Man has always interested her own reflection. Even in ancient times, people have studied with interest his appearance, looking at the reflection in the water. The passage of time have invented such an essential item like a mirror. Reflection in the first of these products was not very clear, as they were polished plate, which were made of bronze, silver or copper. On the ruins of ancient cities are the items made of platinum or tin, richly decorated with jewels.
mirrors production technology
The content of the article
mirrors production technology
- outdated technology
- Modern production of mirrors
When people learned how to make glass changed and the technology of manufacturing mirrors. In Rome, for example, a multi-colored glass underlay metal plates. Since the XIII century have learned to pour a glass plate of molten tin. With this method the image was heavily distorted, yet he lasted until the XVI century.
REFERENCE! The first mirror manufacturers in the Middle Ages were glassmakers. They came up with the technology like modern.
In the XVI century invented the alloy - an amalgam. She covered the underside of the glass sheet that obscured the surface and allowed to see the dark reflection. The substance was highly toxic, which makes the production of dangerous mirrors. Workers engaged in the production, often died, and the objects themselves were long. After some time on this technology it had to be abandoned.
REFERENCE! Amalgam - poisonous tin and mercury alloy. Even couples allocated to them are deadly to humans.
Only in the XIX century it was invented by a secure cover. What does it consist of? On glass plate is coated a layer of silver, which is secured by a paint. This method allows you to get bright and clear reflection.
There are several types of mirrors production. The old technology mirrors do so:
- glass cut into pieces of the desired size;
- the resulting preform was ground and polished, giving absolute smoothness;
- applied technological holes for fixing knobs and frames;
- preform washed special tool to remove even the stubborn dirt;
- sputtered layer of aluminum or titanium - is sometimes used and other metals;
- top layer of lacquer applied paint.
Such a process is not much different from the invented in the XIX century. Production of a reasonable price, but allows for small size products only.
Modern production of mirrors
Like the ancient, the modern mirror is made of glass coated with a reflective layer below. For the manufacture of glass used:
- quartz sand;
- glass fragments derived from recycled materials.
All the components are cleaned, melted and mixed in the desired proportions. The finished glass plate carefully polished to remove distortions. When the glass plate is ready to be transferred to the production of the mirror:
- machined rough diamond cutting is done;
- followed by chamfering m. e. correct processing of the glass edge - is steep facets and wide, depending on the desired mirrors;
- Glass is well washed and degreased - to do it steamed, cleaned brushes chalk powder, dried, and then wiped with alcohol or gasoline;
- to obtain a reflective layer deposited silver coating;
- latest aluminum deposition method is vacuum pressure - in vacuum, where the glass is placed, evaporated aluminum, is deposited on it a uniform layer, so coating is more resistant and quality;
- then a metal layer is applied by coating protects it - usually a foil of copper;
- a copper layer coated with an opaque layer of lacquer paint;
- the finished product is enclosed in a frame or border.
REFERENCE! If the silver layer suffered two or three times, this increases the quality of the product, but considerably increases its cost.
For normal use aluminum mirrors, and for the more expensive furniture - Silver.