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Fresh crispy cucumbers from their own beds in winter - this is not fiction. Cultivation of cucumbers in greenhouses is possible year-round, even under adverse climatic conditions. Technology and rules for growing cucumbers in greenhouses include ensuring temperature and lighting, watering, feeding, combating pests and diseases.
The greenhouse on the plot is set so that it is not exposed to the north wind. The site must be flat or have a slight slope to the south. If there is no wind protection, then a fence is installed on the north side. In advance it is necessary to take care of the watering scheme. The ratio of volume to area should be:. This is the optimal parameter for maintaining the internal temperature regime. As a protective surface in the greenhouses used polyethylene film. It can be mounted on slopes of 15-20 degrees.
In the cold season, the cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse is carried out on "warm" beds: manure or compost.
- For the device of a manure bed, fresh cow dung, slightly diluted with horse, is taken. It performs two functions at once: fertilizing and heating. Manure is laid in the garden. A layer of fertile soil of 20-25 cm high is poured on it. The bed is watered abundantly. Seeds can be planted without pre-germination. The bed is covered with a polyethylene film. Seedlings will appear in a few days. In the process of decomposition, manure generates a large amount of heat. This contributes to the growth of cucumbers, but it is necessary to ensure that there is no overheating. Even at low external values, under the film the temperature rises above 30 ° C, reaching peaks in direct sunlight. The abundant release of heat by manure lasts about a month. Then the temperature gradually falls. This must be taken into account when calculating the time of planting.
- How to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, if getting fresh manure is problematic? They resort to the second method of arranging a "warm patch" - a compost. As compost used organic waste: sawdust, shavings, foliage, tops. The fresh organic matter, the higher the temperature. If possible, manure and special chemical compounds are added, which accelerate the decomposition process. The layout of the bed is similar to the manure, but it is better to plant the seeds already sprouted in peat cups. The allocation of heat energy in compost beds is not as intense as in manure. This method is more suitable for warm regions.
Selection of cucumber seeds for a greenhouse
Greenhouse varieties of cucumbers are different from those that are adapted for growing outdoors. Choose those that are well tolerated low light. The second important issue is pollination. In summer, in open beds, bees, bumblebees and other flying insects can handle it well. And in the cold season, they have nowhere to take. You can pollinate plants manually, but this process is labor intensive.
Optimum choice is the seeds of cucumbers for greenhouses self-pollinated:
These are long-fruited hybrids. They are well tolerated by the lack of lighting and are suitable for early planting.
Special greenhouse sorts of cucumbers for cultivation in the conditions of Siberia and the central strip of Russia are deduced. It:
For spring planting,
- VIR 516;
- Altai Early.
High grades to lack of light and moisture are different:
- Relay race;
The best varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses are also Gribovsky 2 and May. They bear fruit on the 50th day after seed germination.
The best germination has 2-3 summer seeds. Before planting, they are calibrated, removing the empty and sick. For the disinfection of seeds, an aqueous solution is prepared from boric acid of copper sulfate and nitrofosses. Aloe juice is also suitable for this purpose. Seeds are spread on a cloth moistened with a solution and aged for 12 hours. After that they are washed under running water, spread on wet gauze and placed in the refrigerator for a week for hardening. Tempering temperature is 0 ° С. Marl periodically wet.
The rules of cucumber care in the greenhouse
In greenhouses, a seedling method of planting cucumbers is often used. He gives earlier crops. Before planting cucumbers in a greenhouse on the garden they are grown in small pots (plastic cups will do). Seeds are deepened by 2 cm, and the glass is covered from above with a damp cloth, so that the soil does not dry out. Before the emergence of sprouts, the temperature is maintained at +25 ° C. after the shoots appear, the temperature for 5 days is reduced to + 15 ° C in the daytime and +12 ° C at night. Sprinkle the seedlings every other day and periodically feed them with a solution of cow dung in the following proportions:.
Planting on the beds is performed on day 25 after emergence. The landing scheme: a two-line tape 50х20 cm. The distance between the beds is 80 cm. The temperature regime of cultivation of cucumbers in a greenhouse is maintained within the limits of + 25-30 ° С in the daytime and +15 ° С at night.
The first fertilizing of plants is made with the appearance of the third present leaf, the second - at the beginning of flowering. During the fruiting period, fertilizers are applied up to 4 times. In addition to cow or poultry manure, sandy soils require nitrogen fertilizers, and floodplain soils require potassium fertilizers.
Before flowering watering is done every 5 days, then every 2 days. However, if the leaves turn yellow, the norm should be increased. Warm water is used for irrigation.
After each watering, a shallow loosening of the soil is carried out. It is necessary to access air to the roots and prevent their decay. The greenhouse needs regular airing. With warming, it should be opened for the whole day and closed at night.
To garter cucumbers equip trellis. A wire is stretched along each row at a height of 2 m. Above each plant, a twine is attached to it. Plants are tied at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground. The loop should be moderately free with the expectation of thickening of the stem. A too tight garter will cut into the stem and weaken the food of the plant.
As the bush grows, it should be formed. Side lashes grow and shade the plant, and the root system and the stem do not provide adequate nutrition to the fruits. This reduces the yield. The lower processes are plucked after the formation of the first sheet, the higher ones at a level of 2-3 sheets.
If in the spring the polyethylene film is capable of providing a temperature regime, then the cultivation of cucumbers in winter in a greenhouse is impossible without additional artificial heating. Used stoves and heaters of various types, but it should be borne in mind that they dry the air, and this negatively affects the moisture-cucumber cucumber. To moisten the entire greenhouse, place containers with water, and the plants are regularly sprayed from the spray gun.
Even the most resistant varieties in winter are not enough lighting. The recommended artificial light rate is 400 W / m2. Until the appearance of sprouts, continuous lighting is carried out for 2-3 days. Above only sprouting sprouts lamps are installed at a height of 50-60 cm and illuminate them for 14 hours a day. Before planting seedlings in the ground, the lighting is switched off for one day. As the plants grow, the lamps are raised to a height, m. Good lighting has a beneficial effect on the content of sugars and ascorbic acid in the fruit.
To obtain the harvest in December and January, the seeds are sown at the end of September, and the transplants are transplanted to the beds at the end of October. Collection of the earliest cucumbers in the greenhouse continues until April.
Diseases and pests
Diseases are the main problem of greenhouse cultivation of cucumbers. The most common are powdery mildew and peronosporos.
1. Powdery mildew most often attacks plants with warming. This disease is dangerous and can kill cucumbers in a few days. It appears as a powdery coating on the leaves. They quickly turn yellow and dry up. To fight the disease using potassium permanganate, sulfuride, preparations Impact 25%, Quadrase 250 SC. In sunny, warm weather, cucumbers are ground with sulfur.
2. Peronosporos is manifested in the form of yellow or green oily stains on the leaves, which gradually darken, acquiring a brown tint. If the disease is detected, watering and top dressing is stopped. For treatment use solutions of copper chloride or polycarbacin. Spraying with systemic fungicides is also effective. After treatment, it is recommended to ventilate the greenhouse. In case of peronasporosis it is important to maintain daytime temperatures in the greenhouse at least +20 ° C, night temperatures not lower than +18 ° C.
The main pests of cucumbers are aphids, mites, thrips, wireworms. Chemicals are used against them: Confidor, Bi-58, Decis-Duplet and others.