Types of water heaters, which are water heaters: instantaneous, storage and others

Despite the fact that we live in the age of information technology, interruptions with hot water in private and apartment buildings are not a rare occurrence. At the time of pressure testing, water heaters come to the rescue. There are a great many water heating models on the market. How not to get confused in the choice and purchase a device that will last for many years?

Types of Water Heaters

The content of the article

  • Types of Water Heaters
    • Cumulative
    • Flowing
    • Electric
    • Gas
  • Tank Type Classification

Equipment for heating water is divided into several types. Depending on the energy source, gas and electric devices are distinguished. In addition, there is a classification according to the method of heating. Here it is necessary to distinguish flowing and storage water heaters. Consider each view in detail.


storage water heaterThe most popular on the market are storage water heaters. This is due to ease of use, high power of the device, a wide choice of tank volume, a variety of sizes. Installation of such a boiler can be carried out independently or by contacting specialists for help. Distinguish between horizontal and vertical installation. Tanks with a volume of more than 100 liters are recommended to be installed on the floor.

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All storage models are equipped with a thermostat, which helps maintain the required water temperature set by the consumer. The heating rate depends on the volume of the tank. So, in a 150 liter water heater, it takes 4.5-5 hours to warm up the water. However, some models provide an accelerated type of heating, which helps reduce the time to 3.5 hours. But, in this case, the energy consumption increases, so it is advisable to use the accelerated function only in exceptional cases. Since storage water heaters operate silently, they can be left on for the entire crimping period. You will not even notice that the device is working, and hot water will come from the tap without interruption.

When buying a tank of this type, you should pay attention to the anti-corrosion treatment of the inner tank. Special products applied to the walls will help extend its service life by several years.

A significant drawback of storage water heaters is the large size. For example, a 30-liter model reaches 50–55 cm in height and 36–40 cm in width, a 100-liter tank reaches a height of 100-110 cm. Such dimensions do not allow placing the device in small kitchens and bathrooms.

IMPORTANT! If the water pressure in the water supply system is more than 6 atmospheres, an additional gearbox installation is required for the storage electric device.


instantaneous water heaterFlow-type models have gained popularity due to the rapid heating of water. In contrast to the storage device, the flow tank carries out heating immediately at the moment of water intake, which helps to save time. Power indicators vary from 3 to 27 kW. For rooms in an apartment building, the maximum power is not more than 12 kW, otherwise three-phase power supply is required, which entails the replacement of wiring in apartment.

The advantage of the model is light weight and compactness. For example, a 30-liter unit has a height of only 35-40 cm, and does not exceed 30 cm in width. Such dimensions allow you to install a water heater not only in the bathroom, but also in the kitchen, directly above the sink.

A significant drawback is the required voltage of 380V, and the standard voltage in apartment buildings is only 220V. Therefore, flow-through electric water heaters should be installed in a private house. To do this, it is enough to obtain permission to connect the required voltage.

IMPORTANT! Connecting a flow-type device to a 220 V power supply network will result in a system short circuit and its breakdown.


electric water heaterAnd instantaneous and storage water heaters, powered by electricity - the most private choice of consumers. Also distinguish are bulk electrical appliances, which are often used in cottages and supply and storage in which water can be supplied from the storage tank or using a heating element (TENA). The disadvantages of electric boilers include:

  • affordable cost;
  • simplicity of installation and use of the device;
  • concise design;
  • compact dimensions.

Among the shortcomings, consumers note the consumption of a device with high power, the lack of corrosion protection in low-cost models, and the long wait for water to heat up in storage devices.

IMPORTANT! Experts recommend installing a separate machine for the water heater, this will avoid interruptions in electricity.


Gas water heaters, just like electric ones, are divided into two types:

  • flowing;
  • cumulative.

gas water heaterIn apartments or private houses with a central heating system (CCO), the installation of a gas flow device is the best solution to the problem of hot water. For the uninterrupted operation of the boiler, the energy released by burning gas from a gas burner is required. The power of the gas appliance varies from 20 to 30 kW, which is an advantage. In addition, the cost of gas in Russian cities is lower than the cost of electricity, so with frequent shutdowns of hot water, gas models will help save money.

Less popular in the market are gas storage water heating devices. This is due to the fact that such models have impressive dimensions and it is difficult to hide their prying eyes.

IMPORTANT! Installation of a gas water heater of accumulative or flowing type must be entrusted to professionals.

Tank Type Classification

In addition to other classification, water heaters are distinguished by the type of tanks. There are two types of tanks:

  1. Closed models. Work from the electric heating element. Subject to the necessary pressure in the heating system, they are able to provide hot water to both the bathroom and the kitchen.
  2. Open type models. They work only on one point and do not depend on the pressure power in the system. In other words, such a water heater is required for both the kitchen and the bathroom.
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