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Proper growing of seedlings is the guarantee of a good harvest in the future, so it is better not to buy seedlings, but grow them yourself.
Eggplant is a rather capricious plant, while growing its seedlings it is necessary to pay attention to soil, temperature, water regimes and other requirements for this plant.
When to plant eggplants on seedlings?
From the moment of sowing to planting seedlings of eggplant passes 55-60 days. If you plan to plant seedlings in a greenhouse, you can sow crops in the middle of February. In the case of landing in the open ground - to plant eggplants on seedlings should be in the first half of March.
Rules for planting eggplants in seedlings
The soil in which the seeds will be sown should be disinfected. To do this, you can burn it in the oven.
The root system of eggplant seedlings is very sensitive, so it is important to make a soil mixture correctly. The ground is better not to buy, but to make yourself. There are several well-proven options for its preparation. Choose the one whose constituent parts are available to you.
- Humus (8 parts), Mullein with urea, potassium and superphosphate salts (1 part), turf (2 parts).
- Peat (3 parts) + sawdust (1 part) - since the mixture does not contain nutrients, you should add any solution for growing seedlings.
- Humus (2 parts) + sod land (1 part).
- Humus (2 parts) + peat (1 part).
Whatever option you choose, do not forget to mix the mixture until uniform.
For 2-3 weeks before sowing, check the seeds for germination: 10 seeds are soaked in warm water for a day, then placed on a damp cloth or a layer of gauze folded in several layers. Seeds are kept for up to 6 days in a warm place, keeping them moist, and then count the amount of sprouted.
Seeds with a germination index greater than 50% are considered seed for seeding.
Before seeding, the seeds should be decontaminated. To do this, they are placed in a strong solution of potassium permanganate ("manganese") for 30 minutes. Recently, this drug has disappeared from pharmacies, so you can treat them thermally: in a thermos pour hot water (temperature 52-55 оС), there for 30 minutes put the seeds in gauze pouches, then remove and refrigerate a few minutes in cold water.
In order to accelerate the germination, the seeds are left for a day in a warm nutrient solution (you can use special fertilizers or conventional wood ash), then soak in clean warm water on a 1-2 days.
Eggplant seedling on seedlings
Grow sprouts can be in different capacities: boxes, pots or cups.
When sowing in cups or pots, it is necessary to fill them with ¾ soil mixture, in the center to sow the seeds, lightly moisten with water and sprinkle with a thin layer of soil. After sowing, the cups should be covered with a film. The substrate can not be compacted to saturate the soil with oxygen.
When sowing in a box, it is filled with a soil mix of 7-8 centimeters and the aubergines are sown in furrows that are 5 centimeters apart. Further actions are the same as in potting.
Care of eggplant seedlings
Before the first shoots of the container, into which the eggplants are sown, should be kept under the film at a temperature of 25-30 ° C. Shoots should appear no later than a week. After that, the seedlings are exposed to a bright spot and lowered to 14-16 ° C. If this is not done, then the seedlings will stretch, their root system will develop worse. This temperature regime should be adhered to the first week from the emergence of seedlings. Then, the daytime temperature should be set at 16-26 ° C, and at night - 10-14 ° C.
If there is a low humidity in the room with sprouts, the plants need to be covered with a film.
Moisten the plants should be moderate, trying not to wash the soil. To exclude the defeat of the "black leg" is better to do it in the morning, the temperature of the water or the solution for irrigation should be within 26-28 oC.
During growth, the seedlings should be rotated 2 times a week so that the seedlings do not stretch.
When growing eggplant seedlings at home, you should alternate watering and feeding. If a mixture rich in nutrients was chosen as a substrate for cultivation, and seedlings develop well, light fertilizing is carried out. To do this, 1 cup of tea leaves are poured into 3 liters of boiling water, it is insisted for 6 days and watered with the infused seedling. In the same way, you can insist and finely chopped eggshell 10 eggs.
If a mixture containing a large amount of peat and sand was chosen for growing seedlings, or plants develop poorly, and their leaves become light green - more essential top dressing.
You can use the ready-made complex fertilizer for seedlings or prepare it yourself. To do this, mix superphosphate (1 teaspoon), potassium sulfate (1 teaspoon), complex fertilizer (2 teaspoons) and dissolve the mixture in 10 liters of water.
As a top dressing for eggplant seedlings, you can also use ordinary wood ash. It carefully spread a thin layer on the surface of the soil, trying not to fall on the leaves and stems.
Dipping eggplant seedlings
After two real leaves appear on the seedlings, the plants can be dived - planted in pots or cups measuring 10x10 centimeters.
Containers must have holes from below in order to avoid stagnation of water. Fill the pots better with the same mixture into which the seed was made. Before diving, the soil should be poured with a solution of wood ash, potassium sulfate or complex fertilizer. For 10 liters of water, take 1 teaspoon of any of the fertilizers.
Seedlings are watered 2-3 hours before diving. Carefully choose a seedling, trying not to damage the root lump, and with it roots, we transfer the plant to a new container and sprinkle the soil mixture on the cotyledons. Attention: between the cotyledon leaves and the soil there should not be an unobstructed section of the stem.
After diving, the seedlings slow down growth, at which time a more powerful root system is formed. The first few days they must be protected from direct sunlight, and if the seedlings are on the windowsill - you should cover the window with a newspaper.
The first watering is carried out on day 6 after diving. Later, the plants are watered abundantly every 5-6 days.
Planting the aubergine seedlings in the open ground
A month before planting, plants begin to temper: in the afternoon they open a window or take out plants to fresh air. For 2 weeks seedlings are sprayed, -% solution of copper sulfate - this will protect plants from fungal diseases.
At the time of planting, there should be 8-12 leaves per plant.
In the greenhouse eggplants can be planted in the second half of May, and in the open ground - not earlier than the beginning of June.
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