Private houses built with regard to modern projects, as a rule, are equipped with a sewage system. This system is designed to play an important role - to drastically improve the sanitary-epidemiological situation inside the premises. However, in the framework of such projects, ventilation of the sewage system in a private house is also desirable.
It is the projects with ventilation of sewage systems that guarantee the full comfort of the dwelling and contribute to the normal operation of the sewage lines. What ventilation schemes are most effective and how to implement them in a private house - this is exactly what we will discuss in our article.
We also analyze the installation features of the constituent elements of sewage ventilation, paying attention to the rules and regulations that should be followed.
The content of the article:
- Private House Sewer Device
- Why do you need sewage ventilation?
Schemes to create effective ventilation
- Option # 1 - installation of a funnel pipe
- Option # 2 - fan pipe + pipe-trailer
- Option # 3 - drainage device
- Option # 4 - installation of aeration (vacuum) valve
- Option # 5 - a device for external ventilation of sewage
- Assembling a homemade vent pipe deflector
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Private House Sewer Device
Private residential buildings, in contrast to municipal housing, have individual characteristics. Therefore, it is not always possible to compare the sewage system of a private house with typical municipal projects. You can only borrow individual solutions.
City municipal real estate is necessarily equipped with an internal sewage system with ventilation. Private housing projects often exclude such an approach.
As a result, an important function of the sewage system is disrupted - blocking the exit of sewage fumes into the interior of the premises.
Modern housing projects in the private sector, if possible, try to implement with the connection of household sewage to a centralized highway. Autonomous circuits, however, are prevalent in private homes.
The issue of ventilation of sewer networks is considered, as a rule, with reference to internal communications. This includes all sewage lines installed directly inside buildings.
In this case, based on the classification of collected runoff water, sewage systems are divided into three types:
- household (household and fecal);
- rainwater (storm showers);
- manufacturing (industrial).
Household and fecal communications, in turn, are divided into centralized and autonomous systems. Many projects of private houses are made and run under the autonomous type.
True, at the present stage of the construction of private residential real estate, its owners are increasingly trying to connect home sewers to centralized lines. We recommend to get acquainted with all local sewage schemes country house, popular with users.
Domestic domestic communications traditionally contain the following sanitary appliances:
- sinks and bathtubs;
- toilets, urinals and bidets;
- shower cabins.
This whole set integrates the piping system, which also includes ventilation risers, manifolds, pipes, check valves and other components designed to provide full functionality of domestic sewage.
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The sewage system that removes drains outside the building and discharges them into independent sewage treatment plants or into the general collection network should be equipped with ventilation ducts
Ventilation risers are installed on each section of the autonomous sewer network or on each object with its own sewer system
Transportation of polluted air to sewage to the outside is carried out by gravitational pressure, formed by excess air mass in the sewer system.
The influx of fresh portions of air required for discharging the contaminated mass occurs through the ventilation openings and leaks in the manholes
Ventilation risers for sewer gases are taken to lay inside the house, due to the exception of freezing pipes
They try to reduce the height of the ventilation pipe outside the house to the utmost, since there is a high probability of freezing during the winter period.
Independent wastewater treatment plants, which carry out wastewater treatment for on-site disposal, must be equipped with ventilation pipes.
Ventilation pipes are installed on the elements of ground treatment systems. They are needed both for removal of methane gas formations and for the supply of oxygen to aerobic bacteria.
Ventilation sewage private house
Removal of polluted air from a water closet
Pulling the fun pipe out
Air flow through the inspection hatch
The device of the ventilation tower inside the house
Sewer pipe on the facade of the house
Septic tank ventilation pipe in a private area
Ventilation systems for ground after-treatment
Why do you need sewage ventilation?
According to the existing construction standards, low-rise (up to 2 floors) private property is allowed to be operated without equipping the sewage system with a fan pipe.
This admission is due to a small number of people (consumers) living in small private houses, which means that the load on the plumbing highway is relatively weak.
This is the end part of the construction of the fan pipe, which is extended beyond the roof of a residential building. The main riser usually ends at the level of the attic and is connected to the end part with a corrugated tube of the appropriate diameter.
Fan pipe is a construction assembled from standard plumbing pipes and installed as a vertical riser with access to a level above the roof horizon. The purpose of such a facility is to create a connection (ventilation) between the internal atmosphere of sewer communications and the external atmosphere.
Due to this connection, the pressure difference is compensated, which occurs in the process of draining a large mass of wastewater. In addition, the vent riser eliminates the formation of gas stagnation in the line.
The need to vent the riser becomes evident if calculations show that simultaneous drain from several plumbing fixtures capable of blocking the main section sewer pipe.
This situation leads to the "breakdown" of hydraulic valves (water entrainment from the siphons of sinks, baths, etc.). As a result, unpleasant odors begin to penetrate into the room through the vacated space.
True, to restore hydraulic locks, it is enough to turn on the spillage of water on sanitary devices for a short time.
Standard wiring diagram of the sewage system in a private two-story house with a ventilation riser. Usually used in projects of private housing, designed for the construction of two or more floors
Such a development of events usually does not threaten the communications of a small private house. Nevertheless, it is recommended not to abandon the construction of sewage ventilation for greater reliability and peace of mind for personal comfort.
The introduction of a sewage pipe into the sewage system eliminates the “breakdown” of hydraulic valves, provides a balance of air flow and ventilation inside the communications.
Mandatory use of a ventilation riser:
- in private houses more than two floors with the placement of toilets and baths on each floor;
- when the size of the cross section of pipelines, outlets and risers sewer line less than 50 mm;
- the project of the house provides for the installation of a septic tank in the surrounding area.
If the project of the house provides for the placement of a pool associated with a common sewage system, you will also have to take care of installing the riser.
Schemes to create effective ventilation
Consider the basic options for arranging effective ventilation of the sewer system in a private household.
Option # 1 - installation of a funnel pipe
The ventilation efficiency of the sewage system is ensured by the observance of the two main principles of installation of the funnel pipe. The first principle is based on the difference in the diameters of the branch and main pipes.
The diameter of the funnel pipe should always be of a size equal to or slightly larger than the size of the diameter of the outlet from the main sewer line.
The second principle is to bring and mount the outlet of the upper end part of the ventilation pipe to the area of free air flow.
The installation of the ventilation riser always involves the use of pipes with a diameter equal to or larger than the diameter of the main sewer line. The figure shows a transition from the tee sewer system to a funnel pipe.
Installation of the ventilation stack is traditionally conducted using standard plastic pipes with a diameter of 110 mm. In addition to plastic, cast iron pipes are also used to assemble the fan line. But such a construction option, as a rule, is the prerogative of large projects.
The pipes are connected to each other using rubber seals. Attach the ventilation line to the wall of the house with metal clamps, putting them on the surface of the pipe through the rubber gasket.
Ventilation risers lead from the point of interface with the sewage system, followed by passage through all floors of a private house, including the attic area. The withdrawal of the end part is carried out beyond the boundaries of the roof of the structure
The upper point of the ventilation pipe pulled out of the pipe should be above the horizon of the roof covering not lower than 300 - 700 mm. These values are recommended for installation on houses with flat roofs or where the roof is made under a slight bias. The steeper the roof slope, the higher is the height of the end part of the ventilation pipe.
Building codes also provide for maintaining the height distance from the top of closely spaced windows to the top of the funnel pipe.
It is recommended to adhere to the parameters not less than the values of 3.5 - 4 m. The ventilation of the home sewage system is mounted as a separate communication unit.
The rules (SNiP) do not allow combining the sewer ventilation line with other technical systems (chimneys, air extracts, etc.).
In the development of the project for the construction of ventilation independent sewerage country house should take into account the following requirements:
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The ventilation riser of the independent sewage system is discharged through an uninhabited attic or through a complex shaft in which each channel is laid separately.
Laying of the ventilation duct of a sewer system in a cold attic is allowed if it is well ventilated and not used for domestic purposes.
The height of the exhaust length of the ventilation pipe above the flat roof, not equipped for operation, must be at least 0.3 m above the roof covering
Above the roof covering of the pitched roof, the ventilation pipe of the sewage system should rise at least 0.5 m.
The riser of the ventilation system, which removes sewage gases, on the operated flat roof should be 2.5 - 3.0 m high
If it is planned to remove sewage ventilation through the wall, then it should be done better from the side that does not have door and window openings. If this is not possible, there should be at least 4 m between the sewer ventilation and the window horizontally.
In the two-and three-storey country houses, the ventilation riser is equipped with a cleaning, arranged at the level of plumbing, installed above all appliances
In country houses in recent years, more and more often bulky ventilation risers are replaced by ventilation valves. Their use simplifies the system and reduces the cost of its construction.
Combined ventilation shaft at home
Laying fun sewer in a cold attic
Height of the riser above the flat roof
Ventilation pipe on the pitched roof
Ventilation shaft on the roof being used
Fixing the ventilation pipe outside on the wall
Cleaning the vent riser
Vent valve instead of a riser in a private house
Our site has detailed instructions with step by step photos on installation of fan pipe.
Option # 2 - fan pipe + pipe-trailer
For projects of private houses, it is sometimes permissible to implement the installation scheme of the ventilation duct of the sewage system, in which the upper section of the pipeline remains in the area of the attic.
But in this version, the attic should have the design of an actively ventilated room, which is rare for private housing projects. Therefore, the actual remains the scheme with a broach pipe sewage ventilation through the roof of the building.
This is one of the most popular and common installation schemes for the end of the line for sewage ventilation. Easy and simple implementation of the solution, thanks to the use of an elastic adapter
Output through the roof is usually implemented according to the following plan:
- Vent risers end up in the attic.
- On the roof install pipe-limit switch.
- Connect the corrugation of the upper cut of the riser with the lower cut of the switch.
Installation of the pipe-trailer on the roof is convenient and easy to perform using an elastic polymer adapter. This durable durable element has a round shape (there are also square ones), and due to a step change in the diameters of the passage, it is easy to fit it to a pipe of a specific section.
It is only necessary to cut off the excess part of the material of the adapter along the line of the required diameter.
The pipe-trailer equipped with an adapter is inserted into the passage opening previously made in the calculated place of the roofing covering. The bottom cuff of the elastic adapter around the entire circumference of its junction is treated with a sealant.
Then, using a metal flange and screws, the cuff is fastened tightly to the surface of the roof.
In order to enhance the efficiency of natural thrust, an additional end is put on the upper end part of the standpipe deflector.
Ventilation deflector - a device that can increase the draft of air due to the pronounced aerodynamic properties of the structure. The principle of operation of such devices is based on the Bernoulli effect, when the speed of movement of air masses is directly proportional to the change in the cross section of the channel.
Static (fixed) deflectors are often used for sewage ventilation schemes of private houses. Less common, but also used rotary (rotating) deflectors.
This seemingly simple device plays a significant role in the ventilation of the home sewage system. According to various estimates, the deflector increases the gain of thrust by 20-30%.
Option # 3 - drainage device
If the sewage outlet is not equipped with a water lock or the action of the specified useful device is not enough, it is worthwhile to build and install a sewer hood:
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To bring the ventilation pipe out to the outside, we drill a hole in the wall with a perforator or a diamond core drill
In the hole drilled install tee, in the upper pipe which we start the corrugation of the siphon. A horizontal tap is needed to connect the chimney.
From the outside into the part of the tee extended beyond the wall we insert an angled plastic elbow. It will be the basis for the assembly of the ventilation pipe.
Mark up the route of the exhaust ventilation stack. Drill holes according to the markup to install the clamps with which the riser will be attached to the wall
In the drilled holes we install the dowels, into which we twist the clamps designed for fastening the pipes
In the assembly of pipelines use silicone sealant. We install the pipes from the bottom up, before installing each subsequent element in the socket, install a rubber sealing ring and process the connection with silicone sealant
Collected sections of the pipe set with the institution in the fixation points with clamps. Tighten the screws of the clamps not to the limit, to leave the system some space for expansion in hot weather
In order to bypass the eaves ledge, we install a plastic corner tap, above the roof we take out the ventilation pipe to the height specified in the standards
Step 1: Drilling a hole to go outside
Step 2: Install the tee to connect the ventilation
Step 3: Install the plastic outlet
Step 4: Drill the holes for the fixing clamps
Step 7: Installing the clamps to fix the hood
Step 6: Processing the seals in the compound with silicone
Step 7: Assemble the exhaust pipe on the wall
Step 8: Pipe Bypass Device In The Overhang
Option # 4 - installation of aeration (vacuum) valve
The use of vacuum (aeration) valves as an alternative to the fan pipe should be considered a purely conditional phenomenon. The scheme with vacuum valves for private property owners remains to be used only in case of complete impossibility of installing the ventilation riser.
The low reliability of the operation of aeration valves is confirmed even by the absence of any information on these devices in the SNiP documentation.
Double aeration valve for sewer pipe section 110 mm. Under the screwed head of one of the parts, the simplest design based on a rubber-plastic membrane was found.
Vacuum valves are used exclusively on sewage systems of private small-format houses.
The valve device is plain:
- plastic round case;
- in the case a through hole for the valve;
- membrane, rubber gasket.
The principle of operation of the device is also simple. If a discharged atmosphere (vacuum) is created in the sewer pipe due to an imbalance in the pressure balance, the valve opens and air from the room is sucked into the pipe. As soon as the pressure in the pipe is equalized, the valve returns to its place.
If desired, the aeration mechanism can be made independently. But there are factory products on sale with 50 and 110 mm running sections. They are not cheap, but more reliable.
Aeration valves are usually installed in the immediate vicinity of sanitary risers at the highest points of the sewer system. Most often, the valve is mounted on the top branch of the tee (cross), which is mounted on the drain line from the toilet bowl.
Owners of private houses who have made a choice in favor of aeration valves will have to periodically engage in the maintenance of these plumbing fixtures.
A certain period of operation of the vacuum valves is accompanied by the accumulation of deposits and contamination in the place where the valve seal is located.
The tightness of the device is broken, the smells of sewage begin to enter the room. Therefore, from time to time it is necessary to conduct maintenance, and here is another plus in favor of the first ventilation scheme.
It looks like the installation of aeration valve on the riser, which will be located next to the toilet in the toilet of a private house. This is one of the common uses, showing quite effective action.
Another disadvantage of the simplified valved ventilation of the domestic sewage system is that it is functional only in conditions of positive temperatures. That is, if the aeration valve is installed in the area of possible temperature reduction to zero degrees and below, there is a risk of a system malfunction.
We have detailed instructions on our website. installing a vacuum valve on the sewer.
Option # 5 - a device for external ventilation of sewage
Often there is information about the schemes of external ventilation of the sewage system of private houses. The principle of construction of external ventilation is indicated almost the same as in the case of the internal scheme.
The fan stand for ventilation is mounted against the wall of the house and rises above the roof. Meanwhile, SNiP on this subject do not give any recommendations.
On the contrary, the documentation clearly states that funnels for ventilation of household sewage should be constructed inside heated rooms.
Assembling a homemade vent pipe deflector
It is not necessary to buy a vent deflector. This swap mechanism is well enough to do on their own.
From the set of tools and material will need the following:
- galvanized sheet metal;
- fasteners (small bolts with nuts or rivets);
- scissors for metal;
- pencil ruler.
First of all, the lower part of the device is laid out - a cone-shaped socket. At the bottom, its diameter size should correspond to the diameter of the ventilation riser, and the size of the diameter of the upper part increases by 10-15% of the bottom size.
Something like this looks like a homemade deflector, made under the sewer ventilation pipe of a private house. The minimum of the tool and material and almost the same effectiveness of the action as the factory models
The resulting cone is bolted or riveted, a “skirt” is placed in the middle part, cutting off part of the air flow. An umbrella is attached to the top of the racks.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
You can learn more about the placement and meaning of the bottom riser from the following video:
Comfortable atmosphere in the house is the main factor that encourages the owners of private residential buildings to pay attention to the standard technology of ventilation of sewage.
Apply this method or be content with a simplified ventilation scheme - to decide directly to the owners of housing. Unnecessary construction plans "fly out" a pretty penny. The truth is that you always have to pay for comfort.
Have you thought about installing a ventilation riser for your home sewer system? Maybe you still have outstanding questions after reading this article? Ask for advice - our engineer will try to help you.
Or do you already use a simple ventilation of the sewage, arranged by his own hand? Tell us what scheme you applied, what difficulties you encountered while designing and whether you are satisfied with the efficiency of the riser - leave your comments, add a photo in the block under this article.