Gas cylinders are widely demanded both in industry and in medicine, aviation, space industries, in everyday life, as an autonomous source of energy. They can be used both for heating and for lighting, cooking.
To eliminate all troubles associated with operation, you need to choose the right type of equipment. Let's try to understand together the types of gas cylinders, the features of their design and connection.
The content of the article:
- Gas Cylinder Device
Types of gas cylinders
- Classification by case material
- Separation by place of installation and purpose
- Features classification by filler
- Types of cylinders by connection method
- Interpretation of cylinder marking
- Features color gas cylinders
- Types of cylinder malfunctions and their elimination
- Popular manufacturers of gas cylinders
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Gas Cylinder Device
Gas cylinders, special vessels in which these substances are under high pressure, are created for the storage and transportation of compressed and liquefied gas. The first type of gas under any pressure is in a gaseous state, and the second, with the growth of this parameter, enters the liquid phase.
Nitrogen, fluorine, oxygen, methane, hydrogen, as well as chlorine, carbon dioxide, ammonia are transported and stored in a compressed and liquefied state.
The container itself is an all-welded construction with walls at least 2 mm thick with a cylinder-shaped geometry. It is made of steel or polymer.
Its components are:
The neck of the cylinder has a tapered thread under shut-off valvehermetically overlapping exit. In the case when, due to some reasons, gas expansion occurs, under the influence of pressure, the valve will break, and the pressure inside the vessel will return to normal.
The gas inside such a vessel is under pressure of maximum 15 MPa. In the body of the cylinder or shell there is a welded single seam.
The volume of the cylinder depends on the material from which it is made, the type of filler and destination. Oxygen cylinders can be as subcompact - from 2 to 10 liters, and medium - 20 - 40 liters
To ensure that the gas inside the vessel exerts the same pressure on its walls, each cylinder has a convex bottom - upper and lower. For greater stability, the cylinder is equipped with a ring support - a shoe. In addition, the gas tank has in its kit a metal or plastic cap that protects the valve during operation and transportation.
The cap is screwed on the ring of the neck. Sometimes the cylinder supply gearboxdesigned to balance the pressure. The valve is a node, which includes a steel body in the form of a tee, a flywheel, a locking element.
For each type of gas requires a valve of special design. For safe operation, it is important that the type of container matches the filling.
The assembly consisting of a valve and a stem is called a shut-off element. Each of the parts of the assembly performs its function.
The valve is needed to regulate the flow of gas through the body, and the stem - for the interaction of the flywheel with the valve through torque. By turning the handwheel, you can close or open the gas flow.
All 3 valve parts are threaded. At the bottom it is needed for fastening the part to the cylinder, at the top by means of a threaded connection a valve stem is attached. The cap is screwed on the side thread
Types of gas cylinders
Gas vessels are classified according to many criteria: body material, volume, purpose, filler name, connection method. For the manufacture of the hull used as a metal and composite materials. Those and others have their pros and cons. You should read them for the right choice.
Classification by case material
For the manufacture of the body of a metal cylinder used alloyed or low-carbon steel. The capacity of metal vessels is from 5 to 50 liters. Cylinders with a capacity of less than 50 l are allowed to be installed inside the house, and 50 l - only outside.
Last needed protection from direct sunlight. To do this, they are placed in a lockable metal cabinet with a marking on it that corresponds to the type of gas. An empty metal bottle weighs from 4 to 22 kg.
The vessel is filled with gas to a maximum of 85%. Depending on the volume in the cylinder fill from 2 to 22 kg of gas. This gas equipment is explosive and flammable. He is contraindicated in temperatures over 50⁰. With sharp temperature fluctuations and in case of fire, a powerful explosion occurs. It is impossible such a cylinder and sharply turn over, because it causes an increase in pressure.
Composite gas cylinder - a newer version. Its main advantage is full explosion safety, even if a gas leak occurs. Liquefied gases are transported and stored in such containers. When exposed to an open flame, the gas escapes through the body gradually and simply burns.
They are lightweight - 70% lighter than their metal counterparts, and feature a stylish design. Thanks to the transparent case, it is always possible to control the level of gas. In contrast to metal, the composite material is not susceptible to corrosion, therefore, more durable.
The polymer has excellent dielectric properties that are 100% sparking. The operating temperature range is -40 - 50⁰. Cylinders recommend to operate up to 30 years. Every 10 years they must be re-assessed. The mass of the cylinder - 8 kg maximum.
The operation of a cylinder of polymeric materials does not harm the environment, because no boron is added to the material
Composite gas cylinders are of two types: made according to the technology of blowing and by winding fiberglass on the mandrel. In the first case, the flask is made of polyethylene terephthalate. Further, manufacturers cover the vessel made from fiberglass yarns with epoxy resin. Capacity invested in the polymer case.
By production of cylinders of the second type apply a special mandrel. Glass fiber is wound on it, then the workpiece is impregnated with resins. First, get the two halves of the vessel. After curing, they are glued and placed in a tight polyethylene casing.
Due to the presence of an overpressure valve and a fusible rate, composite cylinders possess the increased safety. In case of fire, the fusible link is triggered. Melting, it gradually releases gas, with full controllability of the process. After triggering the insert, the cylinder is not subject to further operation.
Separation by place of installation and purpose
All existing gas cylinders, depending on where they are installed and what they are for, are divided into the following types:
- Household. They are used for heating, stoves, boilers.
- Automotive. Apply them to cars that have an engine running on gaseous fuel.
- Tourist. Suitable for mobile appliances, such as blowtorches, burners, barbecues, heaters.
- Industrial. Containers in which gases are stored fall into this category. Such cylinders are used in metallurgy, the chemical industry, in pharmaceutical enterprises.
- Medical. They are filled with respiratory mixtures and carried in ambulance cars, used in hospital wards for intensive therapy and where oxygen cocktails are prepared. Apply such cylinders and rescuers, firefighters.
There are universal cylinders, which are used in many industries. For mobile gas appliances, disposable cartridges containing 100-450 g of gas are released. Visually, they resemble aerosol sprays.
Features classification by filler
Based on the composition of the mixture, the cylinders are called propane, butane, hydrogen, nitrogen, acetylene, carbon dioxide, argon, oxygen, helium, etc. For each of the compositions its temperature mode.
For standard conditions, the difference between them is small. When the balloon is needed for use in high-altitude areas or in very cold temperatures, this parameter plays a decisive role.
Butane isomer - a mixture of isobutane with propane, well suited for low temperatures. It is safe for the ozone layer. Both propane and butane are very dangerous for humans. If inhaled, serious consequences for the body are inevitable. Direct contact with liquid butane causes the body to cool to -20⁰.
Butane is charged with lighters; in air conditioners and refrigerators it is sometimes used as a coolant. Propane is needed in the production of solvents. Acetylene is required to work with the metal associated with its welding and cutting. It is also used in the preparation of explosives, acetic acid, rubber, all kinds of plastics for rocket engines.
Nitrogen uses the electronics industry, chemical, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, metallurgy. Hydrogen is needed in the food and chemical industry. It is also used as a fuel for rockets, during welding.
Bicycle wheels, fire extinguishers pumped with carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide. In the food industry with its use produce carbonated beverages. In the form of dry ice, carbon monoxide is used as a coolant.
Cylinders with carbon dioxide are present in catering establishments, where they cool drinks to a predetermined temperature, make soda and sell it for bottling
In the metallurgical, metalworking industry, in processes where the interaction of the molten stream with oxygen is unacceptable, argon is used. Apply it in medicine for anesthesia, using it to clean the air. Helium cylinders are necessary not only for filling balloons, but also for cutting, welding, melting metal.
This gas is part of the respiratory mixtures used in diving, it can be a coolant in scientific experiments. Ammonia is a strong solvent. Since it is very poisonous, cylinders with it must be transported and stored very carefully. The same applies to chlorine containers.
Capacities with oxygen can be found near the welding machines, where they produce explosives, acids, prepare oxygen cocktails. Compressed air transported in cylinders is most often used in the operation of pneumatic devices.
Liquefied natural gas methane is used as a soporific in medicine, for the production of fertilizers, in the form of fuel. For a man, this gas is safe.
Types of cylinders by connection method
Different models of gas cylinders are connected to the instruments by means of four connection standards. The most popular is threaded standard that meets all safety requirements. Products are 7/16 ″. To such cylinders a hose or a torch is fixed by winding.
The next cylinder standard is collet. This type of connection is also called pressure or clamp. A cylinder with this type of connection is considered the cheapest. Here the role of the clamp when connecting is performed by a cylindrical part. The collet cylinder can be connected to equipment with a thread, but for this you will need an adapter.
The punctured type of cylinders is the most common worldwide. These disposable cylinders have the disadvantage that it is not possible to disconnect the container until all the gas has been used. The latest models of punctured cylinders with the SGS system are free from this deficiency.
Here it is possible to block a gas leak when disconnected from the burner and turn off the container that is not completely emptied. Apply them to soldering, lighting lamps, portable plates.
Most often, gas burners are designed for threads, but if a cylinder is available, it can be used by purchasing an inexpensive adapter
Valve connection is the type used mainly in Europe. The connection is simple and reliable with a high degree of leakage protection.
Interpretation of cylinder marking
Having correctly read the marking, you can get complete information about the gas cylinder. If it is a propane cylinder, then his passport is in the vicinity of the valve, on a metal mug.
In the passport of the propane tank it is indicated: working pressure in MPa, test pressure in the same units, actual capacity in l, serial number, date of manufacture in the form of “MM.GG.AA”, where the first characters indicate the month, the second - the year, the third - the year certification
This is followed by the weight of the empty cylinder in kg, the mass of the filled cylinder. The last line is the letter designation "R-AA". “R” is the stamp of the recertification site or plant. The combination of the characters "AA" reveals information about the year to which this certification will be valid.
The decision on the suitability of the cylinder should be made only after a complete decoding of all data about it. If defects are found on it, then it is emptied and sent for repair.
The marking of the oxygen cylinder has its own order and consists of four lines. In the first there is information about the manufacturer, as well as the number of capacity. In the second - the date of issue and the recommended date of verification. In the third - hydraulic and working pressure. In the fourth - the volume of gas and the mass of the cylinder without valve and cap.
Buying a balloon, you should pay attention to how it is applied information. It is not painted on the body, but knocked out, and then coated with a special colorless varnish to protect against corrosion. Often the last line contains the stamp of the manufacturer.
Features color gas cylinders
Cylinders with compressed gas in Russia and abroad are painted in different ways. In addition, each type of gas corresponds not only to a certain color of the body, but also to the color of the strip, the inscription.
The table shows the identification colors of the cylinders with certain types of gases, as well as the color of the labels and stripes.
|Argon technical and pure||Black, gray respectively||Blue; green||Blue; green|
|Hydrogen||Dark green||Red||The black|
|Compressed air||The black||White||The black|
|Oxygen||Blue||The black||The black|
|Carbon dioxide||The black||Yellow||Yellow|
Nitrous oxide is pumped into a gray bottle with black lettering and the same strip. The protective color of the cylinder with phosgene has a yellow inscription and a yellow stripe, and the same color of a cylinder, but with a black inscription and a green stripe contains chlorine. The aluminum color of the bottle, the black inscription on it and two yellow stripes indicate that it is filled with freon-22.
For sulphurous anhydride there is a cylinder of black color with a white stripe and a yellow inscription. Ethylene is enclosed in a purple bottle with a red inscription and a strip of green. For the rest of the flammable gases are red vessels with a white inscription, a green stripe. Non-combustible gases are marked with a yellow inscription on the black background of the case and a green stripe.
Types of cylinder malfunctions and their elimination
All malfunctions existing at gas cylinders are divided into two types: those that are to be eliminated and that are not.
The first type includes:
- incorrect operation of the cylinder valve and pressure gauge;
- damage to the shoe or its displacement;
- damage to the threaded connection;
- leak of gas;
- in many places, the peeling color of the hull.
The second type of faults is the significantly damaged surface of the case in the form of dents, cracks, swelling, and the absence of marking. In this case, the balloon is rejected. The decision on the possibility or impossibility of repair is made by a specialist with the appropriate qualifications.
When repairing gas cylinders often produce a simple replacement of defective items. Sometimes internal washing of the tank and checking for the presence of corrosion from the inside is required. Periodic inspection includes all these works, and upon its completion they issue a certificate.
Gas cylinder in the photo is subject to repair. It is necessary to paint and replace the valve. The first work can be done independently, and the second should be entrusted to a specialist.
At home, this should not be done. All you can do yourself - paint the body of the cylinder. This should be done very carefully, so as not to paint over the inscriptions and not to damage the marking. All other malfunctions can be fixed only by a specialized workshop or a manufacturer.
Popular manufacturers of gas cylinders
Among the many manufacturers of cylinders should highlight the Russian brand "Sledopyt". It offers two types of gas cylinders with threaded and collet connection - for all-season and winter mix. American firm Jetboil supplies to the market cartridges filled with propane and isobutane, which can be used in winter.
Mobile gas cylinders are released by the South Korean trade mark Tramp. Fill them with all-season gas. Connection - threaded and collet
French company Campingaz produces all kinds of devices, complete with gas cylinders. The type of connection they have a collet, valve or puncture. Primus - produces gas cartridges of several types. Connection in all threaded.
Good quality composite vessels supplied by Czech brand Research. The package includes special valves that protect the container from overfilling. All of these cylinders are explosion proof.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video about the proper use and examination of gas cylinders. Tips from a specialist:
About LPG Composite Cylinders:
Gas bottle - a thing in the household useful. So that its operation does not lead to undesirable consequences, it is necessary to study the issue properly. And most importantly, adhere to elementary safety rules.
After reading the material there were questions? You can set them in the block below. You can also share the experience of using gas cylinders, tell what equipment you use.