Love flower gardens, front gardens, midsummer gardens! What just does not bloom there - luxurious roses, slender lilies, gladioli, funny phloxes, an elegant carnation, a bright escholzia, curly nigelas. .. I always admire such a variety, but the tall multicolored candles of delphiniums are amazing in a special way. They give beauty, height to front gardens, flower gardens. Particularly well looked hybrid varieties - such a two-meter giants! So, many years of delphinium - planting and care, photos of these beauties - the subject of our conversation.
- Delphinium species
- Delphinium perennial - growing from seed
- Reproduction of delphinium by dividing the bush
Perennial delphinium of hybrid varieties can be divided into five types.
- Mafina hybrids - bred by the plant breeder. Mafino of the Moscow region. A distinctive feature of the species is dense high( up to 160-180 cm, sometimes up to 200 cm) bushes with strong stems. Despite the fact that the name of the group contains the word “hybrids”, in most cases they sown by seed retain the properties of their “parents” by 90%.Semi-double flowers. Belladona's
- is the only species of delphiniums in which the inflorescences do not stick out with candles, but hang down with panicles.
- Pacific hybrids( another name Pacific) - a distinctive feature of the species - large bushes with dense shoots up to 180-200 cm tall and semi-double inflorescences up to 1 m.
- Elatum - common in this species - the color of the inflorescences is blue - from pale blue to thickpurple.
- New Zealand hybrids - unlike other species - are very large semi-double or double flowers, which are collected in dense brushes, clean, very beautiful colors.
In each group, a half or two dozen varieties. It is not surprising that it is difficult to choose any single, "your" grade. Some names are worth it! King Arthur, Angel with black eyes( Black Eyed Angels), Sweet hearts( Sweethearts), others.
Delphiniums perennial begin to bloom in the month of June. Duration of flowering - from 2-3 weeks to one month. High candles inflorescences, consisting of 50-80 flowers, begin to bloom from the bottom.
Delphinium inflorescences can be treated for a long time - in some varieties the flower petals are round, in others - sharp, in the third - wide, in the fourth - with curls. There are even those who have petals of different shapes in one flower. Some flowers of the delphinium in the center have "eyes", others do not.
Considering what is said above, it is very difficult to choose which variety to grow - I want everything at once. But, if you have a small plot, we recommend choosing no more than 2-3 varieties.↑ to content ↑
Delphinium perennial - growing from seeds
One should not think that delphiniums are easy to grow. Yes, for those who have already grown, care will not cause any special difficulties. But when planting must comply with the mandatory agrotechnology.
It should start with the selection of the landing site of perennial delphiniums. They love the soil fertilized, fertile, prefer loamy, its acidity should be close to neutral. This means that wood ash at the landing site of the delphiniums is very desirable.
The area where delphiniums will grow should be open, ventilated, but, nevertheless, these tall plants should be protected from strong winds. Perennial delphiniums love the sun, but it is better if they are at least in a light shade during the midday heat. Light shade does not allow the flowers to fade in the sun.
There is one secret of growing delphinium from seeds - the brightest colors of flowers are obtained from the seeds of the first year of harvest.
Remember that the seeds of the delphinium very quickly lose their germination, therefore they must be sown in the fall immediately after ripening( October-November).Seeds are sown in open ground or sowing boxes. If you did not succeed in doing this in the fall, then the seeds must be stratified. Sowing of ripe seeds is carried out in a flower garden in rows, in sowing boxes - randomly.
Distinguish the timing of sowing seeds in open ground:
- spring - April-May,
- summer - June-July,
- underwinter - October-November.
Perhaps the seed reproduction of delphiniums is the most troublesome task. Seeds require stratification, that is, before planting, they must be kept wet in a refrigerator for 2 weeks in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 3-5 ° C.Sometimes they already begin to germinate there.
You can sow seeds for seedlings as early as the end of February and the beginning of March. Shoots need more lighting. Dive seedlings must be very careful, because they are easy to break - they are very fragile. When planting, deepen saplings to cotyledon leaves.
I think you should only mess with the seeds of rare varieties when there are few seeds. Seeds propagate varieties whose plants have a strongly developed taproot and do not survive well when transplanted. Plants grown from seeds in open ground are characterized by high winter hardiness, a strong root system, and a highly developed above-ground mass.
And the more common, proven varieties of delphiniums are best planted before winter in open ground. In the spring, after the emergence of shoots, rip them to a permanent place in bundles of 3-4 pieces in one hole.
With seed reproduction, a large amount of planting material is obtained, therefore it is recommended to carry out two thinning, leaving the strongest and most beautiful plants. The distance between plants should be 20-30 cm. It is advisable to leave these plants at the site of planting until flowering, which will come four months later.
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Propagation of delphiniums by dividing the bush
Delphiniums reproduce also by dividing the bush by processes.
You can plant them in early spring, if you live in the middle lane or even to the north, or in the fall, around September in the Kuban.
Delphiniums expand over time, so the holes for planting processes or bushes are located at a distance of 50-60 cm. The size of the pits should be much larger than the shoots themselves( 40 × 40 × 40 cm).This is necessary in order to fill them with nutrient compost mixed with organic and mineral fertilizers. The proportions are as follows: for 1-2 buckets of compost( rotted humus), 1 tablespoon with a mountain of superphosphate, the same amount of potash fertilizer, 1 tablespoon without a hill of magnesium magnesia, a glass of wood ash. Nitrogen fertilizers when planting is better not to make.
When planting a delphinium bush( appendage), the root neck of the seedling should be deepened, but not more than 2-3 cm.
A very important point in the care of delphiniums is the mandatory thinning of the shoots. This is done in the spring after the plant sprouts reach a height of 10 cm.
But in thinning there is one interesting feature. In the second year in the spring, 3 stalks are left in strong plants, and those who are weaker are left alone. And in the following years, 3-4 shoots are left for the large-flowered varieties, and 7-10 for the varieties with small flowers. The remaining stems cut out at the root.
Thinning allows not to shrink inflorescences, not to lose its terry, to retain the original brightness of the flowers.
Flowering delphiniums need timely watering. Moreover, it is abundant - at least 2-3 buckets of water are poured under each bush in dry weather. Water under the root, it is undesirable to hit the water on the leaves, as the delphiniums are easily exposed to fungal diseases.
Alphabet of agricultural engineering - loosening the soil after watering or rain.
Delphiniums respond well to fertilizing with abundant, bright blooms.
Experts advise doing this three times per season. The first top dressing - in the spring - with organic matter, the second in 1-1.5 months - with a complete mineral fertilizer such as Kemira Universal. The third time spend foliar feeding during the emergence of buds - sprayed with a solution of superphosphate( 50 g per 1 liter of water).
For more rapid flowering, it is recommended to water the delphiniums with a solution of boric acid several times per season - 2 g per 10 l of water, you can powder the leaves with boric acid powder.
Alas, delphiniums are often affected by powdery mildew and viruses. When you notice a dirty-whitish bloom on leaves or flowers, it is late to take any action. Therefore, do not forget to spray flowers with any fungicide for the prevention of disease during the budding period, for example, the drug HOM, Ridomil or the biological product Phytosporin.
By the way, there are delphiniums resistant to these diseases - these are varieties of the New Zealand group. When buying seeds, pay attention to which group these flowers belong to. By purchasing certain varieties, you will save time on processing flowers from diseases.
There is one feature of the care of delphiniums - pruning, or rather, the actions of gardeners after pruning.
Yes, it is recommended to cut off faded flower stalks before winter. The peculiarity lies in the fact that they should be cut very close to the ground, and to pile up the stumps, to cover them with earth. The fact is that the stems of these flowers are empty inside. Leaving the cut stalks above the level of the soil, you allow rainwater to accumulate inside the stumps, and this is a direct threat to the roots - they can rot in the winter. Spring shoots do not wait. But do not forget to rake the mound at the roots of the delphiniums in the spring.
It is possible to leave stems 20-25 cm long after pruning, but then you should cover the holes in the stem with clay and earth.
Everything I wrote above about pruning of delphiniums refers to varietal species, perennials.
Cute annuals( they are called hogs, sweets) multiply by self-sowing, do not require such close attention.
Undoubtedly, the delphinium on the plot is very beautiful, elegant. But do not forget that this plant is poisonous. Protect your hands from dripping juice when pruning.