If in an apartment building often turn off the hot water, it is worth buying a device for its uninterrupted supply. How to choose a water heater for an apartment or your own home, taking into account the needs of the family?
For this you need to take into account many of the characteristics that affect the life of the equipment. It must be chosen taking into account the free space in the bathroom or kitchen. In the apartment this question is particularly relevant.
In this article we will designate all the nuances of the choice of water heaters, understand the types of heating elements, and the principles of operation of equipment of various types.
The content of the article:
Body material as a guideline of choice
- Enamel coating - a favorite of the market
- Super resistant stainless steel
- Innovative glass ceramics and biofer glass
Overview of water heating elements
- Wet heating element
- Dry heating element
Heating control system
- Simple mechanical thermostat
- Automatic thermostat with advanced features
The principle of operation and comparison of performance
- Electric flow water heaters
- Accumulative electric water heaters
- Gas instantaneous water heaters
- Double-circuit gas boiler
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Body material as a guideline of choice
The service life of the device for heating directly depends on the material from which it is made. If the heating elements and anodes are still to be replaced, then corrosion on the body will ruin the device permanently without the possibility of restoration.
If the hinged heating unit breaks loose from the fixings, it will also lead to failure due to poor quality materials used in the manufacture.
On sale are various options for metal enclosures with different types of internal coatings. You can choose an acceptable quality option for relatively little money, but you should give preference to well-known manufacturers who value reputation.
In this case, the probability of failure of the device due to poor quality of raw materials is minimized.
Enamel coating - a favorite of the market
Enamel and its variations are the most popular coatings for the body of devices that heat water (mainly of accumulative type). It ideally protects the steel base from contact with water and the formation of foci of rust.
However, enamel without adding other components is brittle and can peel off from the vessel walls. Most often, the coating does not withstand the excess temperature. In this case, cracks are formed.
Cracked enamel exposes a metal that is exposed to water. This leads to corrosion, which will soon make it impossible to further use the device.
To prevent the processes of cracking and destruction of the protective sheath with subsequent corrosion of the body, titanium or cobalt is added to the enamel. These metals increase the strength and increase the life of the heater.
If the body of the heater is qualitatively covered with enamel protection (especially the joints), then the steel case will not yield to stainless steel coatings in its properties.
Super resistant stainless steel
One of the most practical materials for the body of the heater is stainless steel. It has a number of key advantages over any enamelled finish. The first of these is heat resistance.
If it happens that the boiler is plugged in without first filling it with water, the casing will not suffer. Only the heating element will burn, which can be replaced and continue to operate the device.
The second advantage of stainless steel is its resistance to mechanical stress. In case of accidental impact or fall, the case and its technical stuffing will not undergo damage. In extreme cases, light dents can be straightened in the workshop.
If the connecting seams are welded using corrosion-resistant metals, as is done by some Scandinavian manufacturers, the service life will exceed the warranty period many times.
In poor-quality models of boilers, welding seams are a weak point. They are not resistant to corrosion. In addition, it is not known for certain whether the type of stainless steel is safe. In order to reduce the cost of the composition can add heavy metals that cause poisoning.
Some manufacturers cover stainless steel with silver plating. This is an advertising move based on the bactericidal property of this non-ferrous metal. The water in the boiler is heated enough to kill pathogens, so there is no point in overpaying for silver plating.
Innovative glass ceramics and biofer glass
Glass ceramics differs from enamel in that it reduces the thermal conductivity of a container. The water heater treated with this material will not radiate heat, which means that the water in it will cool slowly. This reduces power consumption. The disadvantage of the coating is sensitivity to point mechanical effects.
Despite the high thermal insulation properties, glass-ceramic boilers provide sheathing. It also serves as a fall protection.
Bio-glass ceramics or bioglass porcelain is a rather expensive material that is not used in budget models. Unlike enamel and glass ceramics, it does not contain toxic substances that harm the human body, and is completely biologically safe. Does not interact with moisture, and is also resistant to temperatures from 60 to 70 degrees Celsius.
Overview of water heating elements
The heating method is an important characteristic of the device. Heater can be in direct interaction with water, or be protected from it by a metal element.
It is necessary to choose on the basis of financial possibilities. Boilers with contactless heating elements are more expensive than contact ones.
Wet heating element
If the water that enters the house has good sanitary and epidemiological indicators, it does not contain fine water. suspended from old metal pipes, it is possible to save and purchase a water heater with a wet heating element type
Additionally, you need to insure if the water contains a high content of mineral salts (as is often the case in private country houses), and install a filter. The need for a filter is determined simply, if scale often occurs in an electric kettle, the salt content in the water is increased.
If we neglect the filter, then after 5-6 years of operation, scale will appear inside the boiler, and a dirty sediment will form in the tank. Over time, the device is completely out of working condition.
In addition, with such a breakdown, replacing a wet heating element will require additional costs and time. In models of different manufacturers, heating elements differing in size and power are installed. The necessary parts will have to wait, as they are not always in stock.
Dry heating element
If funds allow, it is better not to save money and buy a boiler with a dry-type water heating element. It is also necessary to choose a unit with a tank of wear-resistant material, otherwise there will be a risk that the boiler will come out of due to the depressurization of the housing, and this will inevitably lead to the purchase of a new device (even if the TENe).
The heating element is fenced off from the water by a metal case that fits tightly to it. The air gap does not exceed 1-2 mm. This does not lead to a significant increase in power consumption and maintenance costs.
Another advantage is simplicity. replacement of heating elements. It can be done independently, without resorting to the services of specialists.
The disadvantages include the fact that the use of this element makes the device more expensive by 15% -20%, but in the long run it pays off and even allows you to save on repairs.
Heating control system
All models of water heaters are equipped with a sensor that allows to obtain reliable values of the degree of water heating. If it is noticed that the boiler began to heat the water longer than expected, this will give a signal to replace the heating element.
In addition to the sensor devices are often equipped with a thermostat. They allow you to control the heat. This is done to save energy.
Simple mechanical thermostat
In budget models, an ordinary switch is installed, which can be made in the form of a circular knob or buttons. With it, you can change the heat from 60 degrees to 30. It is impossible to establish the exact temperature value, it will be observed with an error of several degrees.
As a rule, these mechanical regulators are interchangeable, it is often possible to choose an analogue in the event of a breakdown. Their replacement is simple and does not require the assistance of service specialists. This is where their merits end.
Automatic thermostat with advanced features
These boilers are equipped with additional features, including programming for a certain period of on or off. It is possible to set the required heating temperature with high accuracy.
The disadvantages of these models include the complexity of the repair, in case of failure of the electronics. If the water heater is made by a little-known company, there is always a difficulty with ordering parts and circuits.
If the firm leaves the market, then spare parts will not be available. A minor breakdown in electronics can lead to the need to buy a new device. It is necessary to give preference to proven manufacturers.
The principle of operation and comparison of performance
In addition to the material of the housing, the heating element and the thermostat, there are significant differences in the design and principle of operation of water heaters. They can use gas or electricity to heat.
Worth considering gas water heaters cost more, they are cheaper to use, but can not be used in the apartment. Their mission is to provide private houses with hot water. Electrical, respectively, are cheaper, but costly. They can be used in the apartment. Now more about all.
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Equipment for the preparation of hot water is used in autonomous farms with equipped water supply and in homes that are not connected to centralized DHW networks.
In apartment buildings, mostly running water heaters are installed, perfectly coping with the preparation of water for a family of up to 4-5 people
Water storage in private homes is mainly trusted by storage water heaters, designed for servicing large objects and with more than 5 users.
Due to the size of accumulation equipment impressive in most cases, the point of withdrawal of prepared water is located at the top. It is not typical for continuous heaters.
Regardless of the type of action of the heating equipment, the connection of the cold water main is made at the bottom of the device
Water heating equipment of storage type is often used as an addition to the main heating boiler
When the storage water heater is connected to the boiler, it performs the function of a heat accumulator, dosed out the supply of hot water and maintaining the temperature of the coolant
When using flow and accumulative type in the complex, the preparation of water is carried out only by the flow unit, accumulative accumulates heat
Water Heating Equipment
Water heater for the apartment
Location of the water point
Rules for connecting heating units
Boiler in tandem with storage water heater
Work of a water heater together with a copper
The use of water heaters in the complex
Electric flow water heaters
The principle of their work is to heat the water that flows through the heating element with the tap open continuously. In the device of these models, the material that was used for the manufacture of containers does not play a leading role.
Their advantage lies in the supply of freshly prepared hot water, for the reason that there is no need to wait long for its heating. You can get unlimited volume.
The main disadvantage of these water heaters is high energy consumption. With prolonged use, they create an increased load on the wiring. Old wiring will not withstand such loads, especially if other household appliances will be included in addition to the water heater
Another disadvantage of the device electric water heaters is heating for only one water point. The one to which it is directly connected. If the device is connected to the shower or bath, then the supply of hot water will only be to them.
It is extremely unprofitable to use two instantaneous water heaters in terms of bills for payment for electricity. This option is only suitable for apartments, where seasonal breaks with hot water supply periodically occur.
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Flow-through electrical units produce in a wide range of models, allowing to prepare for use a different volume of water
Small flow heaters of electrical type are installed directly above the exact hot water intake.
Electrical heating equipment is easiest to install and continue to use. They just need to connect to the water supply and electricity.
On sale you can find water heaters with built-in spout and a device for adjusting the pressure of the prepared water
The flowing heater for a shower and a bath
Providing hot water for hand washing
Water heater with adjustable head
Accumulative electric water heaters
The principle of operation of boilers is to heat a certain amount of water, and maintain its temperature. The maximum power consumption is fixed when filled with cold water, because the body of the heater has a thermos design.
There are different options for the shape of the instrument. It can be cylindrical, rectangular and round. Capacity shape does not affect production performance.
In addition to the form of boilers are divided into horizontally oriented and vertically oriented. This variety is due to the popularity of these water heaters, which can be placed in any room, kitchen, bathroom or toilet. The form is determined solely by the available free space.
An essential characteristic of the device is the volume of the tank. The most popular water heaters with a displacement:
- 30 cu. liters;
- 50 cu. liters;
- 80 cu. liters;
- 100 cu. liters;
Size is determined by the number of people who live in a house or apartment. If the number of people is higher than the one for which the boiler is designed, you will have to wait a long time until the water heats up to an acceptable temperature.
Using boilers in country houses, where more than 5 people live is uncomfortable. It is better to choose another option for heating water, it heats up for too long
When choosing a hinged boiler, it is important to make sure that the mounting method is reliable. Fasteners must be made of high quality steel. This is necessary for safe fixing on the bearing wall.
In some cases, it is better to choose a floor heater, if the partitions do not withstand the weight of the device, filled with water. The floor boiler is safer, so for families with children it is better to choose similar models.
Read more about choosing storage water heaters. Further.
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Accumulative water heating equipment is produced both vertically and horizontally
Variations on the horizontal and vertical theme allow you to choose the best variety, based on the specifics of the room
Storage equipment heats up water much more slowly, so it uses less energy
The storage equipment always contains prepared water in a given volume, the unit maintains the required temperature.
Vertical storage unit
Horizontal view model
The specifics of the cumulative type
Compact water heater
Gas instantaneous water heaters
If a country house is heated with gas, it is better to stop the choice on gas water heaters, since they are cheaper to operate. The most popular type of gas water heater is flow-through. It has all the advantages of an electrical analog, but does not create a significant load on the wiring to the wiring.
Another disadvantage can be attributed to monitoring the status of the device. The devices are sensitive to pressure fluctuations in the natural gas supply source.
Unlike an electric water heater, several hot water points can be connected to a gas unit.
The disadvantages of this type of water heaters include the need to carry out a ventilation pipe. The principle of heating is based on the combustion of natural gas, which is impossible in the absence of oxygen supply and removal of combustion products.
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The installation of a gas flow-through heater is carried out in small country houses, the area of which does not exceed 150 m², in baths and cottages
To connect the gas heating equipment is not enough to bring water. Need a pipe for gas supply and exhaust for the output of its combustion products
Flow type heater is not intended for storage of heated water. Its size is due only to the availability of equipment for its preparation.
To install a gas device requires a boiler room. It is permissible to have them in non-residential premises with flawless ventilation.
Gas heater in a country house
Connecting gas units
Features of the flow instruments
Rules for the placement of gas units
Geysers differ in the method of ignition. Since the equipment is a source of increased danger, it has a built-in function to automatically shut off the gas supply if a back draft occurs in the chimney and the wick goes out. There are geysers that require the supply of a spark, by pressing a button, and there are models where this happens in an automated mode.
We also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the best models of flowing gas heaters. Read more - go to reference.
Double-circuit gas boiler
What water heater to choose for installation in a country house, if it does not have heating, but there is a gas input? In this case, the best solution would be a double-circuit gas boiler.
This is a complex device that solves two problems at once in a country house:
- Heating living space.
- Heating water for domestic needs.
This is a great way to save money, because buying a double-circuit boiler is cheaper than the total cost of a boiler with a solid-fuel boiler.
The main advantage of this device is that its operation does not require a separate room. It can be placed anywhere in the house where you can vent the vent
Boilers can be wall mounted and outdoor, it depends on their size. In country houses with a large area you need to install the floor, as they are able to completely solve the problem of heating spacious rooms.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video describes the general principle of selection of the boiler:
Practical tips for choosing a water heater:
Video on how to choose a gas instantaneous water heater:
Choose a water heater should be based on personal needs. If the apartment held gas, then it is better to buy gas column. It will fully meet the need for hot water in an uninterrupted mode, unlike electrical counterparts.
If there is no gas in a private house or apartment, you should stop the choice on electric storage water heaters, since they are more productive than flow-through water heaters.
And what kind of heater do you use? Please tell in the comments on which device did you choose? Are you satisfied with its work? You can also ask questions about the topic of the article, and we will try to give a very clear answer.