Ventilation - the most important factor in the design of residential premises. For the maintenance of a healthy microclimate in a house or apartment, the supply ventilation is a system that ensures the replenishment of clean air.
Agree, it is impossible to stay long in the heat of The lack of fresh air negatively affects the level of comfort and general well-being of people. Therefore, it is important to take care of sufficient air exchange and equip efficient intake ventilation.
We will show you which type of unit is better to give preference, and give you step-by-step instructions for installing a compact monoblock.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of ventilation type
- The device of inlet ventilation systems
Types of installations for private homes
- Type # 1 - monoblock equipment
- Type # 2 - duct ventilation systems
Components and parameters of the ventilation unit
- №1 - device for air heating
- No. 2 - acoustic power of the equipment
- No. 3 - automatic control systems
- Site selection and installation features
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The principle of operation of ventilation type
Good air exchange in the living room is a must. It is not always possible to organize effective ventilation of the house in a natural way. In such a situation, forced ventilation is considered one of the best options for residential premises.
Excessive sealing is a characteristic feature of modern apartments. Plastic windows are installed everywhere, which, unlike wooden windows, do not let air masses through at all. This also applies to the entrance doors, which, when closed, block both cold, dust, and noise, and fresh air.
Partially solve the problem will help air conditioner with inflow function fresh air or window valve. However, they only provide inflow to one room.
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A fresh air ventilation system in a country house is required to create a favorable microclimate for residents and for building structures.
Air supply systems carry out air intake from the street and prepare it before being fed into the room: filtering, heating or cooling if necessary and depending on the design features systems
In miniature, the intake system can be made in the format of installation of a wall valve providing an inflow to a specific room.
Ventilation must provide all structural components of the building, including basements, basements and attic spaces.
The ventilation system in a private house
External unit of supply system
Supply wall ventilation valve
Ventilation basement and basement
Artificial, otherwise mechanical, intake ventilation is a system of means by which the necessary amount of fresh air is forced into the room. At the same time, the air flow is heated to a comfortable temperature and filtered to remove possible impurities.
The simplest version of the air handling unit can be done by hand, but its efficiency will be lower than that of the industrial production model.
The device of inlet ventilation systems
The intake fan is a necessary, but insufficient element of the ventilation system with artificial induction of air masses.
If such a device is embedded in a wall or, for example, in a window, it will provide the necessary inflow, but the quality of such air will be very far from desired. Not always supplied outside flow has an acceptable temperature.
This photo clearly shows the main elements of the air handling unit: filter, heater, fan and thermostat. The air flow from the street must be heated to an acceptable temperature.
According to the standards, the temperature of the air moved into the room should be at least 18 ° C. For the formation of the required parameters will need a heating device.
In addition, it is necessary to protect the housing from dirt and dust, which can penetrate inside, along with intensively flowing air masses. Therefore, such systems are necessarily equipped with filters.
Another important element is the automatic control system. Without such control, the device may overheat, causing damage, fire or other problems.
Finally, a noise suppression system is needed, both penetrating from the street and issued by the device.
Thus, any intake ventilation should be equipped with the following elements:
- automatic control system;
- noise reduction system.
Of course, such a device can be made in various ways. For example, for large buildings, the ventilation system is implemented as a separate room - a ventilation chamber.
This is the so-called typesetting ventilation systems. To create them, select individual elements and install them in the room reserved for this.
If the traditional equipment of the supply unit is supplemented with a compressor, then on hot days it will be able to deliver cooled air to the room
Types of installations for private homes
Perhaps only an engineer with appropriate qualifications can assemble such a device, because design and installation, as well as the adjustment of the work of such units requires special knowledge.
In addition, it is quite bulky structure, which is not suitable for private households. Other options for ventilation are intended for private housing construction - monoblock air handling units and duct ventilation systems.
The air coming in from the street brings not only cold into the house, but also a lot of pollution, which requires filters to be removed.
Type # 1 - monoblock equipment
For apartments, office structures, low-rise private houses, compact warehouses and even for small production workshops, they use air handling units made in the form of a monoblock design.
This is a compact unit, in the case of which all the necessary elements are already assembled and installed. Compared with the typesetting system, the inlet monoblock takes up very little space.
Such devices have good sound insulation, they are installed on the balcony, and in the absence of such an opportunity - right in the room. Installation and adjustment of the operation of air handling units is extremely simplified, it just needs to be installed and turned on.
The owners of such units note that with all the manufacturers' efforts to reduce the noise level, they have not yet been able to completely solve this problem.
Compact air handling units take up very little space, and their installation is very simple. You can put such a unit on the balcony or indoors
The noise effect may vary by model. In this regard, individual PUs produce as much noise as a domestic air conditioner.
By the way, such a device with options for the intake of outside air may well replace an individual PU. Such installations did not show themselves particularly well in areas with a harsh climate.
When the outdoor temperature drops below 10 degrees below frost, PU with a heat exchanger (device for heating the air) can be covered with a layer of ice.
It should be understood that an individual air handling unit with a capacity of about 100 cubic meters. m per hour, designed to serve only one room, and not the whole house or apartment.
Therefore, for normal ventilation of the entire living space, it will be necessary to purchase as many individual supply installations as there are rooms that need ventilation.
On the one hand, this is convenient because it eliminates the need to carry out large-scale work on the installation of ventilation ducts throughout the house. On the other hand, the question arises of the cost of implementing such a ventilation system, because individual PUs are expensive.
The choice of location for the location of the inlet monoblock depends on where it is planned to lay the ducts connected to it. If the channels will be laid at the top, the option to install above the balcony door is suitable.
If the problem of ventilating a room has arisen at the end of construction and finishing of rooms, it is quite possible that the cost of several such installations will be less than the alteration of the entire building.
If the ventilation ducts were designed at the construction stage, it will be cheaper and easier to implement the duct ventilation system.
Installation and assembly of a compact ventilation system can be done without any problems with your own hands. Consider the process of ventilation with a breather - a device that cleans and heats the air before it enters the room.
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Before installing a compact ventilation system, select the optimal place and draw the circumference of the wall ventilation channel
The frame of the equipment intended for diamond drilling is fixed on the wall with anchors
Drill bit with diamond-reinforced teeth attach to the motor shaft of the boring machine
After drilling, remove the core from the wall, clean the hole with a vacuum cleaner from construction dust, if necessary with my water jet
In the hole prepared for installation, we install a plastic sleeve, having previously treated the surface with a solution
We hang the breather by pre-installing brackets for it. We collect the inner part of the ventilation
The device attached to the wall is connected to the power supply. You can manage it directly or via smartphone
From the side of the facade we install a plastic protective and decorative grille that protects against the ingress of dust, insects, birds
Step 1: Choosing a place to install mini ventilation
Step 2: Fixing the diamond wall drilling machine
Step 3: Drilling Tool Attachment
Step 4: Remove Dust and Drilling Products
Step 5: Install the plastic casing in the drilled hole
Step 6: Installing the breather on the wall and fixing the equipment
Step 7: Connect and configure the instrument
Step 8: Installing the grille on the facade
Similar technology mount wall inlet valve. The ventilation device is suitable for an apartment or a private house.
Type # 2 - duct ventilation systems
The channel variant is duct complexthat pass through all the rooms. Similar monoblock inlet devices are placed at the entrance to the system.
The air masses processed by the installation move through the channels and enter the room through the inlet ventilation grilles.
Exhaust ducts and associated grilles are used to remove exhaust air.
Air flow into the room during forced ventilation is carried out through the ventilation grilles. They have a sleek design and do not spoil the interior of the room.
So for ventilation of the whole apartment or at home only one installation of the appropriate power is needed.
Air ducts of the ventilation system are usually placed in the space under the ceiling so as not to spoil the interior with unnecessary details. But ventilation grates need to output directly to the ceiling or wall of the room.
Choice of productivity of channel installations:
- 200-350 cu. m / h - one and two bedroom apartments;
- 350-500 cu. m / h - two-bedroom apartments and residential apartments of a large area;
- 2000-3000 m 3 / h - offices or cottages.
The exact performance is calculated using special formulas.
This diagram clearly shows the device of the duct ventilation system and its main elements are designated: a fan, a silencer, a heater, ventilation grilles, etc.
It should be understood that the maximum installation capacity declared by the manufacturer will not be implemented in practice. The actual performance of the PU depends on the resistance level of the network.
It is possible to determine the real efficiency of the device taking into account the characteristics of a specific channel system using the ventilation characteristic graph. It is usually contained in the product data sheet.
The priority is the installation of ventilation channels under the ceiling so that in the future they can be hidden behind the suspended ceiling structures. This method is acceptable for private buildings with a high ceiling height.
An important indicator in the calculation of ventilation systems is static pressure. The value depends on the total length of the ventilation ducts, as well as on the number of filters that are additionally installed.
For apartments, installations with a statistical pressure in the range of 400-500 Pa are used.
Components and parameters of the ventilation unit
Let us examine in more detail the components of the ventilation equipment, without which it will not be possible to create an optimal indoor climate. And consider their main characteristics and important parameters of the installation itself.
№1 - device for air heating
As already mentioned, the air entering outside, in winter, must be heated. For an apartment, a 3-5 kW heater is usually sufficient.
For the house or cottage will have to perform a number of special calculations. This takes into account the air temperature outside, as well as the power of the installation itself.
At the same time it is important to relate the load on the power supply network of an apartment or house with the real state of the network. If the load on the grid is excessive, it can lead to a serious accident.
The technical specifications of the electrical installation as well as the power of the heater must be indicated in the accompanying documents, in the instruction manual. It is important to find out all the necessary parameters before purchasing equipment.
In such cases, some homeowners prefer to choose an inlet installation with a less powerful heater.
This solution is fraught with the following problems: when cold weather sets in, the air will not have time to warm up to the required temperature, and a cold stream will flow into the rooms.
To prevent this phenomenon is not difficult - you only need to reduce the number of revolutions of the fan.
Air masses will flow slower, but at the same time have time to warm up. It is extremely inconvenient to perform such adjustment manually.
If you have to buy PU with a low-power heater, you should make sure that the device is equipped with automatic regulation of the fan speed depending on the air temperature at the street.
No. 2 - acoustic power of the equipment
When figuring out what channel ventilation is, you should consider the information that determines the sound effect of the device.
There are three indicators of acoustic power PU:
- at the entrance;
- at the exit;
- on the case.
Noise “at the entrance” characterizes the sound effect that will be emitted by the installation at the beginning of the system. It usually does not affect the comfort of the house too much. It is much more important to pay attention to the “exit” noise, i.e. in places where ventilation grilles are installed.
If this figure is too large, during installation, an additional element, the silencer, will have to be included in the system. To obtain a sufficient effect, the length of this element must be at least 90 cm.
The air handling unit of the ventilation or air conditioning system is installed outside the building, in this case the noise from the fan and heater will not disturb the residents
Noise “on the casing” indicates an acoustic effect in the immediate vicinity of the air handling unit, which is installed and connected to the system and devices to absorb noise. This indicator is not too important if the PU is installed outside the building.
But if this is not possible, and the device is planned to be placed directly in the building, preference should be given to the device with the minimum value of acoustic power “on the case”.
In addition to the acoustic pressure, which is indicated in the technical documentation as LwA, manufacturers use the concept of sound pressure level (denoted as Lpa).
Do not confuse these two concepts, especially when comparing the characteristics of different models. It is better to focus on LwA, since LpA data is usually somewhat lower.
No. 3 - automatic control systems
Automation for the normal operation of the ventilation system is simply necessary. Even the simplest options are equipped with devices for automatic control of the temperature of the forced air and the speed of rotation of the fan.
The state of the device and the current settings are reflected on the display with the control panel.
Automatic control of the ventilation system significantly improves its operation and saves resources. Some models are equipped with a remote control.
More “advanced” automation allows you to set settings for different periods of time. For example, you can reduce the temperature and the number of revolutions of the fan during the night when everyone is asleep and the need for fresh air is not so high.
Separately, you can set the mode for daytime on weekdays when there is no one at home.
For convenient control of the inlet ventilation unit, it is recommended to choose a device with the following characteristics:
- the number of fan speeds at least five;
- availability of real time clock;
- saving and launching settings in case of power failure;
- control of level of impurity of filters;
- possibility of remote control, for example, using a smartphone;
- message on the presence and nature of faults.
Indication of the status of filters is optional, but very desirable. In the absence of this option, cleaning or changing the filtration elements is carried out after a certain time recommended by the manufacturer.
But operating conditions differ, as a result of which pollution may occur earlier or later than the specified period. Monitoring the status of the filters will allow them to be replaced in time or to extend the service life.
Site selection and installation features
Before installing duct ventilation, a system design should be made. It should indicate the installation location of the PU itself, the location of the air ducts, ventilation grilles, etc.
It is important to take into account the direction of air flow. The place of arrival of fresh air masses should be residential premises, such as a living room, a study, a bedroom, etc.
As a result, unpleasant smells from the bathroom or kitchen will not get into the living rooms, but will be immediately removed through the exhaust grilles. Air flow can intersect with each other, reflect from the surface of furniture, etc.
It is better to think over these points in advance so that the trajectory of the air flow is as efficient as possible.
In winter, the temperature of the heating air coming from the street must be correlated with the amount of heat in the room. If the house is well heated, air heating can be kept to a minimum.
But if the power of the heating system for some reason is not enough, the injected air should be heated more.
This diagram shows the correct movement of air masses during ventilation: fresh air enters the living quarters, and the waste flows are removed through the gratings in the kitchen and bathroom
Choosing the inlet installation, you should decide on the purchase and installation of additional fine filters. Typically, such devices are equipped with filters of class G4, which are able to retain relatively large pollution.
If there is a need or desire to get rid of fine dust, you will need another filtering unit, for example, class F7. It is installed in the system after the inlet installation.
Each air handling unit has a coarse filter. Replacement of filters is carried out through the audit hatch, to which there should be free access.
If the air handling unit is not equipped with fine filters, they are purchased separately.
Even if the owners of the house for some reason refused to install such elements, it is still recommended to provide a place in the system in case such installation is needed in the future.
PU should be installed so that it is available for regular maintenance and periodic repair.
Particular attention should be paid to the location of the inspection hatch through which the filters are replaced. The hatch should open freely, leaving enough space for manipulations with filter elements.
When installing ventilation, you will need a special tool and a diamond drill to drill the wall. Hole sizes can reach 200 mm
When installing the PU, it is necessary to drill the outer wall. A perforator is usually not suitable for such work, works are performed with a diamond drill with constant water cooling.
In order not to damage the interior of the room, it is better to drill outside.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
This video clearly shows the device and the principle of operation of the ventilation, as well as its difference from the natural ventilation of the premises:
Here you can see an overview of the Eco-Fresh air intake:
Supply ventilation is a great way to provide your home with fresh air and create a favorable microclimate in it. All the efforts and costs of creating such a system will pay off completely, because the health of all residents of the house depends on proper ventilation.
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