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From June until the fall, flowerbeds show spectacular golden flowers that resemble miniature poppies. This is California, more than two hundred years ago found in the south of the North American continent and has since become one of the most favorite plants of flower growers all over the world.
Arriving in Europe, European settlers believed that the new lands hide incredible treasures. One has only to dig and the depths of the wealth hidden in them will be given. Obviously, therefore, the colors of the bright sunny shade of Americans speaking Spanish, and Mexicans are still called the Copa de Oro or the golden cup. The local population believes that where it opens its whiskers eschholtsiya, eventually you can find gold nuggets.
Of course, this is nothing more than a beautiful legend, but in some regions of the US the flower is legally protected, and in California it has been considered a living symbol of the state for more than a century.
What does a plant look like? Is there any real benefit or harm from eschólcia, and how to grow a flower on your own site?
Eschscholzia californica (Eschscholzia californica) and its description
In nature, the plant can be found not only in California, but also in Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, in other states in the south and southwest of the United States, as well as in Mexico. Thanks to the warm climate in the homeland, the California poppies are herbaceous perennials, very unpretentious and forming vast fields, entirely covered with golden-orange flowers.
Plant height of 20 to 50 cm forms a branching aerial part with erect stems and sitting on long petioles with dissected leaves of light green or blue shade. In the middle of Russia, California escholla cultivation is possible in the open field or at home, as pot culture. In the flowerbed - a spectacular one-year, which does not require special care and blooming throughout the warm season.
On the windowsill, under the condition of autumn-winter illumination, the plant successfully overwinter, and then it will blossom from the very beginning of spring.
Flowers of wild escholztsii have a simple shape resembling a cup. Petals are painted in yellow, orange, less often red tones. The palette of high-quality plants is much wider. Today the florists of the variety are available with white, purple, pink and even motley flowers. Incredible popularity is enjoyed by the terry forms of the Californian eshsol'tsii.
Corolla with a diameter of 5 to 7 cm is sensitive to changes in weather and time of day, it closes at night and when rain is threatened. In this case, the flower lasts no longer than 2-3 days, however, the shortness of flowering is compensated by its mass nature. In place of the faded corolla appears a seed box, which when matured easily opens, which leads to frequent self-seeding.
Features of growing eschollations
Became famous Californian fields, completely overgrown with golden flowers - the result of high adaptability and incredible unpretentiousness escholtsii.
The plant does not need any particularly nutritious soil, or in a special watering regime.
- Steadily endures drought;
- is not afraid of short-term cooling;
- can grow on poor soils;
- suitable for landscaping balconies, indoor cultivation.
These qualities of culture, as well as a long flowering flowering influenced the spread of California poppies all over the world. Growing eschol'tsii is available in most regions of Russia.
How to sow an asshole
The plant multiplies by sowing small seeds that easily germinate in the soil, and when stored retaining viability for two years. How to sow an asshole in an open ground?
For a culture, a well-lit area with a light moisture-permeable soil of a neutral or slightly acidic reaction is perfect. Since the size of the seeds is small, before being embedded in the soil they are mixed with dry sand. This will simplify the work and ensure the uniformity of seedlings. Sowing is carried out on the surface of a slightly compacted soil, after which the area is gently poured so as to prevent stagnation of moisture.
Germs appear after, -2 weeks. When the youngest eschollations form the first real leaves, the plants can be weeded out, leaving one for every 20-25 cm.
Sowing times in open ground
When to plant an open soil? You can sow small seeds of this interesting flower:
- in the spring, beginning in mid-April, when the earth is warm enough;
- autumn, before the onset of persistent frosts.
When spring sowing in the open ground, flowering often begins only in the middle of summer.
To Californian poppies uncovered their coronas in the first days of summer, experienced flower growers are advised to pre-winter crops or use a seedling method.
Escholztsii Californian through sprouts
When do you plant seedlings on seedlings? This can be done in the second half of March or in April with the expectation that the stronger plant as soon as possible fell into a permanent place. If delayed, eschsolzia forms a long rod root, which is easy to damage during transfer to the flower bed, alpine hill or a rabbit.
When preparing the soil for planting or planting seedlings of eschólcia, fresh organic matter should not be used, and also be diligent with watering the growing flowers.
Growing an escholla in a pot
To green a balcony, a terrace or decorate a window sill in a room, flower growers choose not just beautiful, but also the most hardy plants. Eschsolcia is great for these purposes. It is not afraid of direct sunlight, lack of moisture and nutrients.
At home, the cultivation of eschólcia from seeds does not even put a strain on the novice. Sow the seeds conveniently at once in a balcony flower box or pot. The soil should be light, loose and sufficiently moisture-intensive. Such a soil is obtained by mixing garden soil, low peat, sand or perlite.
With minimal care, eschsolcia actively grows and bushes, it blooms willingly even in the cold season. True, for this the florist will have to take care of the artificial prolongation of the light day to 12-14 hours. Otherwise, care is:
- moderate watering, when the surface layer of the soil dries;
- removal of wilted corollas;
- half dose of fertilizing for flowering plants.
Even before planting the eschólcia into pots, it must be borne in mind that the flower branches and has long roots. For the California poppy of most varieties, a container with a depth and width of at least 18-20 cm is suitable.
Therapeutic properties of the California escollation
The flower growers are attracted by a simple planting and care for eschollation in the open field, a bright long flowering and many spectacular varieties. However, this is not all the advantages of a plant.
In landscape design, eshsholzia is used on alpine hills, in mixborders with other annuals, to form a Moorish lawn and on traditional flower beds.
Eschsolcia, part of the family of Macaws, has traditionally been used by American Indians as an anesthetic and sedative. Modern studies of the medicinal properties of California's eschólcia completely confirmed the people's experience.
Biological activity is possessed by all parts of the plant. Raw materials containing such alkaloids as chelirubin, sanguinarine and macarin, flavone-glycosides and other valuable substances are collected at the time of flowering, dried or used fresh.
For use in medicinal purposes, California extracts, alcohol tinctures and powders with calming, analgesic and antispasmodic effects are prepared from Californian poppies.
Most often, the indication for use is:
- anxiety and nervous tension;
- dental and spasmodic pain;
- urinary incontinence.
For the older age category, preparations from Eschsolcia will be useful for the prevention of memory disorders and improvement of the intellectual condition as a whole.
The use of tincture or powder of the California poppy can cause unwanted reactions of the body. Therefore, before taking the consultation with the attending physician.
The juice of the plant has analgesic properties. To calm the pain in case of damage or inflammation of the gums, the fresh root of the California eshcholcia is cut along and applied to the affected area. Thanks to its antimicrobial properties, the agent facilitates and speeds up the treatment:
- inflammatory processes on the skin and mucous membranes.
Spasmolytic qualities help to remove:
- muscle pain and spasms;
- nervous tension after a hard day;
- attack of coughing.
At a high body temperature, a decoction or infusion of eschólcia will play the role of a natural antihistamine. Tincture from the root of the plant is used to treat the mammary glands when suppressing lactation in women breastfeeding. A powder - the basis of the popular way to get rid of head lice.
Preparation and dosage of escollation
Water infusion can be prepared using 2 grams of dried herbs and 150 ml of water. Vegetable raw materials are poured with boiling water, brought to a boil and left to be infused. The finished composition is filtered and drunk 2-3 times a day with:
- anxiety and other minor disorders.
If there is an extract or alcoholic tincture of the California poppy in the medicine cabinet:
- with mild pain and anxiety, drink 15 to 25 drops three times a day;
- in severe cases, the dose is increased to 30-40 drops and consumed 2-5 times a day.
In contrast to the poppy, which requires special care, the plant does not contain opiates.
Therefore, with a lot of useful properties of contraindications, eshcholtsia is much less.
Precautions for taking eschollatsii Californian
If you follow the recommendations of a specialist and prescribed dosages, the plant is considered safe for children and adults. It can be grown without limit in the garden and at home.
The use of funds based on the California poppy is not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Assorted varieties for open soil and at home
Unpretentious escholtsii all summer pleases with magnificent flowering. At the same time, seed boxes are formed on the spot of the fading flowers. If you do not collect them in time, there is self-sinking. And next year the plants will appear outside the flower bed. Unfortunately, such specimens often do not preserve the features inherent in the parental species.
Therefore, the flower growers, who are well acquainted with the culture, are advised to use only varietal seeds. In this case, the flower bed with escholtsiyami to frost will be covered with delicate colors of orange, white, yellow, purple and pink shades.
Very impressive look dark red, dotted with orange strokes, the rims of the Mikado eshcoletsia. Flowers of a simple form are enchanted with a silky shine and a rich color that practically does not burn out in the hot summer sun.
Even more expressive are the terry flowers of the Orange King variety or the Eschholtsia Bowl of the World. Both plants reach a height of 50 cm, and the coronas in the stage of complete dissolution are opened by 10 cm.
Diversify the flower garden and make new varieties in it will help varieties with unusual for wild-growing colors. Among such varieties:
- The photo depicted on the photo is a purple ray with simple flowers of purple or pinkish color;
- eshsoltsiya An apple-tree flower with double flowers combining white, yellowish, crane and carmine-pink tones.
The diameter of the coronals is 7 cm, and above the flower bed the plants are raised by 35-40 cm.
Interesting facts about eschólcii - video