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Like any crops, grapes are prone to many diseases. Sometimes this happens because of improper care, and sometimes the weather makes bad adjustments. In any case, the enemy must be known in person and be able to fight it.
Diseases of grapes: description, signs
It is accepted to divide the diseases of grapes into several categories: fungal and viral. The first is most known and widespread. To cure infected bushes requires the use of fungicides. The second category is the most serious. In most cases, processing does not help, you have to completely remove the bushes, and also observe quarantine measures.
Fungal diseases of grapes
- Mildew (false-mouthed dew). The most common fungal disease of grapes. It manifests itself in the form of yellow spots and gray (mold) plaque. Affected areas without proper treatment quickly wither. The disease develops lightly in wet weather. Completely cure such a plant is impossible - the fungus is inside. It is possible only with the help of special preparations to prevent the course of the disease.
- Oidium (powdery mildew) is the second most common fungal disease. The affected leaves are covered with a gray bloom. The disease can occur at any time of the summer. Favorable environment for the development of pathogenic bacteria - air temperature within +25 degrees. Strangely enough, heavy rains can prevent the spread of the disease. With a strong lesion of the plant, the skin of the berries begins to crack, and the fruits become unfit for consumption. If you do not take any measures in time, you can remain without harvest, and in 2-3 years completely forget about the existence of the vineyard.
- Alternaria is a fungal disease. The main feature is the presence of brown or silvery spots on the plant. The disease is susceptible to leaves, fruits, petioles, as well as shoots. If the blow fell on the berries, they are covered with white film, skukozhivayutsya and quickly deteriorate. A prolonged spring is a favorable condition for the rapid development of alternaria.
- Bacterial cancer is a fungal disease that primarily affects the vine. A clear sign is the growths that appear on the shoots. The means that would help to heal the plant, no. Therefore, the affected bush is best immediately pulled and burned. It is noteworthy that in its place it is impossible to plant grapes for three years.
- Apoplexy is a disease in which a sharp death of a plant is observed. Experts explain this phenomenon by the fact that the plant produces pathogens that produce toxins. They then destroy the plant. Most of all, this disease is susceptible to weakened bushes.
- Gray rot is a fungal disease. It appears as a gray coating. It can be formed absolutely on everything: shoots, antennae, inflorescences, fruits, etc. The crop is not suitable for eating. Especially dangerous when the fungus is formed on the bunches of grapes. From one infected berries can suffer all the fruits.
- White rot - an obvious sign of the disease, is a white coating on the stem and berries of the plant. Most often the fungus occurs after hail - when the plant gets damaged. Infected berries change the shade and subsequently fall off.
- Black rot is a disease in which violet spots form on leaves and berries. Over time, they expand, and the affected areas collapse and fall off.
- Verticillosis - characterized by rapid wilting of shoots. In the acute form, yellowing and falling leaves are observed. The plant can infect through damaged branches or through the ground. In the soil, the fungus persists for about 4-5 years, so it is not recommended to plant grapes on an infected site during this time.
- Armillaryosis is an obvious sign of the disease - leaf wilt and root damage (they become rotten and acquire a brown tinge). Usually these signs appear in the spring, and in the fall on the dead bushes yellow mushrooms grow.
Viral diseases of grapes
To date, viral diseases have been little studied. An ailment can cause a certain group of viruses. In particular, we are talking about infectious chlorosis, yellow mosaic, mosaic rhythm, etc. The main signs that may indicate infection of a plant with a virus include:
- Slow development of the bush;
- Inflorescence of inflorescences;
- Twisting or any deformation of sheets;
- The unusual color of leaves, for example, variegated;
- Wood cracking.
Unfortunately, no measures in this case will not help. The affected bush is simply uprooted and burned. Infected area is not used for new planting, at least 5 years.
Get rid of diseases: a list of the most effective drugs
A list of drugs that help fight the diseases of grapes is quite a lot. Now we will talk about the most famous and effective of them.
Strobi fungicide: instructions for use for grapes
Strobi fungicide - a drug designed to combat fungal diseases. These include:
- Late blight;
- Powdery mildew.
It should be noted that this tool has many advantages. In particular, the preparation is safe for insects (this circumstance is important for beekeepers), and also it can be used during flowering.
Principle of action: active ingredient - kresoxim-methyl. It evenly lies on the surface of the sheet and creates a gaseous envelope that protects the surface of the plant.
Application: on a 10-liter water bucket you need 5 g. Strobi. The prepared working solution must be treated evenly. It must be done early in the morning in sunny weather.
The prepared preparation is recommended to use no later than 2 hours after its preparation. Otherwise, the long-awaited effect may not be achieved.
During the season, the treatment is carried out 2 times (this is quite enough). The interval between them should be 10-14 days. The last treatment should be carried out at least a month before harvest.
Ridomil Gold: instructions for use for grapes
This drug also received its distribution. It is effective in combating mildew.
Principle of action: in the structure of Ridomil Gold, such components as mancozeb, mefenoxam. The first protects the surface of the leaves, and the second penetrates into the bush of the grapes and thus provides it with internal protection. After processing, the plant will be fully protected for 2 weeks.
Application: To prepare the working solution will need 10 g. funds for 4 liters. water. Processing occurs by spraying the working fluid on the plant. This action is desirable during the vegetation. The interval between sprays is 10-14 days. The last treatment should be done at least 2 weeks before harvest.
"Ridomil Gold" is a preventive remedy. It helps to prevent disease. If the plant is already infected, then for the beginning you should use a curative fungicide, and after it (after about 7-10 days) resort to the use of "Ridomil".
Topaz: instructions for use for grapes
This drug is effective against powdery mildew, oidium. It is produced in the form of an emulsion in ampoules.
Principle of action: after treatment, the active substance - penconazole, is rapidly absorbed by the plant. Penetrating the remedy, does not allow the formation of new fungi. If the application of "Topaz" occurred at an early stage of the disease, then the effect will be most noticeable.
Application: one ampoule is enough for a 10-liter bucket. The prepared solution should be sprayed with fungus affected plants. It is best to do it in the early morning or evening in dry and windless weather. Repeated processing of grape bushes can be made in 10-14 days.
During the preparation of the working solution, some safety measures must be observed. In particular, it is recommended to use special protective goggles and gloves.
Tiovit jet: instructions for use for grapes
"Tivit Jet" for grapes is in no way inferior to the above mentioned means. He copes well with the oidium.
The active substance of the drug is sulfur. On sale it is sold in the form of granules. The weight of one package, as a rule, is about 800 gr.
Principle of action: when it hits the plant, sulfur is released, it then gets to the pathogenic cells and completely destroys them in a few hours.
The drug should be treated in warm weather. If the temperature of low sulfur does not evaporate, which means that the desired effect will not follow.
Application: in the use of "Jet" is very economical: a 10-liter bucket of water is enough for 30-80 gr. substance. The treatment is carried out by spraying, preferably in the morning hours. You can apply the drug up to 5 times per season. During the application of the drug, do not forget to make sure that the working solution is uniformly distributed over the leaf surface. Activate the "Jet" will begin approximately 2 hours after spraying.
Quadrice: instructions for use for grapes
Quadrice - the application for grapes of this drug is very common. This is because it can help get rid of many diseases. Among them:
- powdery mildew;
- mildew, oidium;
- late blight;
Application: The drug can be used for both prophylaxis and direct control of a disease that has arisen. It is better to treat (spray) plants in the morning, when the sun's rays are not yet so ruthless. The main feature of this remedy is that it must necessarily be alternated with other drugs. For example, you can first process plants "Quadrice then "Horus and then again "Quadrice".
Principle of operation: "Quadrice" has a unique effect on the plant being treated. Getting on the affected areas, it within 3 days can bring to naught the disease that has arisen.
Advantage of "Quadrice" is that it is well combined with a variety of drugs. For 100% of the result, the remedy can be mixed with "Ridomil "Topaz" or "Revusom". The second undoubted advantage is that the drug shows good results in wet weather, therefore, it copes well with fungal diseases.
You can not carry out treatment when the surface of the leaves is wet or precipitation is expected in the near future.
And one more important point - the repeated use of the drug is allowed no earlier than 2-3 weeks.
Summing up, we will make an important observation: the disease is easier to prevent. At a time when the plant is already infected and obvious signs of disease began to appear, hopes for a good outcome are becoming less. Of course, we must be ready and to the fact that even if the bush of grapes was lucky enough to recover, the yield will still go down. In any case, the use of fungicides is justified and sometimes is the only way out of the situation.