The jumper is a horizontal structure that is installed between two vertical supports. It is designed to bear the load over the opening in the wall. It is used as a decorative and architectural element. Often jumpers are called beams or blocks, sometimes they are mounted several pieces together to get a concrete slab.
Why do we need a jumper
Ceiling blocks are an important structural element, without which no building construction can do. Over time, the frame of the structure weakens, and reinforced concrete blocks connect the support posts, helping the structure to stay in place. Jumpers are very important because they support the structural integrity of the building. They function as load-bearing elements; their absence can lead to the gradual destruction of the building structure.
Reinforced concrete products are installed on the window and doorways of high-rise buildings, where the load is 400 kg / sq. m. They are also used for the construction of private houses, where the foundation is poured into the ground with a high level of groundwater. The blocks are mounted on the walls, connected with brickwork, where they become part of the armored belt. Monolithic blocks are used in places where the distance between the columns exceeds 2.5 m, when the iron structure can bend.
Reinforced concrete lintels in industrial conditions make 100 - 390 cm long, 12 - 25 cm wide, 6.5 - 22 cm high. They are designed to withstand pressure from 100 kg s / m to 3700 kg s / m. It is important to follow the rules for installing a reinforced concrete block on a wall. On a span of 1.5 m in size, the beam is laid with an overlap of at least 12.5 cm on each side.
For 1.8 m spans, the overlap increases to 20 cm, and openings over 2 m must have an overlap of 25 cm.
How to calculate the parameters:
- The height of the beam is calculated from the ratio of 1/20 of its length;
- Width 7/5 to its height;
- Reinforce the product with a frame of reinforcement with a diameter of 12 mm;
- Concrete is used with the M 250 grade, pouring the structure from beginning to end without stopping.
- Calculate the load on the ceiling with a margin, for residential buildings, the coefficient is 200 kg / sq. m;
- Pressure foam block with a thickness of 20 cm per beam 100 kg;
- The load of concrete screed with a thickness of 5 cm 100 kg.
The indicator is calculated by summing the indicators of three values 200 + 100 + 100 = 400 kg / m2.
Lintels are made of steel, stone, wood, brick and reinforced concrete. The choice of the supporting structure depends on the place where it is used. If the pressure is large, reinforced concrete beams are installed that can withstand heavy weight. Reinforced concrete products are widely used in the construction of buildings as they are durable and withstand heavy loads.
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