The bathroom and the toilet are the rooms, in the process of arrangement of which, first of all, you need to think about the organization of intensive air exchange. This is due to the specifics of the operation of hygienic premises. Contaminated and waterlogged air should be freely discharged, and replaced with a fresh batch.
We will tell you how the ventilation should be arranged in the bathroom and toilet according to building regulations and rules. In the article presented by us, the options for the organization of ventilation tested in practice are analyzed in detail. Independent home craftsmen we will find detailed installation guides.
The content of the article:
- What is ventilation for?
- Sanitary requirements and regulations
- The difference between natural ventilation from compulsory
- Calculate optimal performance
- Classification of exhaust fans
- Basic equipment selection criteria
- Additional equipment functions
- Components and materials systems
Installation of ventilation in the bathroom and toilet
- Determining the installation site
- Diagnostics of the condition of the ventilation duct
- Selection of the device wiring diagram
- Fan installation details
- Common installation errors
- Recommendations from experienced professionals
- Rules of operation of the exhaust system
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is ventilation for?
The opinion that the absence of a ventilation shaft in the bathroom and toilet will only result in fogging of mirrors is fundamentally wrong. The main problem is the appearance of the fungus (most often it can be seen on the seams between the tiles) and rust on the surface of appliances and furniture.
Often it is because of an improperly designed ventilation system that corrosion affects the working parts of the washing machine, which is the reason for its breakdown. This list of problems caused by the absence of intensive air exchange does not end there. As a result, poor ventilation will have a detrimental effect on the health of residents.
Sanitary requirements and regulations
There are special rules that should be followed when organizing forced air exchange in rooms with high humidity levels. At a minimum, 6-7 m of fresh air should be provided.3/ hour for each cubic meter of a bathroom and about 8-10 m3/ hour - for a toilet or a combined bathroom.
Experts recommend to organize ventilation, which performance is 20% more than the required volume in m3/hour
The difference between natural ventilation from compulsory
There is natural and forced ventilation. In the first case, air exchange is provided by circulating air masses through door and window openings. About a century ago, natural ventilation was considered the most effective way.
Today, it is unable to provide a sufficient level of air exchange, therefore it is used only for inflow. To fully ventilate the room, choose the option with coercion. After all, no one wants to open a window for a long time in winter and release heat.
The organization of forced ventilation involves the installation of an exhaust fan. This allows you to save precious heat, remove excess moisture and fill the room with fresh and clean air in a matter of minutes.
The main reason why it is worthwhile to install forced ventilation is precisely the fitted doorways and tightness of modern glass packs. Such perfectionism, while maintaining warmth, makes any natural air exchange impossible.
Calculate optimal performance
Before going to the store and buying equipment for installing forced ventilation in the toilet and bathroom, you need to do some calculations. To select the optimal equipment performance you need to know the exact volume and type of room.
Each room has its own air exchange rate. This characteristic shows how many times the air in a room should be completely renewed per unit of time (usually one hour is taken). Since the bathroom and the toilet are considered as one of the wettest places in any apartment or house, the maximum value of the air exchange rate, equal to 10, is recommended.
To calculate optimal performance exhaust system, you need to calculate the volume of the room. For this you need to multiply the area of the room by the height of the ceilings.
Next, the resulting value is multiplied by the rate of air exchange. The result of the calculation is the minimum power of the exhaust system for the bathroom and toilet (m3/hour).
If the fan cannot be placed in the optimum place for organizing intensive air exchange, then its power should be multiplied by 2-3 times.
And also should immediately provide holes for air flow. To do this, you can leave a gap of up to 2 cm between the floor and the door, install special grilles in the lower part of the doors in the bathroom and toilet, or drill holes on your own. But the latter option does not look the most attractive way.
Classification of exhaust fans
When planning the arrangement of the ventilation system, special attention should be paid to the principle of its work and the individual components. After all, performance, equipment noise level, installation cost and durability depend on it.
For the forced evacuation of exhaust air from the room, three types of fans are used:
The first type of instrument is designed to work in heat guns and air conditioning systems. Therefore, for the organization of ventilation in the bathroom and toilet, it is not suitable. It remains to choose from the other two types.
The main difference between axial and radial models is their low cost and high power. But at the same time the device will be quite noisy. The axial fan is an impeller to which the blades are attached. The system is driven by an electric motor.
As for the radial units, their functioning is based on the action of centrifugal force. Due to the rotation of the impeller together with the blades, the movement of air masses.
In this case, you can change the slope of the blades, thereby reducing the amount of energy consumed by the device and reducing the level of noise produced by it. With popular models silent fansdesigned for installation in bathrooms, will introduce the article recommended by us.
To the air from the ventilation shaft did not return back to the premises, it is recommended to buy a device with a check valve. Such devices are indispensable in modern apartments.
Basic equipment selection criteria
Manufacturers offer just a huge range fans for exhaust systems. It is therefore not surprising that every unprepared buyer falls into a stupor and does not even suspect that he should order.
When buying an exhaust device for the bathroom and toilet, you need to pay attention to the following points:
- The diameter of the duct. Depending on this characteristic, the fan nozzle is selected. As a rule, with standard models the diameter is 150, 125 or 100 mm.
- Presence / absence of air ductsand their location in the room. These criteria affect where the fan will be installed.
- Power. Characteristic is important when choosing so that in future the exhaust equipment can cope with the functions assigned to it.
- Availability of moisture protection. This indicator is marked in Latin letters IP. The minimum required value for the plumbing unit is IP30, but it is better to spend some time and order the device with IP44. In the latter case, it will be located in a special hermetic casing, protected from moisture and splashes.
- Noise level. This important feature is not widely paid due attention, but in vain. After all, a silent exhaust system will make staying in the bathroom and toilet more comfortable.
Given these subtleties, you can choose a model that will be inexpensive and will satisfy all wishes.
Usually, the fan equipment includes the device itself and four dowels that will be needed for its installation. In most cases, a cardboard box is used to package the device.
Additional equipment functions
An excellent solution would be to order a fan with additional features. Most often, buyers prefer models with built-in timer.
In this case, the user can leave the factory settings or program the operation of the device independently, changing the operating time, on-delay, etc. This allows you to automate the process of ventilation of the toilet and bathroom.
Devices with a built-in timer are quite expensive. Therefore, their choice should be treated with all responsibility. Best recommended products from the company Maico. This manufacturer offers a range of models that are equipped not only with a timer, but also with other additional features.
Fans can help save energy, allowing you to switch the base load. That is, the unit is able to work in two modes: half of its power and full, when you need to update the air in the room in the shortest time. Thanks to this function, the noise level of the ventilation system is significantly reduced and energy is saved.
A good solution would be to buy a device with a clock or backlight. Such additional features will make taking a shower or bath more convenient and comfortable.
Any expert will prefer the device with a built-in humidity sensor. Its peculiarity is that it is turned on only at the signal of the built-in hygrometer. This feature saves energy and eliminates the need for a separate electrical point for the fan or connecting the device to a light switch.
Components and materials systems
Today, ventilation is collected from air ducts round or rectangular section. As a rule, they are made of metal or plastic. These elements are mounted behind a false ceiling.
If we are talking about bathrooms and a toilet in a small apartment, then in such housing the ventilation duct is a hole in the wall where the fan is inserted. In this case, there is no point and need to design a complex, branched system.
As for private houses, for them ventilation is constructed from the following elements:
- Air ducts. It is much more convenient to install rectangular ducts. They are compactly placed under the ceiling and do not take up extra space. These are pipes whose length can be 2, 1 and 0.5 m.
- Fan. Applied invoice or embedded device. The latter type is best used in branched and complex systems. Overhead models are recommended for ventilation of one room.
- Swivel knees. In the case of rectangular pipes, the bends can be vertical and horizontal.
- Couplings. These elements are used to connect straight sections of the ventilation system.
- Check valves. They are designed to prevent air and insects from entering the mine.
In the process of installation will also need mounting. It is much more convenient to use ready-made elements. They will greatly simplify the installation process and speed up the work.
But if you need to save money, then fastening elements can be made independently.
In case of an error in the design or insufficiently effective operation of the ventilation system in the bathroom and toilet of a private house, the problem can be fixed by installing exhaust vent valve into the wall. Features of the choice of the specified device and installation rules are given in the article, the content of which we advise you to read
Installation of ventilation in the bathroom and toilet
Before the start of installation work it is necessary to carry out preparatory. First of all, you need to compare the diameter of the exhaust device with the size of the mine.
If the vent is large, then a plastic pipe or corrugation is inserted into it. In this case, voids should be sealed with foam. If the entrance to the ventilation shaft is smaller, it can be expanded with a perforator.
Determining the installation site
For forced ventilation to be as efficient as possible, it is not enough just to purchase powerful equipment. It is equally important to choose the right place for the installation.
Because hood in the bathroom is designed to remove the hot humid air, then the best solution is to install it in the upper part of the wall, which is located opposite the door.
It is also important to organize the flow into the room - you have to embed a special grille in the lower part of the door or leave the usual slot under the door (a more economical way). Such options will allow fresh air to flow from the living area into the bathroom.
Diagnostics of the condition of the ventilation duct
If you think about reworking a bathroom or toilet, then before starting any work should be carried out diagnostics of the ventilation channels accessible to the owners in ways.
First of all, the thrust is checked, for which a sheet of plain paper, a lit match or a lighter leans against the mine. If the paper sticks to the ventilation grille, and the flame leans towards the channel, then this is a good sign.
To improve traction, it is recommended to check whether the ventilation duct is blocked with debris remaining after inept repair work or for any other reasons. After cleaning, check the draft with the door open and closed.
Selection of the device wiring diagram
If we consider a standard apartment in a new building, then in the overwhelming majority of cases, natural ventilation is not enough to remove all excess moisture from the bathroom. The only exception is a private house, in the toilet of which there is a window.
But when arranging forced ventilation, the question is: how long should the exhaust device work? Often apartment owners connect the fan to the light switch. This means that the device can work exactly as much as the person will be in the bathroom. This may not be enough.
The second method is based on connecting the fan to a separate switch. But in this case, the user will forget to turn on / off the device. Therefore, a suitable solution would be to install a fan with a humidity sensor. Such devices work autonomously and without human intervention remove excess moisture from the bathroom.
Due to its convenience and energy saving, the most popular method is when a fan is connected to a light switch. But this method is not very efficient.
Fan installation details
Before proceeding with the arrangement of the ventilation system, it is imperative to familiarize yourself with the instructions that come with the devices. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the entire installation process is described in detail in the insert. This will greatly simplify and speed up the work.
The most time-consuming step is to install and connect a fan.
If the manufacturer’s recommendations do not exist or there is no translation into the native language, then the actions should be performed in the following sequence:
- Remove the front cover.
- In those areas where the fan is adjacent to the wall, it is necessary to apply polymer glue, silicone or liquid nails. All of these mounting methods are perfect, as exhaust devices are often made of plastic and, accordingly, have a small weight. Therefore, liquid nails will be enough.
- Insert the fan in such a way that its working part (electric motor and wheel with blades) are completely “recessed” in the wall.
- Tightly press the body of the unit so that the adhesive composition has time to grab.
- Install mosquito net. This element will protect from penetration from the ventilating channel into the room of various insects and garbage.
- Secure the front cover with the self-tapping screws or dowels supplied.
The final stage is the laying of the cable and connecting the ventilation system to the electrical network.
The whole installation process is quite simple, but if there are any problems or difficulties, it is better to entrust this work to professionals.
Forced ventilation significantly increases the amount of air expelled from the room. But since the front cover closes a large part of the channel when the device is turned off, the flow rate decreases several times. Because of this, its performance drops significantly.
The above problem is solved by installing an air intake grille. This will help restore normal performance. The second way is to leave a small gap (1-3 cm) between the front cover and the wall. Air will be sucked into the resulting gap and ventilation will operate normally.
When connecting the ventilation system to the electrical network, it is necessary to follow the safety rules. First of all, you need to make sure that the wires are de-energized. Besides, for their connection it is better to use not “twisting”, but terminal blocks
Common installation errors
If an inexperienced master arranges the ventilation system, then there are often situations when after the end of the work its performance does not satisfy the wishes of the tenants or it does not differ by efficiency.
The reason for this is to make mistakes during installation. To avoid the appearance of elementary problems, you need to know some of the nuances.
The most common such errors when installing the ventilation system:
- the canal is designed incorrectly, which significantly complicates the movement of air;
- fans make a lot of noise when working;
- the tightness of the shaft connection is broken;
- the ventilation system passes through the living space and its noise interferes with the normal life of the family.
If the design was done incorrectly, then the problems listed above will definitely appear. In this case, it is often necessary to completely redo the ventilation system to correct them.
In some cases, a strong hum when the fan is working is a clear sign of its improper installation and the assumption of an error, which is called “coaxiality”. This problem is solved by dismantling the device and reassembling it, but with exact adherence to technology.
You can go the easy way. For example, noise reduction is recommended to reduce noise. With regard to improving the performance of ventilation, then it will have to install a new, more powerful exhaust device and check the quality of the arrangement of air flow in the bathroom and toilet.
Recommendations from experienced professionals
People who are faced with organizing ventilation in the bathroom and toilet for the first time will find it helpful to familiarize themselves with tips from experienced craftsmen. First of all, they recommend to ensure a normal flow of fresh air into the room. Indeed, otherwise the operation of the exhaust fan will be meaningless.
It is not necessary to buy expensive and overall systems. Spending fabulous sums is not always the best solution. It is enough to correctly and correctly pick up the devices, then even cheap models will perfectly cope with the ventilation of the room.
Choosing a fan, in no case can you save on quality. After all, the health of each family member, as well as the lifetime of the device, depends on it. It is better to spend money once, but to order a device that will faithfully serve for decades
If the house has air conditioning, ionizer, cleaner, household humidifier and similar devices, it is still necessary to engage in the installation of ventilation. After all, none of the devices listed above, does not provide a flow of fresh air into the premises.
Rules of operation of the exhaust system
In order for the equipment to serve as long as possible, it is necessary to regularly carry out maintenance work. Indeed, on the fan blades with time accumulates dust and dirt. This does not allow the device to work at its maximum capabilities and provide decent air exchange. Moreover, if the cleaning is not carried out in a timely manner, the device may fail.
Maintenance work includes regular inspection of the ventilation system for clogging and washing the fan blades. This approach will allow even in a modern house, characterized by high tightness, always breathe fresh and clean air.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1: The secrets of installing the hood in the bathroom and toilet:
Video # 2: Creating separate ventilation in the bathroom and toilet:
The installation of a forced ventilation system allows us to solve the problem of indoor ventilation that is relevant for modern homes and apartments. In bathrooms and toilets, a window is seldom placed, therefore the only correct and reasonable solution would be to provide an intensive air exchange artificially by installing a fan in the system.
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