A private house is not only a personal fortress, but also a place where it is cozy and warm. For this to always be the case, the prudent owner must provide uninterrupted supply of heat. The easiest way to do this is if you can connect to a centralized system.
However, this is not always the case, and many people do not want to connect expensive services. In this case, it remains to consider the types of heating systems that are suitable for autonomous arrangement, and then choose the best option. And we will try to help you in this matter - in our article the features of water, air and infrared heating systems are considered, their main advantages and disadvantages are listed.
We also provided useful recommendations for choosing the best option. The outlined material provided visual diagrams, photographic materials and videos with reviews of these heating systems.
The content of the article:
- How to choose the best heating system?
Features of the system with liquid coolant
- Option # 1 - the use of gas equipment
- Option # 2 - the use of solid fuel boiler
- Option # 3 - use an electric boiler
- Air heating of the building
- Infrared heating system
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to choose the best heating system?
Heating systems, there are many. All of them have attractive sides and significant disadvantages. Untrained person is quite difficult to navigate in them and make the right choice. In order not to be mistaken, you need to know exactly at what points you should turn your attention.
First, it is the availability of fuel and its cost. It can be considered a key point. No matter how much you like the system, but if the fuel is not easily accessible for it, is delivered to the region intermittently, or is too expensive, you should think about another option. Otherwise, the heating of the house will cost you a lot of money and will be ineffective.
According to statistics, most owners of private homes choose heating systems with a liquid heat carrier. This is a practical, reliable and reasonably economical option.
The second point is the possibility of combining heating systems. In some cases, it may be very practical to use the main and additional systems. This gives confidence that with possible interruptions in the supply of energy the house will not remain without heat.
In addition, there is an opportunity to save, because you can use the most economical at the moment method of heating.
And finally, the financial side of the issue. It is necessary to determine how much the consumer will be able to allocate for the purchase of equipment, its competent installation and subsequent regular maintenance.
Features of the system with liquid coolant
Heating systems with coolant in the form of a liquid, perhaps the most popular in our country. This is understandable, because they are familiar and quite effective. The basis of such a system is a closed-type heating circuit with a heating device, inside which there is a heat exchanger. On it passes the liquid and is heated to the desired temperature.
Further, the pipes coolant goes into the heated space. Here it enters the radiators, where it gradually cools, while giving off heat to the surrounding air. The cooled liquid moves towards the heater, enters the heat exchanger and the cycle repeats.
This system is also called water heating, but this is not entirely correct, since different compositions can be used as a heat carrier - for example, antifreeze.
The system with a heat-transfer fluid necessarily includes a pipeline through which water or antifreeze circulates, and heating devices installed in the premises
The undoubted advantage of such a system can be considered as its variability. There are many different layoutsto ensure the most efficient supply of heat for specific conditions.
Distinguish water heating with forced and gravitational circulation. In the first case, a pump is used to supply the coolant, which makes it possible to carry out schemes of very different complexity and length. The second option has many limitations, but it is completely non-volatile.
Heating systems with a liquid coolant can be implemented in a variety of options. So, for example, the scheme of two-pipe wiring looks like: coolant is introduced through one pipe, output - through another
The system can be made with one and two pipe wiring. The first is extremely simple and economical, but not effective enough for a large house area. The second is more complicated, but it allows to heat buildings of any size with high quality. Depending on the type of system chosen, the set of equipment necessary for its arrangement differs.
An integral element of any of them is the boiler, the type of which largely determines the operational characteristics of the system. Consider the most popular devices.
Option # 1 - the use of gas equipment
Gas boiler is considered the most economical of all analogues. It works extremely simply. The gas enters the combustion chamber, where it burns with the release of heat, which is transferred through the heat exchanger to the heat transfer fluid.
The equipment differs in a variety and, accordingly, various properties. The turbocharged equipment is considered the safest and most efficient equipment.
It does not need to arrange the traditional chimney, does not take air from the room and has the highest efficiency.
The maximum power models are among the floor varieties of the gas boiler. They are able to heat 2-3-storey cottages of any size.
Devices with an open-type chamber are distinguished by low efficiency, they require the provision of high-quality ventilation and a traditional chimney. At the same time they are completely non-volatile, and their cost is minimal. But important set correctly and connect the equipment.
The advantages of gas-fired heating include the following features:
- Low cost of fuel, it rises very slowly.
- High efficiency equipment.
- The possibility of full automation of the heating system.
- Clean rooms, because during the combustion of fuel does not form a large amount of ash and soot.
- A wide range of gas equipment.
Among the shortcomings worth noting the potential danger of using gas. When working with him requires increased caution. All maintenance and installation work may only be carried out by certified specialists.
In addition, for the connection of gas equipment will require a special permit. The cost of devices and their installation is large enough, the possibility of connecting to the gas pipeline does not exist everywhere.
Option # 2 - the use of solid fuel boiler
This is familiar to many heating devices. Their work requires solid fuels: calibrated coal, firewood, peat, pellets, etc. The principle of operation is similar to gas, differ in the type of burner.
Modern modifications of long-term combustion are characterized by the fact that one laying of fuel is enough to maintain the flame for half a day or more. The simplest models are non-volatile, require constant human control and have low efficiency.
Solid fuel boilers are not always convenient to use. The simplest models require constant fuel loading, frequent cleaning and maintenance.
Advanced devices can be equipped with automated control and automatic fuel supply. True, the latter refers to the pellet equipment. Such devices with proper connection, quite effective and reliable.
The advantages of solid fuel equipment are:
- The simplicity and reliability of the design, which significantly prolongs its service life.
- The budget cost of the equipment and the possibility of its installation and subsequent maintenance yourself.
- No need to obtain special documentation for the installation of such a boiler.
- A wide selection of devices of various functional and power levels.
There are equipment and significant flaws. First of all, it is the need to create a fuel reserve that needs to be stored in proper conditions. Solid fuel boilers, especially the simplest modifications, are not very convenient to use. There is a large amount of soot, soot, so very frequent cleaning of the device is required. In addition, fuel will also have to load quite often.
Option # 3 - use an electric boiler
It is also possible to heat the coolant in the system with electric type boilers. It is believed that this is a very uneconomical way. However, this is not quite true. It should be understood that several types of electrical equipment with different characteristics are available.
Tenovy and electrode models
Tenovy models the simplest and inefficient. They heat the coolant with the help of tubular electric heaters lowered into it. The devices consume a large amount of electricity with a relatively low efficiency. At the same time, the heating elements located in the liquid fail quite quickly.
Electrode boilers are more economical and reliable. In them, the coolant moves inside the boiler, where two electrodes are installed. When applying an electric current, the liquid heats up very quickly.
Electrode boilers are compact and efficient. Due to their design, they are very durable and can work for more than a dozen years.
Induction type of boiler
The most efficient and economical type of electrical equipment is induction boilers. Due to the presence of two circuits, magnetic and thermal, they manage to heat up the heat-transfer fluid as quickly as possible.
The advantages of all types of heaters include:
- Rapid heating of the coolant and, accordingly, the room.
- Compact equipment.
- Simple installation, which is carried out without prior permission.
- Arrangement of the chimney is not required.
- Comfortable operation, possibility of equipment by automatic control.
- Full safety and environmental friendliness.
Of the shortcomings, a rather high operating cost is usually noted, which comes out as a consequence of the high price of the energy carrier.
However, depending on the type of boiler and the presence or absence of automated control of the system, the cost of heating can vary considerably. Induction boilers, fully equipped with automation, are quite economical and pay for themselves fairly quickly.
Combined heating boilers
On sale you can find combined heating boilersable to work with multiple types of fuel. These are more expensive appliances, the main advantage of which is the ability to provide the house with heat in conditions of interruptions in the supply of the main type of fuel.
Combined or multi-fuel boiler - a universal heating device, indispensable for areas where there are interruptions in the supply of different types of fuel
The general advantages of all systems of heating with a liquid coolant are low cost and availability, high enough efficiency and many options for execution.
Among the disadvantages is not the most comfortable temperature distribution in the rooms. Warm air is at the top, and colder air is at the bottom.
In addition, water systems fail if the temperature in the building drops below zero. This lack is deprived of the system with antifreeze and salt solutions. However, antifreezes are expensive and toxic, and salt solutions provoke rapid corrosion of the system.
Air heating of the building
This is another type of heating a private house. Its main distinguishing feature is the absence of coolant. The air system is designed so that air flows through the heat generator, where it is heated to the desired temperature.
Further, according to special air ducts, which can have the most different shape and size, air masses are sent to heated premises.
For heating a large private house, you can use air heating, while it is possible to create a comfortable microclimate in each room.
According to the laws of convection, the heated flows rise, the cooled ones move downwards, where the holes are mounted, through which air is collected and taken to the heat generator. The cycle is repeated.
Such systems can work with forced and natural air supply. In the first case, the pump is additionally mounted, forcing the flow inside the ducts. In the second - the movement of air is due to the temperature difference. It is clear that systems with forced circulation are more efficient and powerful. On the arrangement of air heating with our own hands, we talked in the next article.
Heat generators are also different. They can work on the most different fuels, which determines their performance. Gas, electric and solid fuel appliances are most in demand. Their disadvantages and advantages are close to similar boilers of water heating.
Circulation of air masses inside the building can be done in different ways. This can be a closed loop without adding air from the street. In this case, the indoor air quality is low.
The best option is circulation with the addition of air masses from outside. The indisputable advantage of air heating is the absence of coolant. Thanks to this, it is possible to save the energy required for its heating.
In addition, installation of a complex system of pipes and radiators is not required, which undoubtedly also increases the efficiency of the system. The system does not have the risk of leaks and freezing as its water equivalent. She is ready to work at any temperature. The living space heats up extremely quickly: from launching the heat generator to increasing the temperature in the rooms, it literally takes about half an hour.
Gas heat generator - one of the possible solutions for the implementation of the project of air heating of a private house. But in practice such systems are rarely used.
Another significant plus is the possibility of combining air heating with ventilation and air conditioning. This opens up the widest possibilities for the implementation of the most comfortable microclimate in the building.
The air duct system in the summer can be successfully used for air conditioning rooms. Installation of additional equipment will provide an opportunity to humidify, clean and even disinfect the air.
Air heating equipment lends itself well to automation. “Smart” control allows you to remove from the homeowner burdening control over the operation of the devices. In addition, the system will independently select the most economical mode of operation. Air heating is very simple to install and durable. The average term of its operation is about 25 years.
Air ducts can be installed during the construction phase of the building and hidden under the ceiling. For installation of such systems high ceilings are necessary.
The advantages include the absence of pipes and radiators, which gives room for the imagination of interior designers. The cost of such a system is quite affordable for most homeowners. Moreover, it pays off quickly enough, so its demand is growing.
There are air heating and disadvantages. These include a significant difference between the temperatures in the lower and upper parts of the room. On average, it is 10 ° C, but in rooms with high ceilings it can reach up to 20 ° C. Thus, in the cold season, it will be necessary to increase the power of the heat generator.
Another disadvantage is quite noisy equipment operation. True, it can be leveled by the selection of special "quiet" devices. In the absence of a filtration system at the outlets, a large amount of dust may appear in the air.
Infrared heating system
This is a relatively new method of heating homes. It is based on the use of infrared radiation. Scientists have found that infrared rays can have different lengths. It is safe and even beneficial for humans long-wave radiation, similar to what we receive from the sun. That it is used in heating devices operating in the infrared range.
Infrared film heaters can be mounted on the ceiling. Then the radiation will go down and reach the floor, which will warm up
For room heating, a special IR film is used. Carbon paste is applied on a non-woven base with a thin layer, which, under the influence of current, is activated and emits infrared waves. The resulting emitter is laminated on both sides with a film, which gives it strength and prolongs the service life.
The principle of operation of infrared heating is as follows. The film is placed on the floor or on the ceiling. When the system is turned on, current is supplied to the radiator, it produces infrared waves. They move and reach the first massive obstacle. This may be large furniture, household appliances, and most often the floor. Such objects are impermeable to infrared rays, they linger and accumulate in them.
Objects gradually heat up and give the resulting heat into the air, due to which the room warms up very quickly. In another article, we talked more about infrared heating device do it yourself
Admittedly, this type of heating is most comfortable. Due to the fact that the floor is warmed up, the temperature distribution is as pleasant and useful for a person as possible. In the lower part of the room, it is about 2-3 ° C warmer than at the top.
In addition, the natural moisture and the amount of oxygen are completely preserved, and convection currents carrying dust are absent. No drafts. Film heaters work absolutely silently, they are safe for humans.
If infrared heaters are laid under the flooring, the radiation rises, reaches the floor and heats its surface, and then the air in the room
Another advantage is fully automated system management. This allows it to work in the most economical mode and at the same time provide the owner with full comfort. Due to this, the film system has no heat loss, its efficiency is almost 100%.
The minimum lifetime of the equipment is 25 years, and the service life is twice as long. At the same time maintenance system is not required.
The next advantage is compactness. The film is very thin and does not "eat up" free space. No additional room is required for the heating unit, there are no batteries and air ducts. The film is very easy to put and connect. If necessary, possible dismantling and reuse.
Among the shortcomings, it is worth noting that when the voltage drops, the amount of heat produced by the film decreases. In this case, the operating time of the heater is increased, which leads to more power consumption. The film can be closed with a variety of finishing coatings, except for putty, wallpaper and paint. The cost of equipment for arranging infrared heating is quite high.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
For heating a private house using different types of heating, and sometimes combine several. How is heating, you can learn from the following videos.
Pros and cons of air heating:
What do users say about infrared heating:
Features of arrangement of water heating do it yourself:
In a private house, it is technically possible to equip almost any heating system. Therefore, the owner must choose the most practical and most suitable option for the conditions existing in his house. Making a choice, you should listen to the opinion of experts, correctly calculate your heating system. Then your house will be very warm, even if it is a fierce winter outside.
And which heating system do you use? What advantages and disadvantages have you noticed when operating your heating system? Or are you still looking, choosing the best option? Maybe you still have questions after reading this article? Please ask them below - our experts and other site visitors will try to help you.