Restorative pruning with the removal of frozen shoots. Anti-aging pruning of old trees.|
|Summer||Removal of dead shoots, unnoticed in spring. Shortening of weak fruitful branches. Thinning "tops" and remove thickening shoots. Sanitary pruning of shoots affected by diseases and pests. Shortening the gains of the current year for their better maturation.|
|Autumn||Sanitary pruning of diseased shoots. Removal of branches broken off by the harvest.|
Experienced peachwatchers recommend calculating the branches remaining after the autumn pruning. There should be no more than eighty.
Scheme of summer, spring and autumn pruning
In any season, it is important to choose the right time for pruning .Wet weather, rain, dew contribute to the penetration of infection into cuts and cuts. Therefore, the operation should be planned on a dry clear day.
The minimum set of tools and materials for trimming includes:
- garden knife;
- garden file;
- blue vitriol;
- garden putty.
Before the operation, the entire instrument must be disinfected with any fungicide or simply boiling water, and then wiped dry.
Scheme of spring pruning peach:
- During the formation of a “bowl” in a two-year-old seedling, a stem height of about 50 cm is measured.
- Three skeletal branches located at a large angle to the conductor and directed in different directions are measured. They are shortened by 2 buds so that the upper one looks outwards.
- Explorer is cut over the top side branch. Extra shoots are removed on the ring.
- In older trees inspect overwintered shoots. Broken and frozen ones are removed.
- To rejuvenate peach, remove all branches with wood older than 4 years.
Spring peach pruning:
Summer peach pruning scheme:
- Inspect the tree for remaining dead shoots. If these are found, remove them.
- Inspect year-old gains. Crowns growing vertically up or in depth are removed.
- The remaining gains pinch.
- Examine the fruitful branches. If some weak and thin tied a big crop, you need to shorten them, and thin the ovaries.
- Patient shoots are removed.
A new peach pruning method in summer to make the fruit larger:
Autumn peach pruning scheme:
- Remove dry, diseased and broken branches.
- Too long and thin shoots that did not have time to mature, shorten by half.
- If radical growth appeared, it is cut out.
If a peach sapling was planted in the fall and badly survived the winter of , in the spring it can repel lateral shoots from the lower dormant buds on the trunk.
In this case, it can be formed by a bush, cutting off the frozen central conductor at a height of 4-5 cm above the upper living bud.
How to care after the procedure?
After pruning the peach must be carefully maintained. All wounds need to be treated with .Many peach pickers prefer to use not traditional garden var, but oil paint as putty.
Cuts smeared with pitch sometimes rot due to moisture. Oil paint seals no worse, and does not cause decay. Also, is not a bad remedy - “RanNet” paste .
For better drying, healing and disinfection of , the putty can be treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate before putty. It is applied with a clean sponge and left for 1-1.5 hours. After that use garden putty.
How to form a crown and care for a peach:
Growing and care
In addition to regular pruning, a peach needs watering, feeding and treatments for pests and diseases.
|Spring||Feed||0.5 liters of fermented infusion of mullein per 10-liter bucket of water. A week later - a liter jar of wood ash.|
|Spraying||If peach was heavily attacked by pests last season, the tree is sprayed with Calypso. Processing is carried out twice: in dormant buds and after flowering. During flowering, insecticide can damage pollinators.|
|Watering||With a small amount of melt water - 10 days before flowering.|
|Summer||Top-dressing||Foliar top dressing with a solution of the complex Health-Aqua for fruit trees fertilizer.|
|Spraying||As required - treatment with insecticides and fungicides. In late August - potassium foliar dressing "Plantafol" to accelerate the ripening of wood.|
|Watering||If there is a shortage of natural precipitation, as the soil dries out, they spill to a depth of 60 cm. Watering is stopped 2 weeks before picking up the fruit.|
|Harvesting||At the beginning of ripening, the ovaries are examined and their ability to “carry and feed” is examined. If there are too many ovaries, thinning should be done.|
|Autumn||Top dressing||Phosphate potash fertilizer only. Nitrogen is excluded.|
|Watering||Mandatory water-charging irrigation. Leaving a peach for wintering in dry soil is unacceptable - the root system freezes.|
|Winter Preparation|| To whiten the shtam with Gardener Lime Paste. |
In severe winters with little snow - the creation of additional dry shelters: reed or corn hut, caps from agrospan.
Mandatory peach care measures also include . Continuous care of the circle: weeding, loosening, mulching with a thick layer of organic matter: chopped bark, dead sawdust, mowed grass, mature compost.
Hay as a mulch is better not to use - rodents like to settle in it.
Mulching avoids the need for frequent watering even in dry summer, preventing evaporation of moisture and the formation of a soil crust. Organic mulch in the decomposition will provide the plant with nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
Summer grafting, budding: how to graft a peach on a plum, apricot, etc.
Another important “green operation” may be a peach inoculation. The need for it appears in cases where:
- was a harsh winter, the wood has been frozen out, but the root is alive;
- tree was heavily broken off by winds, snow, or abundant crops;
- is self-productive; a pollinator is needed, but there is no place for its planting;
- is a suitable seedling on the stock and a desire to propagate the beloved variety.
bitter almonds, wild apricot, Manchurian peach, and wild cherry plum are suitable as rootstock for peach. If there is nothing of this on the plot, you can plant a peach on the plum - these cultures have good compatibility.
Budding is done in the crown of the stock or on the stem of a young seedling according to the following scheme:
- An actively growing green shoot is cut from a suitable plant. From it all the leaves are removed, but the stalks are left.
- A good kidney is selected from the middle part of the shoot and a shield is cut off - a section of bark with a cambium and the kidney itself. The length of the shield is about 2.5-3 cm.
- On the stock T-shaped bark is incised and bent slightly to the side. Cambias do not need to touch.
- The shield is inserted into the incision, covered with bark so that the kidney remains outside.
- Spiral winding is performed upward in a spiral, bypassing the kidney.
You can wrap the vaccination site with the opposite( non-adhesive) side of a regular electrical tape or adhesive tape.
are suitable. If the scape is yellowed and falls off with a finger, the kidney has taken root. If it turns black and rot, the vaccine failed.
If successful, after 1-2 months, you can remove the winding .If the grafting was performed in a stem, it will be right to spud the tree for the winter. So it will be possible to protect the kidney from freezing or damage by rodents.
In spring, the land is cleared away, and the vaccination site is treated with 3% Bordeaux liquid.
In order for a peach to feel well and fruitfully, care for it must be comprehensive and regular .This culture does not forgive laziness and neglect, but it rewards efforts with wonderful fragrant fruits.