Installing a septic tank is a practical way to solve the problem of waste disposal in the construction of a local sewage system. But, you see, among the variety of finished structures, it is sometimes not easy to make a choice.
To simplify the task, we offer to get acquainted with the review of the main types of treatment facilities and popular models of leading manufacturers. We will show you what kind of septic tank to choose based on the characteristics of its operation, and we will designate the main parameters of the device that should be considered when purchasing.
For a better understanding of the issue, we supplemented the information with photos of various models of utilizers, as well as diagrams for their installation.
The content of the article:
Models of utilizers and their features
- Types of materials used
- The complex of implemented functions
The subtleties of choosing the optimal septic tank
- The advantages of factory products to homemade
- Type of soil and depth of groundwater
- Volume and dimensions of a septic tank
Performance of treatment facilities
- No. 1 - models for seasonal homes
- No. 2 - septic tanks for year-round use
- Rating of domestic offers
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Models of utilizers and their features
The septic tank is a waterproof construction, consisting of one or more sections or divided into two or three compartments, the camera. But any sewage treatment plant has its own characteristics.
Therefore, in order to correctly select the utilizer, it is necessary to analyze the types of equipment on the market, to understand device septic tanks, the principle of their actions and determine for themselves the feasibility of applying a particular model.
Types of materials used
The septic tanks acting as the main element of the local sewerage are classified by different signs.
A photo of
The choice of a septic tank for an autonomous sewage system depends on the geological conditions, the type of effluent and the budget of future owners.
If the geological section of the site is composed of clay rocks or there is a groundwater mirror located close to the surface, a reservoir is used.
In contrast to the drive, which requires regular pumping of collected wastewater, a septic tank allows you to rarely call a vacuum truck, because purified water can be discharged into sandy soil
If the geology of the site does not allow for partial disposal, as is the case with the drive, but Frequent call of the vacuum trucks is undesirable, a station of high biological treatment of wastewater is installed. flow
Sewage station - a complicated technical system cannot be made by hand, but it is easy to build a storage tank or a sump
Septic tank or storage tank can be built independently of concrete rings or used bricks
It will require a minimum of financial investments, but a lot of time and effort to build a monolithic septic tank of concrete
The easiest and fastest way is to build a septic tank with the function of accumulation and partial processing from old metal or plastic drums. The downside is that the scope and service life of homemade products are limited
Installing a septic tank on the site
Plastic container for accumulation
Septic tank with partial disposal
High Sewage Treatment Plant
Homemade septic tank of eurocubes
Septic tank made of reinforced concrete rings
Monolithic two-chamber septic tank
Metal barrel storage
The competent choice of a septic tank largely determines the material of its manufacture, each of which has its pros and cons:
- Reinforced concrete rings - ready-made designs are highly reliable and resistant to corrosion. But their installation is difficult to perform without the use of special equipment.
- Monolithic concrete structures, for casting the walls and the bottom of which form the formwork.
- Brick and foam constructionbuilt from the bottom of the pit, the bottom and walls of which are abundantly sealed with clay or modern coating compositions.
- Steel tanks - are famous for their democratic price and high mechanical strength. But steel alloys are exposed to corrosion processes, and therefore the structures made of them require waterproofing.
- Polymer tanks - differ in small weight and relative cheapness. But the polymer under the influence of low temperatures is subject to cracking, and besides it is vulnerable to damage by rodents.
- Fiberglass - durable and lightweight material is famous for chemical neutrality, and therefore containers made of fiberglass, the most practical and durable.
Regardless of the type of material chosen, the main thing is that it is sufficiently durable and hermetic, preventing infiltration of untreated sewage into the surrounding soil.
Depending on the type of materials used, the treatment tanks are plastic and reinforced concrete, poured from monolithic concrete or laid out of brick.
The complex of implemented functions
If you focus on the complex of implemented functions, the septic tanks presented for sale come in three versions:
- Cumulative type. A solid hermetic tank can include one chamber or two communicating sealed wells. Such facilities need regular timely pumping.
- Septic tanks. Equipped with systems of soil tertiary treatment, because capable of cleansing only 70-75%. They are a structure of one or more sections. The process of processing wastewater in them is carried out by separating the liquid and solid components, followed by fermentation using anaerobes.
- Stations of deep biological treatment. The clearing construction including several sections or chambers. It is designed in such a way that the waste inside it is decomposed in stages by chemical, biological and mechanical methods. Residual organics from such treatment tanks may be discharged directly into the reservoir or the ground.
The most simple in the performance of the models listed drives. The principle of operation of such structures is that the drains collected in the tank are naturally stratified: heavy particles settle, and the lightened liquid rises.
Storage is advisable to choose in the event that the owners are willing to regularly use the services of vacuum trucks.
AT septic tanks the insoluble precipitate is naturally separated from the water during settling. Infiltrators, intended for utilization of clarified waste water into the ground, complete the septic tanks.
Infiltrators, which are chambers devoid of bottom, perform the function of aeration sites. The effluents entering them undergo additional purification by passing through a soil filter before being discharged into the environment.
Purification structures equipped at the outlet with filtration fields are capable of performing the task set for them to clean the effluent. True, in conditions with high groundwater / groundwater (GWL) occurrence to equip the filtration field, placing it away from the septic tank and at a depth exceeding the minimum groundwater level 0.5 m
In the deep cleaning facilities, several methods are used at once to ensure that the waste decomposes in stages: primary sedimentation of solid fractions, subsequent bioprocessing of organic matter, chemical treatment of the contents, filtration of purified waters
Installations deep cleaning can only be purchased. Factory offers are quite expensive, but they are very effective, and spending is more than paying for the lack of the need to regularly engage assenizatorsky equipment
With the help of deep cleaning stations, 95–98% of the cleaned and disinfected waste masses become neutral and suitable for discharge into the gutters.
The subtleties of choosing the optimal septic tank
On selection of sewage treatment plantFirst of all, the conditions at a particular object and the needs of the tenants influence it.
When deciding which septic tank to choose, it is necessary not only to compare models, but also to relate their performance characteristics to specific conditions.
The cost of any model consists of the following parameters:
- case material;
- volume and number of connected containers;
- applied technology for recycling;
- availability of additional equipment.
Depending on the type of construction, models may include: compressors and drainage pumps, filters and float level gauges, automatic control systems.
Compressors are used in biological treatment stations for the supply of oxidizing oxygen sinks, which are also needed for the life of aerobes.
Drainage pumps are required if there is a need to stimulate the movement of drains within the septic tank or to discharge treated water if the septic tank is located below the discharge point.
The advantages of factory products to homemade
Self-made tanks made of tires, bricks or concrete ringswill cost less. But their construction will require a lot of time and effort.
Depending on the configuration, non-volatile factory septic tanks are supplied with soil systems post-treatment - infiltrators, which are a half-capacity with a gravel or gravel filter instead of the bottom
Depending on the mode of operation, it can be erected independently of the available building materials as the simplest construction of accumulative type, and installation from series-connected clarifiers, which provide stepwise water clarification.
Choosing a ready-made construction, you get a guarantee that it complies with building and environmental standards.
Type of soil and depth of groundwater
Determining how best to install a septic tank on your site, focus on the geological conditions of the area.
When choosing a sewage treatment plant at the base of a septic tank with an infiltrator or an absorption well, consider that groundwater should lie below the conditional bottom of the groundwater treatment system at a minimum of 1 m
Consider that the discharge of purified water into the soil is possible if sand, gravel and pebble soils, sandy plastic sandy loam lie below the after-treatment system.
A photo of
The inclusion of infiltrators, filtration fields, sewage trenches, absorbing wells allows the septic tank to be unloaded by dumping treated water into the ground or onto the relief
The listed devices relate to the means of ground treatment, in which sand and gravel are used as natural filters. One option is a drainage trench in which a perforated pipe plays the role of an infiltrator
A system comprising several perforated pipes - drains connected to a collector is constructed if one drainage pipe does not cope with filtration and discharge of effluent
If on a country site there is no site, sufficient for the device of horizontal filtering systems, absorbing wells are constructed. In any case, there must be at least 1 m between the conditional bottom of the filtration system and the groundwater mirror.
At the absorbing well there is no bottom in the traditional understanding of the tanks. Instead of a bottom, a soil filter made of sand and crushed stone is arranged; the filter capacity is more than 1 m.
All materials used in construction, as well as tires, plastic drums, eurocubes and similar tanks are suitable for the installation of an absorbing well.
The clarified and disinfected water, processed by biological treatment plants, is dumped onto the relief or into a wastewater reservoir.
In the gutters also allow discharge of purified water after processing it in the station of biological treatment. Water thus flows to local sewage.
Arrangement of filtration fields
Simplified filter trench
Filtration field for treated effluent
Absorption well without bottom
Filter Tire Well
Discharge of clarified water to wastewater
Drainage transport in the ditch
In addition to infiltrators and absorption wells, filtration fields are used in the final treatment of wastewater. This system is a drainage system assembled from perforated pipes, drains, with a sheath of filter gravel and geotextile.
If the filtration field is located above the treatment structure, then pumps are used to move the drains along drains.
On clay soils, the device for post-treatment systems is meaningless, since clay, loam and sandy loam do not pass and do not absorb water. This means that the disposal in the ground will not be made, as a result, the septic tank will flood and stop working.
In such situations, the discharge is carried out via sealed pipelines into gutters or into centralized sewer networks.
For loams, it is preferable to choose hermetic accumulators and local cleaning stations, the design of which performs a forced removal out of the boundaries of the purified liquid.
The high level of occurrence of groundwater or their significant rise during the flood period create certain problems during the operation of autonomous treatment facilities.
For such areas acceptable options can be considered:
- hermetic storage tanks, involving the pumping and removal of waste;
- LOSs, the design of which provides for the forced abstraction of the last cleaning fluid.
The most affordable option for areas with a high horizon of groundwater - the use of polymer tanks, involving bioremediation, followed by diversion to the drive.
In this case, the purified component of the effluent is either pumped out of the storage tank or pumped to centralized networks, or pumped out by vacuum trucks, but much less frequently than from ordinary drive.
To prevent lightweight structures from ascending, they are additionally weighed down and fixed to the base plate laid at the bottom of the foundation pit.
For comparison: 1 m2 sand during the day can absorb up to 90 liters of water, sandy loam - up to 50 liters, loam - 25 liters, and clay - only 5 liters.
Volume and dimensions of a septic tank
The volume of the receiving tank or section is calculated, focusing on the average daily rate of waste per household.
The basis is that daily consumption when using a standard set of plumbing equipment is about 200 liters per person.
According to accepted standards, the sewage hopper should contain a volume of wastewater from each of the tenants equal to the three-day norm.
So, for a family of four people the volume of the septic tank should be: 4 people. x 200 l x 3 days = 2.4 cubes. If the house is frequented by guests, when calculating the reservoir, an additional volume reserve is made for another 20-30%.
The number of sections of the septic tank is determined depending on the calculated cubic capacity, based on the provisions of paragraph 2.04.03-85 of the current SNiP
In models of factory-made manufacturers indicate the number of people for whom they are designed and the performance of facilities.
The optimal depth of the tank varies from 1.5 to 3 meters. When choosing models of greater depth, keep in mind that this may make it difficult to pump out the contents with an asphyxanization technique.
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There are standards according to which the volume of the septic tank is selected by volume. It is considered that the tank should contain drains equal to water consumption for 3 days.
With an increase in the number of chambers, which is typical of septic tanks, sewers and sewage stations, the estimated number of days increases because water in the system is delayed
According to averaged calculations taking into account the operation of devices and equipment for a family of four, a septic tank of 5–8 m³ / day is needed
For a large family, a mini-hotel, a roadside cafe or a restaurant on the outskirts, you will need a septic tank of 8–25 m³ / day, 50 m³ / day and more
Installation of a septic tank for a small family
Preparation for installation of a septic tank
Septic capacity for four people
Cumulative capacity for a mini-hotel
Performance of treatment facilities
To ensure trouble-free operation of the system and to prevent overcrowding of the tank, it is necessary to focus on the type of housing and model performance.
No. 1 - models for seasonal homes
If you plan to visit your country house only on weekends or live in it only in the warm season, it is not rational to install a multi-chamber production complex.
Thoughtful owners of summer cottages for arranging their sites, if the average daily volume of effluents does not exceed one cubic meter, choose mostly single-chamber low-capacity drives.
Cumulative type structures are ideal for arranging country cottages used for seasonal stays
Due to their low weight, compact mini-septic tanks are conveniently transported and buried in a pit, doing it on their own and without resorting to the services of special equipment.
No. 2 - septic tanks for year-round use
For sites on the territory of which it is supposed to be year-round, it is advisable to install a sewage treatment plant using all methods of sewage treatment.
An alternative is to serve septic tanks with groundwater after-treatment systems, if in the area of the sewage system the groundwater horizon is low.
A septic tank with an afterpurification ground is a two- or three-chamber sump that works in tandem with an absorption well, filtration fields or an infiltrator
In order for autonomous sewage to function more efficiently, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are often used when launching it.
For this purpose, bacteria are placed inside the tanks, which “eat” organic matter. Biological decomposition of waste allows domestic wastewater to be brought to a state of process water.
The difference between aerobic microorganisms and anaerobic bacteria is that the former can only work with oxygen, while the latter do not need it.
Installations with deep cleaning are ideal for arranging sites located in close proximity to a natural pond.
After all, the treated wastewater that has passed through the station with a high percentage of filtration can be discharged into any reservoir.
Rating of domestic offers
The production of sewage treatment plants for local sewage systems on the Russian market began only a few decades ago. But over the years there have been many manufacturers specializing in this area.
Models of some of them are only a copy of the leading European brands, but still the bulk is a truly unique structures and structures.
Today, models with different operational parameters can be found on the market, starting with primitive mini-septic tanks and completing complex multi-stage cleaning stations.
According to the results of a survey of consumers actively operating household wastewater purifiers at sites, we have compiled a septic tank rating:
- Eurobion. The stations are the result of many years of work by specialists of the production association "Ubas". Thanks to the use of innovative membrane technology and the rhythmic aerotank of the station, it is allowed to operate even with prolonged downtime of the sewer system.
- Poplar. Production of the company "Eco-Grand" is famous for its high degree of purification, reaching 99%. Using a non-standard scheme in production, in which access to the primary chamber is open, the manufacturer Simplified maintenance of sections: large waste that impedes the work of sewage can be removed from them on their own.
- Aster. Septic tanks of the Yunilos brand guarantee removal of harmful components up to 75%. On sale there are several modifications depending on the number of consumers. The station, supplemented by a compressor, performs cleaning in several stages, due to which it is allowed to discharge the water that has passed through it with sanitary norms into a ditch.
- Tank. Products manufactured by "Triton-plastic". In the model range are presented and compact tanks with a capacity of 600 l / day, and high-performance facilities, designed for 1200 l / day. In terms of their parameters, they are identical to classic wastewater treatment plants with multi-stage wastewater treatment.
- Triton. Another popular product of this company. In the model range of septic tanks of this brand are several types that differ in configuration and method of cleaning. Products of the class "micro" and "mini" are designed for volumes of 450 and 750 liters, and storage tanks of the type with the letter designation "H" and "T" - for volumes of 10 thousand liters and above.
- Tver. The products of the trading house “Engineering equipment” carry out wastewater treatment not only mechanically, but also biologically. The stations are equipped with a four-level wastewater clarification system and are designed to process waste from 750 to 1.5 thousand cubic meters per day.
- Topaz. Products manufactured under this brand are distinguished by low energy consumption. Four-chamber aerobic devices have a cleaning rate of up to 98%.
A distinctive feature of products manufactured by Triton-Plastic is the large wall thickness and the presence of stiffeners, thanks to which they easily withstand large external loads.
And also do not float even under the action of floods, if their presence was not taken into account when choosing a design.
Virtually all factory models of septic tanks suggest the possibility of connecting additional modules to increase the capacity of the sewage treatment plant.
Purification facilities of a manufacturing enterprise are also not less popular. "Leader". Polypropylene tanks of this brand carry out three stages of cleaning: mechanical, aerobic and biofiltration.
Well proved and septic tanks "Rostock"manufactured by "EcoProm". The manufacturer specializes in the production of anaerobic purification devices.
But, since the percentage of cleaning inside the chambers reaches only 65-70%, for the full operation of the facilities it is necessary to install drainage tunnels.
The presence in the model lines of the listed manufacturers of structures with different parameters gives the ability for any consumer to make a rational choice, based on the optimal ratio price quality.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video deals with the principles of operation of different septic tanks and lists practical tips for choosing the optimal unit for domestic use:
Advantages and disadvantages of various cleaners:
Which option is suitable for the organization of autonomous sewage, you decide. Most importantly, remember that only a correctly selected and properly installed septic tank can become an effective means of recycling and cleaning household waste.
Looking for a septic tank for a private house? Or have experience using such installations? Please leave comments on the article, ask questions and share your opinion on the operation of septic tanks.