Local sewage with its own sewage treatment plant will not break away from civilization in settlements that do not have the basic infrastructure. If you make a septic tank with your own hands from the barrels as an object of cleaning, the cost of improvement will be minimal. But for a successful result we need technological details. After all the truth?
All those who wish to acquire an autonomous sewage system on their own land, we offer useful information that thoroughly covers all aspects of its construction. The practical application of the information provided by us is a guarantee of long service and flawless system operation.
An interesting article presented to your attention introduces various constructive types of home-made septic tanks. It describes in detail the technology of the construction of sewage treatment plant from waste barrels. The construction methods are illustrated with simplified graphics, photos and video applications.
The content of the article:
- The advantages of a homemade septic tank
- Varieties of designs and schemes
The construction of a septic tank of plastic barrels
- Basic placement requirements
- Features and design standards
- Preparation of building materials for work
- The device of the pit with a concrete slab
- Assembly and connection of the structure
- Visual walkthrough
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The advantages of a homemade septic tank
Despite the fact that manufacturers offer a fairly wide range cleaning systems, the design and construction of self-made septic tanks (for example, from barrels) is quite relevant.
The version of the handwritten device is claimed for the following reasons:
- the ability to reduce costs to a minimum by purchasing components, as they say, out of tune - where it is cheaper, and secondly, using the available tools available;
- Installation of equipment can be carried out according to the so-called modular scheme, having previously calculated the options for adding and complicating the system.
Let's say you first equip a toilet. In the future, you connect to the cleaning system a bath, a sink in the kitchen, even a sink in the garage. Of course, this will be easily feasible only if the “tie-in” points are ready in advance - pipe bends that are brought to the surface or close to it, reserved for a while.
The construction of a septic tank of barrels will allow with minimal costs to organize an autonomous sewage system with the disposal of neutralized and clarified drains
No one better than the master who built the septic tank knows the weak points of the cleaning system and its possibilities. Although it is not necessary to allow shortcomings, but only it will take them into account during operation.
It is no secret that manufacturers and sellers of any equipment, as a rule, do not inform buyers about the shortcomings, “sticking out” only the merits septic system. An independent builder will know what can let him down.
Knowing the approximate norms of water consumption by the family, taking into account the frequency of residence and features of the site around the house as a whole (type soil and groundwater table), you can avoid both the waste of effort and money and the “accidents” caused by the poor throughput of the system cleaning up.
A septic tank of barrels works on the principle of multi-compartment clarifiers, which, as a result of overflow and upholding, ensure the separation of sewage into water and sludge. Coming out of the septic tank, the water clarified and purified to 65% is discharged into the ground, and the sludge accumulates at the bottom of the settling tank until the pumping out by sewers
The subtleties of the construction of a septic tank, working without odor and does not require pumping, learn from another popular article our site.
Varieties of designs and schemes
A homemade septic tank constructed of barrels consists of several tanks (chambers) arranged in a predetermined order. They are sequentially connected to each other by nozzles so that the sections are filled in a strictly defined order. This is achieved by installing cameras at different levels in height.
The principle of operation of a multi-chamber septic tank is similar to the principle of operation. cesspool with overflow. The entrance and exit of the pipes into the chambers is done in such a way that the water begins to flow into the next tank, before the water level rises to the inlet pipe.
Gradually accumulating in the chamber, the water settles. The heaviest particles of pollution settle at the bottom of the tank, the smaller and lighter ones continue their way through the system.
For the free flow of waste mass to the septic tank and from the chamber into the chamber, the sewer line is arranged with a slope. Slope must be observed at each site, including at intervals between sections of the septic tank
In order for the methane generated during the waste treatment process to be easily removed from the system, ventilation must be arranged. It is installed vertically at the exit of the house or at the exit of the last section of the homemade septic tank.
In addition, on the drain of water from sanitary appliances, sinks, toilet, shower, etc., you need provide siphon - even if made in the form of a "knee" - so that the unpleasant smell does not poison Existence.
The principle of operation of the septic tank is based on the gradual separation of solid insoluble components and the liquid component of the effluent. Sem more sections passes sewage mass, the higher the final degree of purification.
The most common is the three-section septic tank scheme used to process gray and brown waste streams. However, if it is necessary to clean the contaminated water coming from the bath or kitchen, the use of one or two sections-drums will be enough.
Purified and clarified drains from the septic tank flow into the ground treatment system, for example, is disposed of through a filtration field
From the last barrel arrange the exit to the filtration field, which completes the cleaning process. This after-treatment system is an underground structure assembled from perforated pipes - drains.
The drainage pipeline is laid in specially selected for them trenches made with geotextiles, over which pipes are laid and sand-gravel mixture is poured.
The function of the after-treatment of gray wastewater supplied by baths, washing machines, kitchen sinks and etc., you can safely entrust to the absorption well, built in the extreme barrel sewer system. In this case, the bottom of the tank is cut, and it itself is filled with gravel and sand so that the layer of this filling is at least 1 meter.
If the quantity of wastewater does not exceed 5–8 m³ / day, then a third section without bottom, filled with a 1 m layer of sand and gravel, can be used as a ground treatment system. This method is satisfied absorption (filter) wells
As you can see, the scheme is quite simple, but its implementation in practice will require a lot of physical effort. Particularly time-consuming work associated with the development of the pit under the section of the septic tank and trenches for sewer pipe.
The calculation of the volume of waste is based on the rate of removal of waste per person in l / day. A single-chamber septic tank is constructed with a volume of waste mass up to 1 m³ / day, a two-chamber one is built at 5 - 8 m³ / day
The construction of a septic tank of plastic barrels
Self-made cleaning structures can be divided into groups according to the material from which the chambers are made, these are septic tanks:
- from plastic barrels;
- from the endured Eurocubes;
- from metal tanks (welded cubes, cylindrical barrels);
- from concrete rings;
- from car tires.
The tank of metal has greater rigidity. In addition, it is easier to fix from floating. But the main drawback of iron barrels - poor ability to resist corrosion.
A septic tank of concrete rings requires the use of special equipment in the construction of sewer manholes. The cleaning point of the tires is difficult to ensure the proper degree of tightness, if there is no experience with similar materials.
The use of plastic barrels in the septic tank device allows you to do without lifting equipment and without welding
Homemade plastic barrel septic tank has more advantages:
- small weight that facilitates transportation, installation in a ditch and assembly;
- corrosion resistance. This point is important not only in terms of reducing the hassle associated with the replacement of tanks, but also as an additional guarantee of cleanliness on the site;
- the best way to build, because for installation of the system does not require electric welding;
- tightness of tanks, due to which there is no need to carry out work on the waterproofing of sewage facilities;
- manufacturability of the source material. Polymer packaging is much easier to handle cutting tools.
If necessary, easy cutting flaws can be easily corrected using cold welding tools.
Plastic barrels - the easiest to work, technological source material for the construction of a homemade septic tank
Basic placement requirements
In that case, if you are to receive a permit for the installation of a septic tank in the regulatory authorities (SES, etc.), then carefully read the SNiP No. 2.04.03-85. SNiP - “Building Norms and Rules” - a document similar to the standard (GOST), and it is this that establishes the basic rules for the construction of external sewage networks and sewage treatment plants.
Sanitary requirements are regulated by SanPiN - Sanitary Rules and Regulations.
In any case, adhere to the following requirements for distances from the septic tank to the following objects:
- the foundation of the house is 4-5 meters;
- well, well - 30-50 m;
- lake, pond - 30 m;
- bushes, trees - 2-4 m;
- road - 5 m.
Before the device autonomous septic tank or cesspool of plastic drums its location should be discussed with the owners of neighboring sites. Although the standards provided for the distance from their fence to the septic tank 2 m, but the owners of the nearby estate may not be satisfied with the proximity of the sewer construction.
When dredging the structure below 5 m, construction permits will be required from the local administration.
The greater the amount of waste processed in the septic tank, the further it should be removed from the foundation
But even if permission is not required, consider the features of the site. It is senseless to arrange sewage with ground treatment systems in clay soils that do not have the necessary filtration properties.
The absence of the ability to pass water “will tell” the stagnation of flood waters during the melting of snow and during periods of abundant loss of liquid precipitation. This means that clay soils predominate in the section, which do not allow water to pass through it or into itself.
On clay soils, sandy loams, clays, loams, install storage tanks. Make them from concrete rings, plastic containers or groups of barrels. The accumulators only accumulate waste mass for pumping by sewers, and do not recycle them.
A similar decision should be made if the groundwater level is close to the surface. Water-saturated soils will also prevent the disposal of purified and clarified liquid component of the effluent.
If the section of the site is composed of clay soils that are unable to absorb purified water, the idea of building a septic tank will have to be abandoned.
Instead of a storage tank, a biological treatment station can be installed. It cleans drains by 98%, which allows you to dump them on the relief.
Features and design standards
Having solid experience in the construction of such systems, all the required calculations can be made "by eye". But drawing up a detailed plan and developing a project, at least in the form of a sketch, can be of great benefit.
First, having determined the installation locations of the chambers and the laying of the highway, you will accurately calculate how much and what materials you need to purchase. If time endures, then before you start work, part of the necessary, it is quite possible, can be obtained free of charge.
And legally - people, as a rule, easily part with the things that they consider trash. More than once it has been tested in practice that even a car can be assembled by spending money comparable to the price of, say, a new bicycle.
Secondly, careful implementation of the sketch contributes to the adoption of new decisions, and also disciplines. In addition, a high-quality drawing on a scale can reveal the shortcomings of the original design and save from unnecessary expenses. It may well be that the scheme can be simplified by discarding too much.
Designing a septic tank will help to accurately calculate the consumption of materials, think over the joints and calculate the installation height of the barrels (+)
When making a plan, be guided by the following:
- even if you do not need official permission to install a septic tank, try not to violate the ecology of the site;
- the septic tank sections should be positioned so that there is at least 5 m between them and the foundation - the distance excluding the washing out of soils in case of emergency flooding of the septic tank and the occurrence of leaks;
- the sewer pipe route must be designed so that it is, as far as possible, without turns, which contribute to the clogging of the pipeline;
- The external line of the autonomous sewage system should be provided with a manhole for inspection and cleaning.
- for every 25 m of sewer mains, an additional manhole should be constructed.
If the site is not pleased with the dimensions, and the choice of place is a matter of decision, then, if necessary, reinforce the walls of the pit.
To the level of seasonal freezing of soils, the septic tank and sewer pipeline must be insulated so that ice jams are not formed in it.
If the future plans to build buildings, the functioning of which will require the use of water (bathhouse, washing, any handicraft production), provide places for “tapping” of water flows from them into the system cleaning up. Moreover, the discharge of water from the bath can be taken immediately to the last chamber of the septic tank, since there will be no large particles of dirt in the waste water.
If you do not intend to use the services of the nightman, do not make the first camera too bulky - so that it can be easily cleaned manually. In addition, provide or the possibility of easy dismantling of the camera, or access to its contents for quick cleaning.
For maintenance, monitoring and periodic extraction of sludge, a septic tank must be equipped with a hatch. It should rise above ground level by at least 18 cm.
If, in accordance with the clay type of soil on the site, only the installation of a drive is possible, then the design shall be carried out taking into account ensuring the unimpeded passage of cesspool machinery.
The depth of the trench must be calculated in such a way that the slope of the pipes is 2-3 cm per 1 meter so that the drains spontaneously move to the place of processing and disposal.
Preparation of building materials for work
The main materials needed for the manufacture of a septic tank from the barrels, include:
- pipes for the line with a diameter of 110 mm;
- fitting, corners, etc., in an amount appropriate to your project.
- the barrels themselves, designed for septic tank chambers. Their sizes should be selected with the calculation of the approximate water consumption in the house, based on direct observations.
It is advisable to use barrels with sufficiently thick walls so that the joining of pipes with them is as rigid as possible - otherwise the seam may lose tightness from mechanical impact.
For the connection of polymer parts more convenient to use adhesives, which must be compatible with the materials of barrels and pipes
Work out in advance the issue of freezing chambers at low temperatures. You can use the old rustic way - to put in a wooden stick.
At least, the ice expanding during freezing will squeeze the tree, which has “taken over” some of the impact. Also help plastic bottles filled with sand.
But in any case, the insulation of the barrels will not be superfluous - take care of purchasing the available materials in the required quantity.
Auxiliary materials will also be required. You need to buy a sealant to seal the seams. For this purpose, do not use silicone, it will not last long, and it will not be possible to cover it with any protective layer - no coating will hold onto the silicone.
The best option would be to use bodywork automotive sealant - it has good adhesion (sticking ability), mechanical strength, and it can to coat with paint, mastic, etc. The best performance has a polyurethane sealant, but it is quite expensive;
We need to buy cement, sand, rebar - to fill the grounds for the barrels. There should not be any special quality requirements for sand. Let it be with pebbles, not scary, as long as it does not include lumps of loam and organic pollution.
As the fittings fit any steel bars. Boil the reinforcing mesh to anything - it is enough to fasten the bars with wire.
If during the development of the pit excavated soil with biological inclusions, lenses and layers clay soil, then quarrying or river water will be required to fill the pit with an installed septic tank. sand
It will require gravel, gravel, granulated slag or similar materials to fill the bottom of the pit (pit) before pouring cement;
The plastic barrel is lightweight, and therefore, when the tank is not filled, it can "push" to the surface groundwater. To avoid this, prepare metal hooks, threaded rods - anything you can “to anchor"A barrel.
It is appropriate to use the sold threaded studs - it is convenient to make hooks from them, on the straight ends of which you can fasten iron plates with two nuts that you need to “drown” in cement.
The device of the pit with a concrete slab
How you decide to make the main pit - manually or with an excavator - decide for yourself. Calculate its area so that after installing the barrel into place it was convenient to ram the earth, falling asleep into the gap between it and the wall of the pit. It is also possible to provide for thermal insulation of the container - slag, foam, - in general, the fact that it will be more accessible.
Before pouring the concrete slab at the bottom of the excavation, it is necessary to check whether its depth is sufficient. To do this, you can install one of the barrels in the pit and see if there is enough depth for arranging a concrete base. If everything is in order, you can start pouring the bottom of the pit with cement. It is not necessary to do formworkbut it is advisable to fill it up with sand and tamp the bottom.
If there are doubts about the strength of the walls of the pit, then before pouring, they must be strengthened with a board. Then it is enough to fill the bottom with a thin layer of liquid cement. After it dries, you can lay the reinforcement and fill it “clean” - with the alignment of the horizon. Do not forget about the embedded parts for anchoring barrels!
Cement mix with sand - 3 parts of sand on 1 part of cement. It is very convenient to use an electric concrete mixer, but purchasing it only for this work (if there are no plans to build something else) does not seem appropriate. It is enough to choose a suitable trough, convenient for working with a shovel.
Sand with cement, stir first without water - on the contrary, avoiding its premature contact, and then gradually pouring liquid, bring the solution to the desired consistency. To prepare small portions of cement, you can work on a sheet of iron or plywood - if there is no trough. Before filling the foundation, moisten the backfill with water.
In order to carry out the anchoring of a light plastic septic tank, it is necessary to lay metal brackets in the poured concrete slab
To level the fill, use a tool that looks like a mop with a flat sole. Pressing the sole to the surface, lightly smooth the solution. So, by the way, you will achieve a better filling with the solution of the future site.
To prevent the solution from cracking when it dries, especially in hot weather, cover the padded area with a thick cloth after the cement “grabs” and water it. For such a purpose, a tarpaulin or a similar synthetic fabric is better suited - it’s not the wetting of the surface of the pad that is important here, but the slowing down of the evaporation process.
Proceed with the installation of pipes when the barrels are installed, but not completely fixed. Only when the entire structure is assembled can its elements be fixed. Barrels preferably filled with water - for sustainability.
All these points are important to take into account due to the fact that the final assembly step will be the processing of pipe and barrel joints with sealant - while it dries, it is necessary to ensure that the structure is still.
Before applying the sealant to the place of its contact with the plastic, treat with a large sandpaper (№№ 80 -100) - for better hitch and durability of the seam. By the way, the same sealant can be installed and triangular scarves for stiffness, 3-4 pieces at the joint, between the wall of the barrel and the pipe. At the time of drying the sealant wind the kerchiefs with wire, masking tape, etc. - so that they do not "slip".
Schematic diagram of the preparation of the pit and the anchoring of a factory-made septic tank can be used in the device of the sewer object with your own hands (+)
Having tested the system for water flow, proceed to the final backfilling of trenches and pits. Do soil tamping gradually, falling asleep in layers. You can throw stones, bricks, etc., for rigidity.
In those places where machinery may have been attacked by buried pipes and pits, make a protective flooring at least from boards before backfilling the surface layer of soil.
Assembly and connection of the structure
So, all the materials are ready. The next step - cutting holes in the barrels for pipes. Describe this procedure does not make sense. The only thing that can be advised - do not immediately make a hole in the size - let the pipes be inserted with effort, if necessary, trim the excess.
Next, you should take care of fixing the pipes in advance, otherwise the integrity of the seams can be compromised by backfilling and tamping trenches and holes. Pipes can be fixed using all available tools - wire, trimming boards, bricks - anything.
Before digging trenches and trenches, it will be useful to assemble the entire structure, without fixing the details, to place everything on the ground. Pipes can simply be put on the ground next to the barrels. This will help to more accurately make the markup on the ground. Having noted the contours of the highway and the pits with poles and twine, you can start digging.
The process of building a septic tank with overflow from the end-of-life barrels will be presented by a visual step-by-step instruction:
A photo of
Before the construction of a self-made septic tank, a pit is being designed, the dimensions of which will provide convenience in carrying out the work
In the lids of both barrels planned for a septic tank with an absorbing well, we cut a hole under the flange of the sewer pipe
We attach the flanges to the holes cut in the barrels. If necessary, we refine the sections
The barrel, intended for the device of the absorbing well, is still being finalized - in its upper part we cut out two holes for entering the drainage pipes
In the upper barrel, which will be used as a receiving chamber, we cut only one hole. It should be directly opposite what is cut in the lid.
On the rammed and leveled bottom of the pit, install the first barrel. We connect the flange to the hole cut in the lid
To install the second barrel before the first swarm has already been installed
We fill the deepening with gravel, which will perform the function of the ground treatment of the clarified water released from the septic tank.
Step 1: Development of the pit for the installation of barrels
Step 2: Forming Holes in Barrels
Step 3: Fitting the flange to the holes in the barrels
Step 4: Cutting holes in the bottom barrel
Step 5: Side Hole In Top Barrel
Step 6: Install the receiving chamber in the pit
Step 7: Development of the recess for the second barrel
Step 8: Filling the gravel as a filter
In the first part of the installation, the components of the septic system were prepared and the receiving tank was installed in the pit.
Further we carry out the device of the camera which is carrying out functions of the absorbing well:
A photo of
In order to create an airtight connection, the fittings and other attachable parts are planted with glue that is compatible with the material of sewer pipes.
In the second barrel we cut off the bottom, then we immerse it to the mark that allows to connect to the receiving barrel.
Having fitted all the details of the system to each other and making sure of the accuracy and correctness of the installation, we process the joints with an adhesive compound
We glue a plastic branch to the flange installed in the lid of the receiving chamber, to which we attach the sewer pipe
Insert the plastic bends into the holes cut in the second barrel, check their location
To insert the pipes into the bends, turn them in the holes so that the pipes are located almost horizontally
In order to improve the outflow of clarified water from the absorbing well, the drainage pipes leaving it should be laid with a slope. To ensure the slope set the peg
To facilitate the work on the mark of the slope and the installation of pegs, we will make a device by attaching a building tape to one of the edges of the slats or building level bar
Step 9: Gluing Flanges and Fittings
Step 10: Connecting the Filter Chamber
Step 12: Treatment of compounds with silicone glue
Step 12: Connect the Sewer Pipe
Step 13: Installing Taps in the Absorption Section
Step 14: Turning Bends for Pipe Installation
Step 15: Install the support for the drainage pipes
Step 16: Incline Tester
The installation steps for receiving and absorbing chambers are completed. Now we proceed to the construction of a ground treatment system, for which we have already installed a beacon in the form of the first peg and made a decisive device.
A photo of
In order to make a backfill with the slope required for drainage, install beacons. First we hammer in pegs that mark the edges of the building level.
We apply the measuring device to the installed pegs. If necessary, we adjust their height to the instructions of the measuring device.
Repeat the installation process of beacons until the area planned for the installation of the ground treatment system is completely filled
Focusing on the tops of the beacons, we fall asleep gravel-sand mixture. Leveling it with a shovel to the formation of the required slope
If possible, then when filling a gravel-sandy cushion, it is desirable to observe the gradation of the material with an increase in fractions from the base of the backfill to the top
We put drains on top of the backfill made with a slope - perforated sewer pipes through which the clarified water will be discharged into the ground
Drainage pipes are connected by cold or hot welding. There should be no bulges and tangible seams in the place of joining.
To ensure tightness at the junction of the drainage pipes and branches, we glue them. If you think that this is difficult, you can connect flexible HDPE pipes
Step 17: Installing beacons for backfill sloping
Step 18: Leveling the height of beacons
Step 19: Installing a set of pegs
Step 20: Sand filling with sandy aggregate
Step 21: Backfill Gradation Principle
Step 22: Laying the drainage pipes
Step 23: Connect Perforated Pipe
Step 24: Gluing Bends and Drainage Pipes
The installation of a septic system with a filtration field is completed, it remains to fill the pit with soil and start up the construction:
A photo of
Waiting for the adhesives and sealants to dry, fill the lower part of the pit with gravel
Gravel we fall asleep until it is aligned with the lid of the lower barrel, then we cover the backfill with geotextile
Above the geotextile we fall asleep a pit excavated with primer during its development
Before connecting to the sewage system, we pour plain water into the receiving chamber in order to activate the wastewater treatment process
Step 25: Gravel Pit Filling
Step 26: Laying Geotextiles Over Gravel
Step 27: Filling the pit with the rolled away ground
Step 28: Filling the Barrels with Normal Water
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. The use of plastic barrels in the manufacture of septic tank:
Video # 2. The final stages of the device:
Video # 3. The general principle of the organization of autonomous sewage:
When the homemade plastic barrel septic tank is ready for use, work out the rules for its use for family members. Be sure to insist that non-decomposable objects - rags, cigarette butts, small items made of synthetic materials should not be thrown into the sinks.
In the event that you will clean the chambers yourself, you can prepare a waste pit in advance. Practice shows that organic sludge mixed with soil and mowed grass extracted from a septic tank turns into good fertilizer for the soil after three years.
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