The high level of comfort of a modern person involves the use of a large number of electrical appliances. Therefore, the installation of sockets in the bathroom is not a whim, but an important necessity.
The selection and installation of power points is carried out in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents and the rules of an indoor or in-house electrical system. These provisions are studied by us and detailed in the article.
We will designate the zones acceptable for the installation of sockets, list the rules of electrical cable laying and give tips on choosing electrical appliances. The proposed step-by-step installation instructions will help you complete all electrical work yourself, without asking for help from specialists.
The content of the article:
- What is the outlet in the bathroom for?
Power Point Installation Requirements
- What zones are suitable for installation
- At what height to install the outlet
- Electrical wiring rules
- How to choose the outlet for the bathroom
Step by Step Installation Instructions
- Step 1 - preparation of tools and materials
- Step 2 - Wall Chipping
- Step 3 - installation of the bottom plate
- Step 4 - installation and connection of the outlet
- Useful tips on wiring in the bathroom
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is the outlet in the bathroom for?
In the houses of the old building sockets in the bathrooms are extremely rare. The reason for this is the compact footage of the room, the elementary lack of free space on the walls and the weak general electrical network of the apartment.
In addition, until recently it was believed that electric points in bathrooms and toilets could not be installed, so they were taken out and mounted near the doors to the bathroom.
In modern housing the situation is different: combined with a toilet and separate bathrooms differ in a large area, which allows you to freely place in the internal space a washing machine, a water heater, a dryer, an additional electric heater-heated towel rail, a "warm floor".
Daily use of a hairdryer, electric shaver, hair curler, etc. remains relevant.
Considering the number of appliances that require electricity, a block of outlets or 2-3 separate points are mounted in the bathroom
To find out exactly how many sockets are needed for a bathroom, you need to make a list of all devices and among them, select those that are included in the network constantly.
Suppose a washing machine is often installed in a large bathroom. Under it usually allocate a separate electrical point or mount the cable connection directly, using a terminal block.
According to the rules, the electric point should be left, right, or above the device; it should not be installed behind the surround unit. Easy access must be provided so that if a product fails, it can be quickly and easily replaced or repaired.
It is also recommended to allocate separately located sockets for connecting a water heater, cumulative boiler or heated towel rail - that is, appliances that usually work in continuous mode
Power Point Installation Requirements
New modifications of electrical devices are designed to be operated in rooms with high humidity. But both them and the sockets are subject to increased requirements. Legal information can be clarified in regulatory documents, for example, in GOST R 50571.11 (1996) and PUE (7.1).
What zones are suitable for installation
As you know, the combination of water and electricity in everyday life is very dangerous for humans. Therefore, the bathroom, where such contact is possible, can be divided into zones. A total of four - from 0 to 3.
The diagram shows electrical safety zones in the bathroom. Of the four indicated zones, only in the most distant zone No. 3 are it allowed to install sockets or switches (+)
According to the rules, electrical devices can be placed in any of the zones, but they must meet the voltage standards, degrees of protectionand also to be connected to the RCD circuit breakers in the apartment switchboard.
Let us examine the capabilities of each zone.
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The most dangerous area for the use of household electrical appliances. You can use devices with a voltage of 12 V and a degree of protection IRX7. Do not use extension cords, filters. A hair dryer, accidentally dropped into the water with a person in it, can cause an irreparable
Not suitable for installing sockets of even the highest class of protection, but it is allowed to mount water heaters - on the wall, above the mixer. The technical description of the flow or storage devices should indicate that they have a degree of protection IPX5-IPX6
It is also not suitable for the installation of sockets, but in this space you can have water heaters, boilers, fans in the hoods, lamps (class 2). IPX5 degree of protection implies that the devices can withstand the ingress of accidental splashes or jets of water
The only zone of the above in which the installation of sockets, electrical distribution boxes, switches, thermostats is possible. But there are conditions: IPX4 or IPX5 protection, connection through an automatic circuit breaker or RCD, electricity supply through a transformer
Zone 0 - bath or shower
Zone 1 - walls adjacent to the bath
Zone 2 - the space around the bath at a distance of 0.6 m
Zone 3 - section 0.6 m away from the bath
If partitions are installed in the bathroom or niches are made to prevent water from splashing regularly onto the body of electrical points, the installation requirements are softer. For example, you can do without a protective cover.
At what height to install the outlet
Standards of the height at which the sockets should be installed in the bathroom or bathroom have not changed in half a century: 0.9-1 m from the floor surface.
However, there are no strict rules, so the installation is often guided by ease of use. For example, electric point for washing machine usually located below its top cover, to the side of the case.
If the replacement of the electrical socket was required after the recently carried out repair, it is better to leave it at the same height so as not to spoil the fresh finish
In modern reference documentation you can meet with height standardsfundamentally different from earlier standards.
When planning apartments in high-rise buildings choose a height of 40-45 cm from the level of the concrete slab, that is, taking into account the subsequent finishing - 30-35 cm above the finish floor.
One of the current schemes with a low location of outlets. This placement is due to the preservation of the design of the room and ease of use of electro points.
Referring to the requirements of the PUE It turns out that there is marked only the maximum removal of the outlet from the flooring - 1 m. The minimum is not specified, which means that it can be mounted even in the plinth. Moreover, if there are children in the family, it is recommended to use special technical devices - with protective shutters.
However, the position at a distance of 0.3 m from the floor and even more so in the baseboard is absolutely not suitable for a bathroom. In the field of communications through which water circulates, it is not possible to locate sockets below, because there is always a risk of flooding the room.
You should also follow the rules common to all rooms:
- not less than 10 cm - distance to door and window openings;
- not less than 15 cm - distance to the ceiling;
- 90 cm - when installing the "socket / switch" unit, the height from the floor.
It can be concluded that the outlet is optimally located at a distance from 0.5 m to 0.9 m above the level of the finished floor. If you need to replace the old outlet, it is better to simply dismantle it and install a new one without changing the place.
Electrical wiring rules
In new homes, when replacing sockets, the cable is usually not touched, as it fully meets safety standards and is able to withstand the load. If the house is old, then during the repair in the bathroom before installing the outlets, it is better to replace the wires.
Aluminum wiring is considered weak and not suitable for modern power grids, so it must be replaced with alternative copper wires with a cross section of 1.5 mm² or more.
For the installation of household appliances - washing machines, heaters - it is recommended to install powerful power lines, and in some cases - dedicated electrical lines with a separate UZO.
Be sure to require installation boxes - for the distribution of wires along the lines. If the bathroom will install 2 outlet blocks, respectively, and junction boxes need 2 too.
The most rational connection scheme. If instead of mounting boxes to use a chain of parallel connections, any violation in the system will immediately disable all connected lines (+)
Mounting boxes are placed under the ceiling at a distance regulated by the rules, and from there they are vertically lowered down the wires to the place of installation of the outlet.
The fact is that the lining does not show the location of the cable, so its diagonal placement is strictly prohibited. Any wire outside the channel “junction box / socket box” may cause an accident.
Over a short distance, that is, straight, the wires can be placed either under the floor covering or above the suspended structures - stretch or plasterboard ceilings. But in this case it is desirable to place the wires inside the protective sleeves (non-metallic). This applies to all types of products: VVGng, VVG and even NYM.
A few words about the type of wiring. For bathrooms, the most secure is considered to be internal, located in the grooves under the cladding. Outdoor is also used, but extremely rarely, since it is characteristic of baths in wooden houses. Cover the wires can be plastic boxes made of non-combustible material.
How to choose the outlet for the bathroom
Some devices for bathrooms, kitchens and combined bathrooms can not be distinguished from the usual - outwardly they look exactly the same. Others have a slightly modified design. However, the main difference lies in the protection, which can be determined by marking the letter IP and two numbers.
For the bathroom, both digital values are relevant. The first indicates the degree of protection from solid particles and dust, the second - from moisture. Experts recommend devices labeled for both parameters at least 4, but better than 5 or 6.
A table with which you can choose the outlet for the appropriate parameters. Examples of a successful choice - devices with IP55 or IP65 (+) marking
The case of the socket, in the marking of which the numbers 6-8 are found, is hermetic and protected even from direct jets of water, however many devices are additionally equipped with covers. Built-in spring prevents accidental opening.
To use the outlet, it is necessary to carefully, with some effort, lift the lid up so that the contacts of the plug can be freely inserted into the holes.
In the process of selection and purchase, as well as after installing the device, it is better to ensure its integrity once again: there should be no cracks on the case, and the lid should be tightly abutted and open with force
Professional electricians recommend not to save on the purchase of products of famous brands, which for years serve without repair. For example, many good reviews from experts receive waterproof sockets companies: Schneider electric, GIRA, Legrand, Berker, ABB, Wessen, Bticino, Makel, Viko.
Step by Step Installation Instructions
The process of installing a new outlet or replacing an old one does not take much time, but only a professional who has filled his hand can quickly produce a high-quality installation.
If you are doing this for the first time, each stage must be thought out in advance, and all actions must be neat and unhurried. Here is an example of installing an internal outlet, as it is considered the most complex and time consuming.
Step 1 - preparation of tools and materials
The number of tools depends on how large the work will be. If the process of replacing the outlet is part of a major overhaul or redecoration, then you need to prepare a "heavy artillery" - a perforator for the tinker trick, a drill with crowns.
With a simple replacement device, a screwdriver, pliers, nippers and electrical tape is enough.
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Indicator screwdriver can quickly, with the observance of security measures, to check the presence of voltage in the network, as well as determine the phase or zero
The compact level, in the case of which several acrylic cones with liquid are enclosed, helps determine the horizontal position of the outlet blocks with an accuracy of 0.5 mm / m
When dismantling, working with wires, as well as assembling the case, various screwdrivers are required. Instead of a kit, you can use a universal kit - a pen with nozzles
When installing sockets necessarily need to clean and trim the wires. For this purpose, you can use wire cutters for electrical work or narrow pliers.
Screwdriver tester to check the voltage in the network
Special level for electricians
Set of flat and cross-head screwdrivers
In addition to these tools, you need to prepare working clothes, cotton gloves with insulation for wiring and a protective mask or goggles if you need to make walls.
Step 2 - Wall Chipping
Creating a strobe in a brick, concrete or gas-concrete wall is the most difficult and dirty stage during the installation of an outlet or switch.
Get ready for the fact that you will have to work in difficult conditions - after the first blows of the perforator a thick cloud of dust will hang in the air. To avoid this, builders connect a vacuum cleaner to the wall chaser, but home craftsmen prefer to do without it.
Consider what tool you can make wall in the walls, as well as in the cement screed on the floor, if part of the wiring will take place under the floor covering.
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The ideal tool for cutting furrows under the wires is a powerful wall chaser with a protective cover and a connected vacuum cleaner. It carefully cuts two grooves at once, moves easily on rollers, keeps the room clean
Circular popular among home craftsmen, as it is a universal tool. In order to smoothly hold the grooves with a rotating disc, skill is required. In addition, you need to stock up on diamond coated discs.
The puncher is necessary for removal of construction material which is between the cut-through grooves. In addition, you can use a drill with pobedit drill. If you only work with a perforator or a drill, the strobe will turn out to be sloppy
If it is necessary to continue small grooves along the length, an ordinary hammer and chisel are often used. The hammer can be replaced with a construction hammer, but in any case, manual labor will take longer and take a lot of effort
Professional wall chaser with vacuum cleaner
Powerful hammer drill or drill
Hand tools: hammer and chisel
The drill is also useful at the end of the chroming, for making a round hole for the bottom plate. To do this, instead of the drill put on a cylindrical crown of the desired diameter.
After the “dirty” work, it is necessary to do the cleaning - take out the construction debris, clean the room. Dust may interfere with the installation of the outlet.
Step 3 - installation of the bottom plate
Perform installation of a bottom plate better at the stage when the wall is plastered, but the tile has not yet been glued.
When replacing the outlet, it is a little easier to act, since you do not need to punch and punch anything. It is enough to dismantle the old case, unscrew the fixing screws and remove the underside, which is also better to replace.
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First you need to make a fitting of a new plastic under the hood. If there is not enough space, you will have to arm yourself with a screwdriver or a chisel to clear or even widen the hole.
In order to firmly fix the body of the underside inside the hole, a spatula mortar or alabaster must be applied around the entire circumference. Usually use a small spatula, but you can also use your finger.
First, apply a little solution on the back side of the product, and then insert it into the hole so that the outer edge is flush with the wall
To the remnants of putty or alabaster do not interfere, and the wall around the outlet was as clean as possible, remove all the excess with a damp rag, sponge or spatula. Then leave for a day
Stage 1 - cleaning the niche for installation
Stage 2 - Putting the Putty into the Socket Hole
Stage 3 - “landing” of the underlaying into place
Stage 4 - cleaning the excess solution
Only after 24 hours it will be possible to carry out further work, since the solution should grasp and firmly fix the bottom plate.
Step 4 - installation and connection of the outlet
The main stage of connection is to work with the wires, so before starting work it is necessary to de-energize the power line by turning off the circuit breaker on the apartment electrical panel.
Then follows remove the insulation from the wires and prepare them for connection. To do this, you can use pliers, side cutters or tongs.
To connect the wires to the socket terminals, you need to remove the decorative cover, put off the fastening screws and find the necessary terminals - there is a symbol opposite each one
When connecting be sure to consider wire color marking.
With its help it is much easier to determine the purpose of each allotment:
- phase - white color of isolation;
- zero - blue, blue;
- grounding - yellow-green or green.
We fasten the wires in the terminals and carefully lay them inside the box, trying not to pinch and do not bend. Then we insert the case and tighten the fastening screws. Lastly, we put on the decorative strip.
After installation, we will definitely perform testing - we supply current to the line and with an indicator screwdriver or multimeter we check the voltage in the network. If everything is in order, we finish facing the wall or tidy up the area around the electrical point.
The process of installing the outlet sockets is much easier. It is usually installed with external wiring, that is, it is not necessary to make walls and install an internal box. Before installation, the body is also disassembled and the wires are connected.
Useful tips on wiring in the bathroom
Before installing large and powerful equipment, you need to think about whether you need a socket to connect. Suppose that for a boiler with a power of 3.5-5.5 kW operating in continuous mode, it is better to use not a regular power outlet, but a direct connection with a separate automatic switch.
To protect the electric points from the ingress of water when bathing, they can be placed in niches, behind partitions and even in cabinets.
If the bathroom has a sink with a tabletop, then you can consider an interesting and convenient solution with a hidden module. The socket block is hidden in the table, and only an element comes out for which it can be easily reached outside.
The main advantage of the sliding module is 100% protection against water, but with timely masking.
The line going to the bathroom must be equipped with an RCD, and each powerful device must be equipped with a separate circuit breaker. So, if one device breaks down, the other lines will work as usual.
Remote and sliding "columns" and "books" are actively used in offices and kitchens, but they are also suitable for equipping the bathroom
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What difficulties you may encounter when installing electrical outlets in the bathroom and how to cope with them, you will learn from the videos presented.
Video with comments on the topic of mounting sockets:
About the nuances of working with tiles:
Professional installation of the block of sockets on the tile:
Installation of the outlet sockets:
Electrical work requires a certain amount of skill and safety. However, home masters easily cope with such activities as the replacement and installation of sockets and switches.
If, however, difficulties arise or work of increased complexity is required, it is better to contact professional electricians.
Do you have a personal experience installing an outlet in the bathroom? Want to share your knowledge or ask questions about a topic? Please leave comments and participate in discussions - the form for reviews is below.