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By the ability to increase body weight, egg production and the quality of plumage, domestic ducks are divided into meat, egg and grown for feather and down. Popular breeds of ducks for domestic breeding often have a meat or meat-meat orientation. There are intermediate varieties with good egg production and meat productivity. Recently, the greatest attention is paid to poultry farmers in the mornings to broilers - early maturing, with excellent low-fat meat and decent weight.
All existing breeds, pedigree lines and crosses are the descendants of the ordinary mallard domesticated and refined in Europe and Asia, and musk ducks, the homeland of which is the American continent. Despite the difference in location, natural habitat conditions, these species of ducks proved to be the best when kept in conditions of large and very small farms.
Description of the breeds of ducks, their wild and domesticated varieties, as well as promising crosses will help Poultry breeder to orient in the proposed diversity and create a highly productive herd.
Indotecks or musk ducks
Musky ducks are the original inhabitants of Central and South America. Unlike European mallards, which do not represent life without water, "American women" are calm about the absence of a pond, a river or a lake nearby. They are calm, and when they are kept in a common bird's yard their voice is heard very seldom. Because of this feature, the birds were called ducks by the dowers. Since the birds imported from distant lands were not at all like the usual domestic ducks, the Europeans began to look for traits of other species in them. It is obvious that the red outgrowths on the head of birds, especially noticeable in males, gave birth to yet another nickname ducks - Indotka, by analogy with turkeys, to which waterfowl have no related relations.
Musk ducks can have different colors. Unlike ordinary poultry, they do not gain weight so quickly, but their meat is low in fat, a gentle consistency of excellent taste.
Purebred males "Americans" can grow up to 5 kg in weight, and females, which are almost twice as light, are well known as fine hens.
Meat quality indoutok attracted the attention of breeders. Today among poultry farmers, inter-specific hybrids of musk and meat European ducks are very popular.
Among the breeds of ducks for domestic breeding, birds from the Middle Kingdom can be considered one of the most ancient. The Peking duck became known more than three centuries ago and has still not lost its relevance. Fast-ripening, with excellent meat quality, hardy and non-capricious birds are happily grown on both large farms, and on private farmsteads, and also are the progenitors of many modern breed lines and hybrids of meat ducks. One of them is the famous mulberry, who are not only record-holders for the collection of live weight, but also give a fat delicacy liver.
Thoroughbred representatives of the Peking breed are white ducks with a strong physique, giving out a meat orientation, a yellow-orange beak, widely spaced legs. Birds have a long back, a convex chest, a raised tail, strong wings and dark bluish eyes.
Peking ducks are extremely early. Already by one and a half or two months, young individuals gain up to, kg of weight. By the time of slaughter with proper feeding drakes weigh about 4 kg, and females are only 500 grams smaller.
The yield of meat from the carcass reaches 66%, but these meat ducks easily increase not only muscle mass, but also fat, which should be taken into account when compiling the ration.
Moscow white duck
Crossing Peking ducks with representatives of other breeds and species gives excellent results, which has been repeatedly confirmed by domestic and foreign breeders. A good example is the Moscow white ducks, obtained from the parent pairs of the Peking bird and the Khaki-Campbell.
Meat ducks of domestic breeding in many respects resemble those of Peking ancestors, but they show better egg laying, which is maintained for a few years in laying hens. This quality is very useful for domestic breeding of duck breeds. The bird is perfectly mastered in different climatic conditions, unpretentious to forages and gaining weight, no less than eminent ancestors.
Rouen breed of ducks
The French have long been favoring meat breeds of ducks. An old variety, derived in the vicinity of Rouen on the basis of local livestock and wild mallards, was named after the city and still enjoys the attention of poultry farmers. The French duck retained the natural color of the plumage, but at the same time it differs markedly from wild birds with fatness and the tenderest taste of meat. Adult individuals grow to 5 kg and compete on an equal footing with Peking and other meat ducks. Therefore, the bird of the Rouen breed is still involved in selection work and is used to produce highly productive meat and meat meat crosses.
Gray Ukrainian duck
In addition to Beijing ducks, the most common in the former Soviet Union, white Moscow birds and imported in the late 80's Indots, in Russia, still popular Ukrainian ducks of various varieties. Most often talk about a gray duck meat orientation with a well-developed muscle mass, thin bone and good meats.
In the bird of this breed, differences in the coloring of males and females are clearly visible. Drains reach weight, kilogram, and ducks can weigh up to 3 kg. The average number of eggs laid is equal to 120 pieces, the laying hens can give up to 250 eggs per year.
Black white-chested duck
Another domestic waterfowl of Ukrainian breeding is the white-breasted black duck, obtained on the basis of local livestock, the Peking breed and the birds of the meat-eating variety khaki-kempbel.
The title speaks eloquently about the appearance of this decent domestic breed of ducks. Ducks have black plumage, and a white feather stain is located in the chest area and the base of a broad, strong neck. The beak of these Ukrainian ducks, like the eyes, and the legs, is also black. The males and females have strong, wing-fitting wings, short sturdy legs.
In comparison with the Peking white ducks, this bird ripens longer, reaching a maximum weight of 4 kg only by the half-year. Most often slaughter of meat ducks is carried out at the age of -3 months, when the carcass weighs about, kg, and the meat is the most delicious.
Birds of this breed can be fattened, which should be taken into account when organizing content and feeding. For a year, the laying hen gives up to 130 large 80-gram eggs.
The leaders in obtaining new breeds of ducks and crosses for domestic and industrial breeding in Russia today are breeders of the Blagovarsky breeding plant in Bashkiria. Thanks to their work, the "Bashkir duck" has become a recognizable brand not only in our country, but also abroad.
On the basis of ducks of the Peking breed with the manifested gene of the "wild" plumage, a breed of Colored Bashkir ducks was created here. This is a highly productive, early-ripened meat-oriented bird, which has two variants of coloring: khaki or brown and black with white breast.
A characteristic feature of the Bashkir ducks is the low fat content of meat compared to the Peking or Blagovar breed.
Blagovarsky, another well-known cross duck, was also received in the Bashkir breeding plant Blagovarsky. It is a universal meat-eating bird that grows up to, kg by seven weeks and at the same time can produce up to 240 pieces of high-grade eggs per year.
Ducklings of this cross differ excellent viability and unpretentiousness. They grow exceptionally well both in the conditions of farms of an industrial type, and on personal farmsteads.
Ducks Blue favorite
An interesting breed for domestic growing is the blue favorite duck. This variety was obtained by breeders of the same Bashkir enterprise. Ancestors of beautiful birds with unusual plumage are individuals of the local Color Bashkir duck. The gray-blue color of the steel shade is not the only characteristic feature of birds. Large meat ducks easily grow to 5 kg of live weight, while the quality of their meat is better than that of their ancestors and the famous Peking ducks.
Young ducks Favorit differs excellent endurance and vitality. The bird perfectly grows and, with a well-chosen diet, reaches the weight of 2 kg by the end of two months. In a private farmstead, poultry farmers can receive from laying hens 140 eggs per year. According to the description of the breed of ducks and the already available reviews, the bird is promising both for growing in industrial and private farms.
Bred in Bashkiria, the ducks of Agidel are the descendants of the Blagovarski meat cross, the birds of the Super M variety and the duck's egg species. The Indian runner. In appearance, speaking of the meat orientation of the cross, birds differ not only with excellent fattening data, but also surprisingly high egg rates.
The ducks of Agidel have a long massive body, a dense white plumage and a wonderful and livable character. This breed of ducks at the age of 7 weeks shows a weight of about 3 kilograms, and for a year the hen can put up to 240 large eggs, weighing at least 90 grams.
The meat of this breed of ducks is distinguished by the highest quality, not inferior, to mullards or other foreign beef birds.
Unlike broiler ducks, whose meat production largely depends on obtaining protein feed, the Bashkir duck grows on a diet that is available in any, even modest, household. Birds perfectly eat any green plants, cereals, hay and waste processing cereals.
Home duck Mulard
Mulberry due to low-fat meat, precocity and a record among waterfowl poultry meat productivity is becoming more popular among poultry-lovers, and on huge industrial-fattening complexes. Meanwhile, the domestic duck Mulard can not be called a breed. It is an interspecies hybrid, obtained from the crossing of Peking or other Eurasian ducks and American Indots.
A pair for a musk duck in the production of hybrid progeny can be both a Peking breed bird and Rouen ducks, as well as individuals of other meat breeds. Mulards are called broiler ducks because of excellent fattening qualities, similar to chicken meat breeds. At the same time, the bird perfectly behaves as when growing on large farms, and on personal farmsteads. Domestic ducks mullahs are peaceful, calm and uncomfortable.
For four months of keeping the weight of a bird can reach up to 7 kilograms. Females on industrial complexes are more often grown on meat, and drakes give an excellent liver for making foie gras.
Since the offspring do not produce such a hybrid generation, the parent herd of the bird is not formed, the egg is not received from the mullards.
Hybridization has helped poultry farmers solve two major problems of musk and Peking ducks. The first, possessing low-fat meat, cleanliness and quiet disposition, are relatively fattened and have not too much weight. Peking birds are bigger, but they can grow fat quickly and lose quality of meat.
Domestic mulberry ducks are ideal for growing, because at the same time they are quick to ripen and give amazing meat.
Duck Star 53
A heavy duck meat broiler was obtained by the breeders of the French company Grimaud freres selection. This is a highly productive cross, intended for fattening on meat and for obtaining the liver of foie gras.
Duck old 53 is characterized by a high growth rate and active weight gain. The bird has white dense feathers, strong physique and a broad massive chest. Already by the age of 50 days the live weight of ducklings is, kg. Meat breast, the most valuable part of the carcass, is one third of the total weight of the bird. At the same time, the quality of dietary, low-fat meat of French duck is much better than in most related species. In breeding, this breed of ducks proved to be resistant to diseases, not whimsical and very viable.