This is one of the brightest representatives of our gardens and flower beds. How to grow gladioli? In order for you to grow on the site, growing gladioli in the open field should be carried out in accordance with certain rules. I will tell you about some peculiarities, the nuances of growing this amazing flower..
- Secrets of growing gladioli - 11 rules
- When to dig gladioli and how to store?
- How to properly plant gladioli in spring
- Diseases of gladioli, photo, treatment
The plant begins to bloom approximately in the middle of July, and by the first day of autumn the riot of colors, the splendor of the inflorescences reaches its peak. Gladiolus is not without reason called the "flower of teachers because by September 1 it is becoming especially popular - every schoolboy hastens to give a bouquet to his mentor. This, of course, is the practical side of the issue, but it should be noted that the flower itself is a truly luxurious adornment of any garden, country plot.
What is a gladiolus? Another name for the flower is a sword, it belongs to the family of iris, even outwardly similar to its relatives. This is a strawberry perennial, numbering about 5000 varieties. It is worth noting that some sortovidy gradually degenerate, and in their place come new hybrids. Different varieties look different, require a diverse approach: the color scale, the size of the flowers, the structure of the inflorescence, the characteristics of growth, the nuances of care - everything has its own characteristics and differences..
Photo of gladiolus:↑ back to content ↑
Secrets of growing gladioli - 11 rules
Let's look at the important nuances of cultivating this flower, the so-called eleven unshakable rules:
- The rule of crop rotation is extremely not recommended to grow gladiolus flowers in one place for more than two years. In the third year they must be moved to a new place of residence.
- When transplanting, it is preferable to choose a soil with a different composition. If, for example, your flowers grow on clayey soil, it will be better if you transplant them into sandy loamy soil.
- Choose "tested" varieties of bulbs, exactly those that are adapted to growth in your region. This flower does not like the difference in climatic zones - if you get a rare variety from Holland, most likely it will please you with flowering only once.
- During planting, first plant small bulbs, and then large ones. Do not place next to adult and children's bulbs - large tubers will suppress "children." Especially large specimens are generally best planted separately.
- Cultivation of gladiolus - it is very important to properly level the tuber. Look at its diameter, if the landing site is light, then the depth of the "immersion" should be approximately four diameters. If the soil is heavy, then a depth of three diameters will be enough. If the planting is not deep enough, the plant will have to provide additional support, and if it is too deep, it may not bloom at all.
- Approximately five days before planting, it is recommended to clean the tubers from the coarsened husks (for better germination), after planting, water them once every two days.
- Gladiolus are light-loving plants, if you choose a late-flowering variety, do not plant it in shaded areas. Shade - a suitable place only for early sortovidov, but even they may be late with flowering.
- To exclude the occurrence of fungal manifestations, if possible, plant a shovel in a ventilated place.
- If the flowers grow in sandy loam soil, it is recommended to apply fertilizing by irrigation of the ground part of the plant (leaves).
- With the onset of summer gladioli should be watered once in 5-7 days, but at the same time saturation with moisture should be abundant. If there is a heat, in order to avoid overheating of the soil, moderately water the flowers every day (after sunset), while do not forget to loosen the ground and destroy the weeds.
- Pay special attention to the collection of tubers, the subsequent storage of gladioli in winter should be done correctly.
It is very important to choose a comfortable place for planting, so that the flower can fully grow and bloom. Gladiolus does not like waterlogged soils, so in places with high groundwater flow it can not be planted. This rule also applies to low-lying places, areas where water can stagnate.↑ back to content ↑
When to dig gladioli and how to store?
After the swab is completely discolored (this occurs by the middle-end of September), its upper part is cut off under the root, and the tuber is carefully extracted from the ground. For the convenience of the process, the flower can be pre-poured. The bulb is cleared from the ground, drained properly, the tubers of the early varieties are excavated first, in the last instance young and small bulbs are extracted from the ground.
To prevent the growth of bacteria during storage, tubers can be etched in a hot solution of potassium permanganate (about +60 ° C), for these purposes, the "Fitosporin "Maxima" remedy is also suitable. After 20-25 minutes, the tubers are removed from the hot bath, dried for about two weeks in a dry and cool place, then wrapped in paper, cleaned in a cold environment.
How to store gladioli in winter at home? For these purposes, a cellar or refrigerator (a compartment for storing vegetables) is suitable. In winter, once a month, do not be lazy to get bulbs, inspect them, air them. In a container with tubers, you can put a few cleaned teeth of garlic - this will create additional protection against diseases during storage. The teeth should be replaced periodically with fresh ones. With the onset of spring bulbs can be planted again in the soil, giving a new life to a new generation of flowers. Remember that the deadline for tubers is 4 years. Do not take too large old bulbs for storage - this is a waste material that is no longer suitable for planting. Small young bulbs do not give a lush bloom, it should also be taken into account.
When to get gladioli from the refrigerator for germination? The most suitable time for awakening bulbs from winter sleep is 25-30 days before planting. Closely inspect each tuber, they should not be rot, parasites or any damage. Superfluous husks need to be removed, if there are small damages - cut off, then you need to again etch the planting material in the manner described above (potassium permanganate, Maxima, Phytosporin, "Carbophos"). Places slices can be glazed with a regular greens. A dry and bright, but not a sunny place is perfect for germinating bulbs, and they need to be spread out on clean paper with a bottom down. 48 hours before the landing of the bulbs, it is recommended to find a sunlit area and decompose them into Wet tissue (moisten it as it dries) - so you will stimulate growth root kidney.
Bulbs ready for planting, photo:.
How to properly plant gladioli in spring
Initially, choose a place for the future flower garden. The swivel prefers smooth, well-lit areas, ventilated, but not very windy. As already mentioned above, early variety varieties can be planted even in the shade, for representatives of late varieties only sunny areas are suitable. It is very important what vegetables or flowers grew on this place earlier - tomatoes, beans, peas, strawberries, marigolds are quite suitable for the company of a skewer. If the site previously grew carrots, potatoes, cabbage and other vegetables, for fertilizing which is used manure, then it is highly recommended not to plant gladioli there. Loamy, sandy loamy, weakly acidic soil is the best medium for a cobbler.
Quite capricious gladioluses. Planting tubers in too acidic soil will negatively affect the flowering, and the risk of fusarium infection will increase significantly. Alkaline soil will prevent the plant from consuming the required amount of iron from the earth - the leaf will turn yellow (the production of chlorophyll will decrease). The acceptable acidity level of the soil for the cog is pH,. The soil can be "diluted" by clay independently, if it is sandy and vice versa. In the autumn, the pre-selected location is thoroughly digested, dry potassium or phosphorus additives are added, and also the compost is rotted..
Planting gladioli in the spring in the ground is carried out when the earth warms up to +10 ° C, by mid-April / early May. Just before planting, you can once again pickle the tubers in a solution of phytosporin (about 30 minutes). The depth of the trench is affected by the size of the bulb (the more - the deeper), the shovel is planted in groups, the adult and young bulbs are segregated separately. It is recommended to sprinkle the bottom of the trench with sand, spill water, place the tubers about 9-15 cm apart from each other. Instead of sand, you can use sphagnum, it will better retain water and partially stop the development of fungi.
Eleven rules for planting gladioli indicate the subtleties of tuber penetration into the soil. After planting the trench is covered with earth, it is also possible to prick the bulbs with wood ash beforehand. Sometimes gardeners recommend not to cover the tubers completely, but to do this as the flower grows. But I would not advise doing this. It is possible that you will forget to pour the soil in time. And heavy rain or excessive watering will contribute to the fact that the sprouted bulb in soft ground will lose support, will bend at an angle to the surface of the soil. Straighten, give the shoot a vertical position is no longer possible without fear to break off the shoot at the base of the bulb - you will lose the flower, a new shoot is unlikely to grow.
Planting bulbs, photo:
Gladioluses - when to plant them and how, we have already figured out, now we will consider more detail the departure itself. The first days of the bed should be watered every other day, with drought it is recommended to provide plants with daily evening watering, and gladioli will not prevent the irrigation of the leaves. If it rains periodically, then watering every 4 days will be appropriate. Do not pour water into the trench with plants, and water only the aisle! Thus, water optimally moistens the soil in the root region without oversaturation.
When the crochet sprouts reach 10 cm, grind the soil with humus - it will additionally protect the plant from overheating and evaporation of moisture. Mineral and organic top dressings are important for harmonious development and flowering. When the first 2 leaves appear in the stems, you can start adding carbamide or ammonium sulfate (nitrogen-sulfur fertilizing) to the soil. If there are 6 leaves, you can start adding potassium or phosphorus additives, as well as some nitrogenous ones. When the crocheted buds are formed, it is recommended to add phosphorus-potash make-ups - they complete the fertilizer cycle.
Gladiolus, photos of flowers:
Organic top dressing is done during watering with water (flowers should also be watered before and after they are applied). For example, a poultry litter should first be infused for about 10 days (2 buckets for 4 buckets of water). This solution is diluted with water (1 liter per 10 liters of water) and fertilizes the plants every 2-3 weeks. You should know that animal manure can in no case be used for feeding gladioli!
For the crochet, grown in sandy loam soil, the extra-root method of fertilization is especially recommended. Thus, the leaves can be irrigated with a weak solution of boric acid, manganese or copper sulfate. To these compositions, you can add a small part of the laundry soap, rubbed on a small grater. Spraying is performed approximately 2-3 times for the whole season, especially during the growth of the flower and during the tying of buds. Soil loosening and weeding should be done after watering, because the gladiolus loves oxygen, actively coming to the roots after this procedure. Weeding is done once in 7-10 days, as needed.
Some sorts of crochet can reach 170 cm, to prevent breakage of the stem, such high plants are best insured - tie to the peg. You can also pull several rows of wire or line in the flowerbed area if there are a lot of plants. When cutting flowers, it is necessary to leave part of the stem above the ground level, on it there should be not less than 4 sheets. Gladiolus is a so-called bouquet culture, so that the flower should remain longer after cutting, it should be cut at the stage of blossoming of the first 3 or 4 buds. Especially luxurious look varieties that show the world 8-10 flowers on a long stem. If possible, cut gladioli early in the morning or after sunset, the remaining buds should be hidden in the foliage.
Gladiolus, photo:↑ back to content ↑
Diseases of gladioli, photo, treatment
To stop the development of the disease on the root, do not be lazy to make a regular inspection, both tubers, and growing on the site of flowers.
The most dangerous diseases of a spade are botrytis (gray rot), fusariosis, rust, septoria, sclerotinia, scab.
Do not overmoist the root system of plants, carefully inspect them, pay due attention to preventive measures. Preparations "Horus "Fundazol "Kadris" give a good result in the treatment of gladiolus before the onset of the flowering phase. Fundazolum is also recommended to treat tubers after extraction from the ground and before winter storage.
Malignant thrips, bulbous mites, cabbage and slug are very fond of nesting on a cog, feeding on its juices.
Photo of gladiolus affected by thrips:
Preparations "Confidence Maxi insecticide "Aktara "Calypso means against mites "Agverotin bio means "Aktofit "Balazo" give high indicators in the fight against pests.
Like any other beautiful garden representative, this flower requires attention. But it will certainly reward us with the beauty and magnificent color of the summer colors of the gladiolus. Growing in the open ground is associated with some conventions, but fully justifies the invested forces and time..