In 2012, we, in the Novokubansky district of the Krasnodar Territory, all the apricots, not having time to blossom, dropped flowers: stood for several weeks with black dried tips of branches - looked like after fire. The leaves on the surviving branches grew very slowly. Of course, there was no fruit. What is this attack? This fungal disease is a moniliosis (monilial burn). It appears in the period of flowering on fruit stone fruit crops - apricot, peach, cherry, cherry, plum, felt cherry, quince, grapes, others - at low temperatures, excessive humidification. How to prevent this disease? Is it possible to treat moniliasis?.
The causative agent of the disease is the monilia mushroom (Monilia) penetrating the flower pestle, it affects young shoots. As a result, the flower part dries, leaves, young twigs - there is a monilial burn.
Flowers of fruit trees are affected by the monolithosis at low temperatures - from minus, ° C, and the ovary - from minus, ° С. I noticed that in our Kuban the temperature drop in the spring is caused by the eastern winds. This year I managed to prevent moniliasis on the apricot - I treated apricot trees with Horus immediately, as I saw in the weather forecast the eastern wind.
But there will be a drop in temperature or not, the east wind will blow or not - trees should be treated in any case. It should not be hoped that, they say, this year will carry. No, he will not! If at least once, at least one tree in you or a neighbor is affected by moniliosis - all - spores of the fungus monilia already there are on the branches, trunks of your trees, waiting for suitable weather conditions to develop and destroy the future harvest.
Very often, beginning gardeners do not pay attention to fallen flowers or ovaries, believing that this was due to the fact that the weather has deteriorated, and this, they say, is not worth fighting for. Of course, changing the weather, lowering the temperature is a strong factor. But every gardener should know that it is cold air that creates comfortable conditions for the growth of the fungus monilia, and, therefore, for the spread of moniliasis. Fallen flowers, ovaries tell you not only about the worsened weather conditions, but also about the fact that you missed the right time to process your fruit trees from the mushroom monilija..
In the picture, a cherry, whose branches are affected by moniliasis, but the disease has not yet spread very much. If you notice this on your trees, it is not too late to process a fruit tree. Part of the crop, of course, you lose, but something else will have time to save. However, it will be possible only in the event that after a cold night warm dry weather has established, there will be no more rainy cold weather. After all, monilia is a fungus breeding with spores. In comfortable conditions - high humidity and low temperature - it will continue its "black" business, no processing in this case will not help. Alas! It was necessary to process this cherry during the budding period or, even better, before flowering. By the way, healthy (at first glance) collected fruits with the cherry as in the picture, should be quickly rework, because fruits will already be infected with moniliasis, fungus spores monilia are still present on their surface. Such a cherry will not be stored! Very quickly, you will see that some of the fruits rotted or started to rot. This applies not only to cherries, but to other stone fruit trees, too. This is such an insidious thing - moniliosis!
So, under favorable weather conditions, the disease develops very quickly. Heavy rains in the flowering period, the jumping temperature of the air from minus temperatures at night to positive in the daytime create ideal conditions for the spread of the pathogen of moniliosis..
Experts advise to prevent the treatment of apricots, cherries, apple trees, other fruit trees even before flowering with preparations of Mikosan-V, Bordeaux mixture, Horus, Skor, etc., then immediately after flowering to prevent moniliasis, and then 1-2 more times with a break in two of the week. The last 1-2 times after the removal of fruits. Of course, if the trees are very tall and there is no possibility to sprinkle each branch, then at least the trunk, the skeletal branches of the tree, should be treated. This will increase the ability of the tree to resist moniliasis, the causative agents of fungal diseases.
If you missed the time necessary for processing the fruit trees against the moniliasis, immediately after fading cut the shoots to healthy leaves, burn them.
For most varieties, timely harvesting is very important, immediately after reaching a ripening ripeness. With loss of weight, the loss of fruits from the disease increases sharply.
But in this picture, monolithosis of the plum. Symptoms of the disease are visible on the fruits. Such plums do not wait to be eaten, they will be lost even in the tree. In this case, I was very late with the processing of the plum tree. Such fruits should be collected and destroyed - burned. Do not throw them in the compost pit, do not bury them on the site. Get instead of fertilizer a hotbed of disease.
Trees should be treated after all the leaves fall in autumn, necessarily in the spring, without waiting for bud formation. If the tree is not treated in autumn, in spring, the spores of the mushroom monilia will remain parasitic on the tree bark, and in conditions of high humidity, the infection of the moniliosis will spread further. With such a tree, not only can you harvest the fruits, but you can also lose the tree itself.
Gardener should take into account that monilioz is formed in conditions of high humidity. Disputes of the fungus monilia are carried by the wind, rain drops, insects. That is, if you notice the signs of moniliasis only on one single tree - apricot, plum or cherry, this does not mean that you only need to process this tree - all the fruit trees should be processed in the garden.
Currently, breeders have brought out many new varieties of fruit crops, but they are not completely resistant to moniliasis yet..
Cherry varieties - Alexa, Kazachka, Kirina, Chosen, Miracle Cherry, Nefris, Effektnaya, Zhukovskaya, are zoned for cultivation in the Kuban, are medium-resistant to moniliose.
The most resistant to the disease are zoned plum varieties - Pretty Woman, Girlfriend, Milena, Balkaria; Introduced - Stanley, Donetsk, Melitopol, Cachak late, Turchanka.
Caucasian improved, Sashenka, South, Mack, Scarlet, Sorceress, The gift of abundance, Clearly the sun - varieties of sweet cherries with medium resistance to fungal diseases.
Varieties of apricot introduced into the State Register for the North Caucasus region, Dzhengutayevsky, Krasnoshcheky, Krasnoshcheky from Nikoloyev, Red-cheeked late, Kuban black, Tamasha, Black velvet - medium resistance to moniliosis.
For cultivation in the Kuban, the following varieties of pears are recommended: Moldavian early, Krasnodar summer, Summer Sergeeva, Augustine, Conference - medium-resistant to monilioze..
Conclusion: timely treatment with antifungal agents will help prevent moniliosis on fruit trees.