The principle of operation of the drying machine: types, device, drying modes

Tumble dryers are a relatively new class of household appliances that allows you to dry clothes in a matter of minutes through the rapid evaporation of moisture. Manufacturers produce different types of devices that imply some differences in operation. What kind of aggregates are these and how they work, we will understand further.


  1. Types of Drying Machines
  2. How do tumble dryers work?
  3. Varieties of drum dryers
  4. How does an oven work?
  5. Drying types
  6. Washing machines with drying function
  7. Video: The principle of the dryer

Types of Drying Machines

The general principle of such devices is that they accelerate the natural drying process using a stream of hot air. How exactly this principle is implemented depends on the specific type of unit. Conventionally, they are divided into the following groups:

  • Drum dryer. Its design resembles a washing machine, and the main part that performs the main work is a rotating drum. Unlike a washing machine, it is not water that is supplied to the drum of this device, but hot air, through which the laundry is dried. In 60 seconds, the drum can make more than 100 revolutions.
  • Drying cabinet. The dimensions of such a device are quite large, since such a design is a large chamber made of metal, which has either a double ceiling or a bottom with a fan and a heating element. The fan provides the flow of air masses from the external environment, and the heating element makes the air entering the cabinet hot. Unlike the previous type, this device has a simpler design.
  • Exhaust Type Dryer. This is a simple device without a heat exchanger and a container for collecting water. Through a flexible hose, it joins the ventilation system of the house, where all the moisture released during the drying of the laundry goes.
The principle of operation of the washing machine

Exhaust dryers are almost out of production, so you can often see drum-type dryers or ovens on sale.

How do tumble dryers work?

They come in several forms, but have a similar design and principle of operation. So, let’s take a closer look at what the drum type dryers are in general.

Construction device

To understand the principle of operation of the unit, you should first familiarize yourself with its design. As a rule, it consists of the following elements:

  • a control panel on which an electronic display is presented, a drying mode selector, buttons of auxiliary functions;
  • a drive belt that connects the motor to the tank;
  • a drying drum in which things dry;

    Modern electric dryers involve the illumination of the tank, which allows you to monitor the condition of the laundry, as well as facilitates its loading and unloading.

  • an electric motor and a heat exchanger, in which cold and hot air flows move through two channels, due to which air is cooled and the condensate is subsequently released;
  • a heating element (TEN), which heats the air masses before they enter the drum with things;
  • a fan that captures cold air masses and sets them in the right direction after warming up;
  • container for collecting condensate, which can be located in the lower or upper part of the panel, where in the washing a powder receiver is located in the machines (water must be drained regularly from the tank so that new condensate does not poured out);
  • air intakes with pile filters that absorb dust and particles of debris that come with air currents (filters must be cleaned at least once a month).

A detailed diagram of the unit is shown in the figure:

Washing machine diagram

Inside the drum

As a rule, the dryer drum is made of stainless steel, while more modern models have honeycomb structure that promotes the formation of a thin air cushion between the laundry and the walls drum. Thanks to this, drying is carried out very carefully, so even the most delicate things can be thrown into the drum.

Manufacturers pay great attention to the shape of the grips for linen. These are the mixing ribs inside the drum. For example, in some models, during drying, they move along a trajectory that resembles the number "8", which contributes to the lean operation of the motor of the device. There are models with periodic reverse rotation, but their motor is subject to more severe loads during operation.

Drying can be carried out at different speeds - from 50 to 100 revolutions per minute. So, when drying jeans, you can set the maximum speed, however, delicate things require a more gentle regime - no more than 60-70 rpm.

Principle of operation

Drum dryers work according to this principle:

  1. Air passes through the nap filters and, with the help of a fan, is directed to that part of the device in which the heating elements are located.
  2. The air is heated with the help of a heating element, and the heating temperature varies from 50 to 70 degrees.
  3. After heating with the help of a fan, air is sent to the main element of the drying machine - to the rotating drum.
  4. Hot air draws moisture from wet laundry, and then drops to the heat exchanger.
  5. In the heat exchanger of the device, the air gets rid of unnecessary moisture and cools.
  6. The cooled air again begins to move toward the heating elements and repeats the entire process of its “movement”. Thus, there is a continuous circulation of air masses, which allows the laundry to dry.

The described device operates from the network and its power for one cycle is 4 kW. For the entire period of drying clothes, the power consumption can be from 1500 to 2300 W, depending on the model of the household appliance and its manufacturer.

How to use?

Models of dryers are different, but they are all operated according to this instruction:

  1. Load laundry. It should be pre-squeezed in the washing machine or manually. It is important that the volume of linen corresponds to the capacity of the device.
  2. Set mode. The choice depends on the material of clothing. In addition, you can set the drying time and the residual moisture level of things.
  3. End cycle. You need to get the laundry and iron it or send it to the closet, depending on the degree of humidity.
  4. Remove debris from pile filters. This procedure should not be ignored, otherwise filters clogged with debris will not be able to pass air masses properly, which will certainly affect the quality of drying.
  5. Get rid of condensation. As soon as the drying cycle is completed, you need to get a container for condensate and pour out all the water. If the system is drainage, then the moisture will enter the ventilation system on its own, so nothing needs to be removed.

You can reload the machine with a new batch of linen after a break of 40-60 minutes.

Additionally, read the article on the site, how to use a washing machine.

Varieties of drum dryers

As noted earlier, drum-type dryers, in turn, are divided into several main types, each of which can be found later.


Such machines are in greatest demand, since they do not require special installation conditions. This is due to the fact that they are equipped with a special container where moisture accumulates after drying. In order for the machine to work properly, this tank must be periodically cleaned of water. This is best done after each drying cycle.

After loading the tank, selecting the drying program and pressing the “Start” button on the control panel, the drying process starts according to this principle:

  1. The air in the chamber heats up, and the drum rotates in parallel and mixes the laundry.
  2. Heated to the indicated temperature air blows the laundry, under the pressure of which moisture leaves it.
  3. Humid air passes through a heat exchanger where it cools and loses moisture.
  4. The formed water accumulates in a special tank, and the cooled air is again heated by a thermoelectric heater and again blows the laundry.

You can clearly see the principle of operation of such a dryer in the diagram:

The principle of operation of the dryer

In condensation machines, a drainage system may also be provided. In this case, the condensate will independently drain into the sewer.

Modern models of such dryers are often equipped with an additional program “steam smoothing”. In this mode, before starting work, water is "sprayed" in the drum, and after the smallest droplets form a small cloud. Under the influence of high temperatures, it turns into steam, which helps smooth things.

With heat pump

The design of such a machine provides for a cooling circuit. It intensively cools the air flow, due to which it contributes to a more rapid formation of condensate. This reduces the time required to dry the laundry.


Such machines are considered obsolete, although they are still on sale. They have the simplest design in comparison with other drum-type models. Their difference lies in the fact that they assume an exit through a special hose into the ventilation ducts. So, the installation of such a unit requires additional installation work.

You can clearly see the principle of operation of ventilation dryers in the diagram:

Air dryer

How does an oven work?

The space inside such a dryer is organized in the same way as in a conventional closet for storing clothes. Such a device is a rather large metal chamber with a heating element, which is responsible for heating the air, and a fan that sets the direction of the air masses.

In order for the device to start working, you need to put things inside the cabinet on shelves or hang them on hangers, and then select one of the programs on the control panel and click on "Start". Next, the machine works in this order:

  1. Inside the cabinet, the air heats up under the influence of the heater.
  2. The fan directs the circulating air to things, creating the necessary airflow for drying.
  3. Things dry out under the influence of warm air, and moisture comes out together with the exhausted air masses. If the drying cabinet is located in a living room, it is either worth ventilating it or ensuring that humid air is removed outside the room.

Drying ovens are much cheaper than drum-type dryers, but they are more dimensional and not so convenient to use, and therefore are in less demand.

Drying types

Regardless of the type of construction, drying machines have three main types of drying.

By time

The simplest type, according to which a person simply sets the drying time, after which the work cycle ends. The downside is that it is not always possible to correctly determine the drying time of things, so they can remain wet or dry out.

By degree of humidity

In this case, the person chooses the degree of residual moisture of things. The machine has built-in sensors that detect the humidity inside the drum or cabinet and stop drying when it reaches the desired degree.

This type involves two ways to control humidity. The first and most popular way is to choose one of three modes that look like this:

  • optimal humidity for ironing “under the iron” (things remain under-dried);
  • drying in a “cupboard” (things dry out almost completely);
  • completely dry.

Modern models may have a second method of controlling humidity, which is carried out in the following order:

  1. A current is passed through things.
  2. While things are wet, the circuit is closed.
  3. When things dry, the chain opens and drying stops.

By type of clothing

In this case, the person chooses not the type of fabric, but the type of clothing that needs to be dried. For example, it can be jeans, shirts or outerwear. It is worth noting that some modern models also allow you to choose the type of fabric. They have a high cost, but are more practical, because in them you can dry even the most delicate things without any fear, simply by choosing the right mode.

Some models are equipped with a special shelf-basket in which shoes, soft toys, etc. can be dried in a static position. Super- or extras dryers are also available, which involve high temperatures for blowing dense and multilayer fabrics.

Washing machines with drying function

The principle of operation of such a washing machine is no different from the principle of operation of a dryer with a drum. However, it should be noted that the laundry in such an aggregate will have to be dried in two approaches. The fact is that in such washing machines the drum volume is not large enough, therefore, it will not be possible to dry all the washed laundry at once. So, it will need to be divided into two parts and produce two drying.

The service life of a washing machine with the function of drying clothes is much shorter than that of individual devices, and the cost at This is much higher, so it makes sense to consider the possibility of acquiring two different machines - for washing clothes and for it drying.

Video: The principle of the dryer

The principle by which drum-type dryers work is discussed in detail in the following video:

To significantly save time drying things, you can get a tumble dryer. Such devices are presented in a wide variety, but the most popular are drum-type condensation dryers. They are easy to assemble, dry quickly and have a long service life, which has earned high demand in the market.

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