When choosing a tank for storing liquefied gas, everything is important: from the principle of operation of the device to its physical parameters. On the gas equipment market there are varieties of gas holders, which differ in performance, size and method of installation.
To better understand the modern models, we recommend to study the basics of classification and features of popular species.
The content of the article:
- Gas-holder and reasons for its acquisition
Gas Storage Classification
- The division into types of work
- Constant and variable volume
- Grouping by shape
- Selection of types at the place of installation
- Tips for choosing a gas tank for home
- Browse popular brands
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Gas-holder and reasons for its acquisition
Gas tank in the broad sense of the term is a reservoir for storing substances in a gaseous state. At industrial facilities, natural gas, biogas, and liquefied petroleum gas are stored in dimensional containers. For country houses of permanent residence, cottages, cottage settlements, sports bases, holiday homes use gas tanks, equipped for the storage of LPG - a liquefied mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons.
Substances that form the basis (about 40 and 60% of the total) are propane and butane. To transfer them from a normal gaseous state to a liquefied one, they increase the pressure in the reservoir, for reverse The process requires a built-in evaporator (but for domestic models, the characteristic natural evaporation at positive temperature).
Storage of gas in separate tanks is important for residential buildings and industrial facilities that are outside the zone of central gas supply. Of course, trunk natural gas remains the cheapest form of energy, but not all areas are gasified.
In the absence of the possibility of connecting to the highway, the owners of suburban real estate acquire household gas storages - gas holders, designed for servicing one house
Before choosing a model, it is necessary to make calculations in order to correctly determine the volume of the tank and its performance. You can calculate it yourself, but for more accurate results it is better to contact the company that sells the equipment. The simplest choice is made by comparing the volume of the container with the area of the house (taking into account the number of gas consumers).
Anyway, it will not be superfluous to study in advance the nuances of various models, to learn about working conditions and structural features.
Gas Storage Classification
Created many modifications for the storage of various types of gases under pressure. Not all models on the market are suitable for use on a private land plot. Let's try to find out which gas tanks are domestic, and which are used only in the industrial segment.
The pressure inside the tanks may differ, and therefore it is customary to divide all gas-holders into two categories:
- high pressure (0.7 kgf / cm2 - 30 kgf / cm2 and more or up to 3 MPa) - have constant geometric volume parameters;
- low pressure (0.05 kgf / cm2. or up to 4-5 kPa) - characterized by a variable geometric volume and constant pressure.
For private use produce low pressure equipment. In the production process, it is taken into account that the functioning of the devices occurs at low temperatures (down to -40 ° C) and in a fairly humid environment (ground models are exposed to precipitation, while underground models are in contact with groundwater waters). Therefore, for the manufacture of the hull used mild steel St3 (GOST 380-60).
Material for low pressure storage should be durable, suitable for welding in factory conditions, not brittle in conditions of low temperatures
Especially for installation in the Far North, where the temperature often drops below -40 ° C, models of low-alloyed steel are produced (for example, from 09G2S (M), 10G2C1 grades).
In the production of high pressure gas tank cases, ordinary steel St3, as well as 09G2S (N), 15HSND (NL-2) grades are involved.
The scope of application of high-pressure gas-holders is industrial enterprises, urban gas stations. Standard cylindrical models up to 270 m3 withstand pressure up to 20 kgf / cm2
The division into types of work
There are two large groups of low pressure gas-holders: dry and wet. Such a division is justified by both the design features and the principle of action.
Simplified schematic representation of both types of gas holders. The tanks are sealed in different ways: a water seal is used in wet gas holders (MG), and in dry analogs (SG) - without water, for example, using seals
Low concentration gases are suitable for use in MG, which are well tolerated by water moistening and do not form corrosion of steel elements.
In contrast, dry-type tanks store concentrated gases that do not tolerate contact with water (for example, propylene or ethylene).
The construction of MG consists of three main elements: a tank filled with water, a moving part in the form of a telescope and a spherical bell. The total minimum volume of construction - 100 m³, maximum - about 30 thousand. m³
In the tank filled with gas, the bell is in the top position. As the volume of gas decreases, it goes down along the guides. The water in the tank plays the role of a water seal and prevents gas from spreading beyond the borders of the bell. Due to the presence of water, it is necessary to maintain the temperature not lower than + 4-5 ° С. MG is often used as buffer tanks for compressors.
The SG case resembles a dome, welded or steel sheets 5 mm in thickness, the top part is covered by 3 mm steel. Inside the case there is a horizontal washer, which changes its position depending on the filling. SG, in contrast to MG, is easier to maintain and suitable for storing gases of high concentration.
Constant and variable volume
Variable-volume gas tanks can be dry and wet, up to 50 thousand. cubic meters of volume. They are made of steel sheets or reinforced concrete. Their main purpose is not to store the gaseous medium, but to adjust the required level of gas pressure, which inside the tanks is at a temperature like that of the environment. These are bulky constructions which are now used extremely rarely.
In connection with the development of technology and the emergence of new, more durable materials, devices of a constant volume have replaced the gas-holders of variable volume. They withstand increased loads, do not corrode even when storing aggressive media, and when installing control valves allow you to control the gas pressure within normal limits. Domestic types of gas-holders belong to this type.
Grouping by shape
The form of gas-holders is more often cylindrical (vertically or horizontally directed), less often - spherical. Domestic class tanks usually have a volume of 2.5 m3 up to 10 thousand m3 and look like a cylinder with rounded ends.
Horizontally directed gasholder installed in the pit. The body and its contents are heated by the heat of the earth, due to which the required temperature for gas evaporation is constantly maintained
Manufacturers of horizontal gas-holders claim that in such tanks the surface area of evaporation is increased. This has a positive effect both on the process of changing the liquid phase into a gaseous one, and on maintaining the necessary working pressure in the system.
However, vertical models function no less productively and have proven themselves in the northern regions, where the temperature often drops to -40 ° C.
For installation of vertical gas-holders the small ditch is necessary on the area. For example, for the installation of a gas tank of Antonio Merloni with a volume of 1,650 liters, a pit with a diameter of just 2 m is needed.
Spherical (ball) tanks are designed for storing gaseous media on an industrial scale and usually have large volumes - from 5 thousand m³ to 10 thousand m³. All records were broken by a reservoir built in France - 87 thousand m³.
Selection of types at the place of installation
All gas tanks can be divided into 2 types - above ground and underground. The first ones are installed on a solid foundation directly on the ground, and the second ones are buried in the ground, having previously laid a concrete slab on the bottom of the foundation pit. To perform a particular type of installation, it is necessary to observe a number of conditions.
For industrial use, outdoor installation is preferred. Gas-holders parks are rows or groups of reservoirs connected by a collector device. Large-capacity ground containers are easier to maintain — monitor airtightness and pressure, perform a visual inspection. A necessary element is the evaporator, since the temperature can fall below + 5 ° C.
A feature of mounting spherical structures is the assembly on site. They build supports on the size of the tanks, and then weld halves or "petals" of the buildings.
In the cottage settlements are mainly used underground models.
Installation in the ground has a couple of important advantages:
- the evaporation process takes place in a natural way, since due to the heat of the earth the temperature does not fall below +5 ° C, therefore, the evaporator is not needed;
- a reservoir installed in the ground does not introduce disharmony in the landscape design (although the space saving is very conditional - it is impossible to install structures on it, place flowerbeds or plant trees).
The disadvantage is the costly installation associated with the land works. Also, after a certain period (depending on the model), it is necessary to check the integrity of the tank. According to federal standards, every 8 years it is necessary to carry out hydro-testing for durability or a procedure for flaw detection. It aims to check the thickness and strength of the walls, as underground models are more susceptible to corrosion.
In more detail how installation of gas-holders on a site can be read here. If it is not possible to mount the gas tank yourself, you can order turnkey installation.
In addition to the underground and above-ground installation, stationary and mobile. In the first case, the tanks are thorough mounted on a concrete base, securing anchors or cables, after which their movement is prohibited. In the second, on the contrary, is transported depending on the purpose of use.
Mobile models are small (up to 1 thousand l), the ability to install on a vehicle, ease of refueling from a cylinder or gas station.
The most popular types of household gas-holders are presented in the photo gallery:
A photo of
To ensure the protection of the hull tanks are covered with anti-corrosion enamel. If the temperature indicators prevent the natural evaporation of the propane-butane mixture, the above-ground models are completed with an additional element - the evaporator
In order to avoid problems with evaporation of the liquefied gas medium, the tank is instilled below the level of freezing. Polyethylene highway, stretched to the entrance to the house, also laid at a depth of 0.7-0.8 m, and then closed on top with layers of sand and soil
Compact tanks with capacities from 400 liters to 1000 liters are specially designed for transportation. They are used for arranging heating and hot water supply in construction trailers, small country houses, on trips to nature and during holidays in campsites.
According to SNiP, mini-gas holders up to 600 l are allowed to be installed near the wall of the house. They are thermally insulated with foiled material and heating cable with automatic temperature control switch. If you build a canopy, the hull can be further protected from precipitation
Ground reservoir for warm climates
Underground gas tank for areas with harsh winters
Mobile model for transportation to any place
Ground mini gasholder for installation at home
Before choosing equipment, it is necessary to make preliminary calculations of consumption, examine the territory, analyze the possibilities of different types of installation.
Tips for choosing a gas tank for home
Buying a gas tank for long-term use, the owners of suburban real estate are trying to provide all the nuances of the construction of the tank and its installation on its site.
The main criteria are:
- tank volume;
- installation method;
- for underground installation - horizontal or vertical directivity;
- for elevated models - mobility.
It is necessary to push off from the volume - it is important to choose a model that could be refilled 1-2 times a year. There are mini-options that refuel more often, but only with constant use. If the cottage is rarely visited, then the capacity of 500-600 liters is enough.
In the cottage settlements, remote from the central gas main, successfully apply the scheme connecting several houses to a group of gas-holders installed in one place is more economical and more practical
To calculate how much volume is needed for one house, most often use tables compiled by equipment manufacturers. For example, for a residential building with an area of 150 m², the recommended volume is 2650-2700 liters, and for 400 m² - 6400 liters.
For large tanks it is necessary to determine the method of installation. In the southern regions, you can use ground models, but in the absence of frost, otherwise you may encounter problems with gas supply. Yes, and requirements for the installation site more stringent than for underground counterparts. By and large, land gas-holders are chosen as a last resort, if there are no conditions for placing underground models.
The ground reservoir is installed on a specially designated leveled platform away from crowds (houses and recreation areas). It is necessary to ensure the stability of the structure to avoid tipping.
Underground models are more popular, although they are more expensive. An important condition for the installation of a gas tank that is buried in the ground is a free area of the territory at a distance of 10 m from the house (some manufacturers indicate a shorter distance - from 5 m). Read more about compliance with distances when placing a gasholder. Further.
The size of the pit depends on the dimensions of the tank, they are usually indicated in the technical documentation.
It is also not recommended to pull out a pit for a gas-holder small in size because it is complicated by laying a gas pipeline (there should not be objects and roads between the equipment and the building)
When choosing an underground model, you need to decide whether the horizontal or vertical model is better. Vertical saves space, and horizontal better maintains the required level of pressure. If your home is located in a region with cold winters, then the best option for uninterrupted gas supply for a large cottage is a horizontal underground model.
Browse popular brands
The market is filled with high-quality models of Russian and foreign manufacturers, so it’s really difficult to choose equipment for autonomous use. Household gas tanks from Italy competing with products from Poland, and Bulgarian - with Russian. Standards adopted in different countries may differ, as well as the installation nuances.
A photo of
The company's products Antonio Merloni - a large model range of vertical and horizontal models - has long been known throughout the world. All tanks for additional protection are completed with a Marsupio bag that minimizes installation risks.
Italian Walter Tosto S.p. A. It supplies containers from 1000 liters to 4500 liters, suitable for servicing small houses and cottages. Underground vertical tanks have a working pressure of 16.5 bar and are designed for 30 years of operation
The volume of gas-holders on the market of a well-known Czech company ranges from 2.5 thousand liters to 10 thousand liters. One of the advantages - taking into account the nuances in the manufacture of models for different conditions of use. For example, you can order a tank with a high or low neck.
The range of gas holders is represented by seven horizontal models, which are assembled according to the German technology (AD-Merkblatt standards) and differ in capacity (respectively, and the length of the body). In the manufacture of tanks used thick alloy steel 5.7 mm
The Bulgarian company City Gas has been actively supplying products to the Middle East, but over the past 3 years, exports to Russia have been established. Especially for the northern climate developed 3 models: "European Standard 1", "European Standard 2" and "Rosstandart"
Reliable gas tanks known Polish manufacturer differ in service life of 40 years. This is due to durable materials (low carbon steel S355J2 + N for the manufacture of the body, epoxy coating) and electrochemical protection
All gas tanks (industrial and domestic purposes) are made of high-quality heat-resistant steel. The line starts with 600 l mini-tanks and ends with horizontal containers of 12 thousand liters
The main advantage is the consideration of Russian realities in the production of tanks. Strong steel tanks are able to withstand harsh climatic conditions, high groundwater levels and gas composition, in which the proportion of butane is more than allowed by European standards
Italian company Antonio Merloni
Vertical gas-holders AMICO from Italy
VPS gas equipment from the Czech Republic
Famous Czech company Kadatec
Bulgarian gas tanks City-Gas
Chemet gas tanks from Poland
Products of the Russian company SpetsGaz
Gas-holders Avtonomgaz from Russia
It is noticed that Russian models differ from Czech or Italian gas-holders in thicker case walls - 8 mm, however the protective epoxy coating may be weaker than that of the European equipment. The disadvantage is usually compensated by electrochemical protection.
Some models of foreign production are not designed for low temperatures, so when buying, you need to make sure that the equipment is supplied with the permission of Rostechnadzor. You should also be aware of one small, but important for refueling, nuance: to service imported gas-holders, special gas carriers are needed.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
More information about the designs of gas holders and their installation can be obtained from people who are engaged in the production and sale of gas equipment, as well as experienced users.
Antonio Merloni product information:
Learn more about mobile devices from Chelyabinsk:
Reviews - what good are vertical models:
Tips for choosing the height of the neck:
How to install the gas tank:
As you can see, it is quite difficult to understand the types of modern gas-holders. However, there are rules with which you can independently choose the desired model. If you cannot calculate the volume of the tank or calculate the purchase price with the installation, we recommend contact specialists - representatives of companies selling equipment for autonomous gasification.
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