The quality, chemical composition and purity of water supplied by the central water supply, we make a number of well-founded claims. They are justified by the deterioration of health, rapid deterioration of equipment and eternal problems with water pressure. And our physical and economic condition deserves attention, agree?
To combat these negative circumstances, there is a proven method - you need a coarse and fine filter. Depending on the tasks to be solved, both individual devices and a group of interconnected devices that perform multi-stage processing are mounted.
Here you will learn what work a certain type of device does, in what sequence they are placed, how they ultimately affect the quality characteristics of water. For the full perception of information, we have attached visual illustrations and video tutorials.
The content of the article:
- Filtration stages in the process of water treatment
Device and application of coarse filters
- Coarse sediment filters
- Self-washing main devices
- Processing with disc filters
- Fine and coarse cartridge filters
- Filler materials for cartridges
Ultra-thin cleaning for drinking water
- Sorption filters for cleaning
- Ion exchange species for water softening
- Membrane (reverse osmosis) filter
- Filter maintenance and cartridge replacement
Rules for the installation of filtration devices
- Installation of sediment filters (mud collectors)
- How to install a reverse osmosis system?
- Connection of reverse osmosis filter
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Filtration stages in the process of water treatment
The first, most important step in water treatment is mechanical cleaning. Primary devices remove particles from 1 micron and above from water. They perform an indispensable function in the filtration process, without which further water treatment is impossible.
Rust, sand, clay particles, scale from old water pipes - everything is removed to get clear water at the outlet.
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Throughout the autonomous water supply system, it is supplied with a set of filters that perform various water treatment tasks.
The very first in the scheme is a mesh filter that produces mechanical retention of mineral and organic particles
A similar strainer that produces coarse water purification is placed at the inlet to the surface pump: either on the edge of the suction pipe or in front of the nozzle of the unit
If water is supposed to be pumped directly to the consumer by the pump, for example, to the pool, then the mesh filter is installed on the pipe, and before the pump - the sorbing action filter
To protect the equipment included in the water supply scheme, so-called mud traps are used - coarse filters. They are placed mainly inside the house, but it is excellent if they are located on the outer areas.
Preparation of water for drinking use is carried out by cartridge filters that absorb pollutants and fine-cleaning systems.
Filtering devices with internal cartridges conduct deferrization, retention of heavy metal salts and softening.
Fine water purification is carried out by systems including a series of super thin filters, as well as reverse osmosis systems, extracting their water from bacteria and harmful microorganisms.
Filtration of natural water
Screen Filter for Submersible Pump
The filter at the inlet to the surface pump
Preparation of water for transfer to the consumer
Main filter in water supply
Installation for current water purification
Only after the first stage of pre-filtration, one can proceed to the elimination of organic impurities, heavy metal compounds, chemical elements and microorganisms. For this purpose, ultra-thin filtration devices are used.
More specifically, the need to clean up any pollutants can only be determined on the basis of test results.
In order to make the right choice of the filter, it is necessary to clearly define what its installation is for:
- for filtering hot and / or cold water;
- what kind of contaminants should be cleaned;
- What kind of performance and load volume should a filter have?
- for what purposes - to protect plumbing and equipment or for drinking water and cooking.
It is also necessary to take into account where the device will be used - in a private house, apartment, in a boiler room or at an industrial enterprise.
When you buy a filter, you can verify the data with the table and make sure that the stated level of cleaning is appropriate for the capabilities of the product. For example, often in the parameters of the device for fine cleaning indicates the possibility of filtering impurities from 100 microns in size, which in fact refers to coarse cleaning
Device and application of coarse filters
Devices of rough cleaning can have a different design, but the principle of their work is similar. Inside they have a removable element, which can be in the form of a metal mesh, a disk, a cartridge - it performs filtering. There is also a drain to collect pollution. To remove collected garbage, the device is periodically washed.
Additionally, the devices can be equipped with a pressure gauge to help monitor the pressure in the system. The drop in water pressure may signal that it is time to change or wash the cartridge, grid.
Filters can also be produced in conjunction with a gearbox, which lowers the pressure, extinguishes water hammer. Some models have valves.
General properties and differences of different models are in the following characteristics:
- Filter element Metal mesh, polypropylene fiber cartridge, disk element are often used for rough cleaning.
- The method of cleaning accumulated dirt. Separate devices for those that are washed in manual mode and self-washing.
- Possibility of use for hot, warm or cold water.
All differences affect the functionality of devices. Therefore, further - in more detail about their capabilities.
These filters are installed on almost every water supply system, as they are durable and easily cleaned from dirt accumulations.
Coarse sediment filters
Sedimentary filters include devices with a mesh for filtration. They are made mainly of metal casing (brass or stainless steel) with a straight or oblique tap located directly perpendicular or at an angle. Inside, in the course of the water is placed stainless steel mesh.
There are also models of conical axial devices in which the body is straight and the filtering grid has the shape of a cone and is located inside. Their design provides low hydraulic resistance.
The mesh can be made of carbon fiber, fiberglass, metal. The metal element is more easily deformed, which leads to a deterioration in throughput, but it is easy to clean. In contrast, the carbon fiber mesh is stronger, but washing it out may cause difficulties.
Installed on the site of the steam heating system in front circulation pumpin the water supply system - before water meter. When installing in front of the pump, it is necessary to study the parameters to prevent an increase in the load on the pump. In addition, some manufacturers directly prohibit the installation of any devices in front of their equipment.
A filter in the form of a cylinder of metal mesh is used for installation in the area of water suction from the source. It is used to prevent large debris from entering the water supply system and prevent damage to the pump.
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Freeing coarse water filters from accumulated deposits is easy to do with your own hands
The simplest design of gryazevikov and other main filters ensures proper disassembly and assembly of the device
The main part of all types of coarse filters - metal mesh, retaining grains of sand and organic particles
All actions to assemble and install the device after cleaning are performed in the reverse order.
Availability for cleaning
Self disassembly of the sump
Coarse Filter Screen
Actions after cleaning the filter
Self-washing main devices
The design of the filter consists of a housing, cartridge, tap for washing. Metal or plastic housing has two holes that are connected to the water mains. Stainless steel filtering mesh - removable, retains mechanical impurities from 100 microns.
There is a backwash valve at the bottom of the body bowl. Some models are equipped with a manometer to monitor the degree of contamination.
A self-cleaning coarse filter is used for heating and plumbing systems. Removes impurities ranging in size from 100 to 150 microns
The principle of operation of the device is the flow through the filter element - a removable stainless steel cartridge. Mechanical contamination while staying in the grid. Some of them remain in it, and some of them settle at the bottom of the hull.
The feature of self-washing devices is the ability to remove accumulated dirt without disassembling and unwinding the case. To do this, open the tap in the bottom of the hull and flush the water into the tank or into the sewer.
The debris is flushed and the device continues to operate as usual. To remove old deposits on the grid, you can remove it and clean it more thoroughly.
The flush valve can be connected to the drain pipe that joins the sewer, it simplifies the maintenance process
Processing with disc filters
The devices are mainly used for preliminary water treatment; they prepare water for further purification, softening and deironing. Installed in centralized and autonomous water supply systems, in heating plants, are used in irrigation systems, including drip.
As the filtering element serve polymeric disks, dressed on an axis and tightly squeezed together. Their surface is covered with small grooves, the dimensions of which determine the degree of cleaning, ranging from 20 to 400 microns.
The cleaning process goes like this: a stream of water fills the casing and seeps through the flow-through grooves in the discs, and then is diverted to the outlet. Over time, the dirt settles and accumulates on the surface.
Reduction water pressure - A signal that the device needs cleaning again. You can determine the degree of clogging with a pressure gauge.
Cleaning discs can be done in two ways - manually, or automatically, when connected to a sewer pipe
Fine and coarse cartridge filters
Cartridge filters are very popular because they have a relatively low cost and can be used to filter industrial and drinking water. Free water from coarse suspensions - sand, rust, as well as from small particles up to 1 micron (0.001 mm).
Do well in cleaning from dregs. Devices with a capacity of 100 to 20 microns are used on the main filters for coarse cleaning, from 10 to 1 microns used for the treatment of drinking water.
Let out them in the form of a flask with a cartridge from polyester or the twisted polypropylene thread. It is installed on the pipeline. After exhaustion of a resource of a cartridge make its replacement. Wash and reuse removable element is not subject.
Often, models with a removable disposable filter are used in conjunction with mesh devices, In the course of the water flow, the filter grid is first installed, as it is washed and can be used. repeatedly
Filler materials for cartridges
For the manufacture of the cartridge using polypropylene fiber, woven polypropylene rope (cord), cellulose impregnated with polyester, nylon cord. But it is propylene that has gained the most popularity due to its low cost, not exposed to chemicals, not destroyed by biological organisms.
Filters made of polypropylene cord use a special winding method that allows larger suspensions to settle on the outside of the cartridge, while small particles remain inside the skein. They are not very quickly clogged, but the more they exhaust their resources, the more they let in pollution.
For plumbing this is a positive property, because a dirty filter does not reduce the pressure in the system. Polypropylene fiber has a foam structure, which contains small bubbles, they accumulate pollution. Disadvantages of the material is manifested in cheap low-quality models.
When cleaning the water, the external filtration ball is clogged in them, while the inner layer can remain clean, that is, not participate in the filtration process. But high-quality cartridges work the entire surface.
A significant lack of fiber from polypropylene - with strong pollution, it ceases to pass water and significantly reduces the water pressure. This may adversely affect the operation of pumping equipment.
The temperature of use of products made of polypropylene 1 - 52 ° C. They can be used for cold and warm water. For the treatment of hot water it is necessary to use cartridges of cotton fibers impregnated with a special substance. They endure high temperatures (up to +93 ° C), exposure to microorganisms and various substances.
Ultra-thin cleaning for drinking water
After the removal of solid particles and turbidity from water during the rough cleaning, there are still many substances in it - dissolved impurities and harmful microorganisms, the presence of which makes it impossible to use it to quench thirst.
The new generation of fine filters are capable of purifying water to such an extent that it is not necessary to boil it to get drunk.
Those who want to get information about filtering devices from leading manufacturers in the segment have a lot of useful information. will find here. We advise you to read the article on this issue.
Sorption filters for cleaning
Sorption filters are used to remove sand, sludge, rust fibers, various impurities of a size of 20-40 microns, including clay and colloidal iron. They have a high resource and performance and can accumulate a large number of suspensions.
Able to neutralize odors, pathogenic bacteria. Some models of devices enrich water with iodine and fluorine, in some they use silver ions that neutralize harmful microorganisms.
Granular activated carbon or aluminosilicates are used for absorption. Activated carbon copes with substances such as chlorine, radioactive elements, pesticides, heavy metals, petroleum products and dyes. Absorbs chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, eliminating water from excessive hardness.
Aluminosilicates neutralize heavy metals, organic impurities, establish an optimal acid-base balance.
Compared to mesh and disk, it functions more efficiently, removing suspended particles
Sorption filters can be manufactured for domestic purposes - in the form of jugs or tanks, and for processing large volumes - as the main device. Regeneration is carried out using reverse flow of water. A significant drawback of such filtering systems is the high cost, several times higher than the cost of other installations.
Ion exchange species for water softening
Ion exchange filters serve to soften water, remove organic impurities. They are made in the form of a plastic or metal (stainless steel) case with an ion-exchange material, and containers for regenerating (salt) solution. The principle of operation is based on the passage of water through bulk filters, where it gets rid of hardness ions.
Different models of ion exchange filters differ in performance, volume of working tanks and components that are used as filter loading.
The effectiveness of the work depends on the chemical indicators of water, filter material and the room temperature.
The main disadvantage of such installations is the complexity of maintenance that requires the use of regenerating tanks, recycling waste components, and a small filter resource is about 200-800 liters.
Membrane (reverse osmosis) filter
Technology cleaning with membrane filters based on the passage of water through a corrugated material of a large area with pores no more than 3 microns. At the same time, the membrane filter keeps impurities on the surface without passing them inside, which significantly increases the service life of the filter material.
Usually, the membrane filter is part of a multi-stage cleaning and is installed after the coarse cleaning device and the carbon filter.
Water enters the membrane filter through an inlet with an O-ring, using a high-pressure pump. After passing through all the filtration stages, it is divided into permeate (highly purified water) and condensate (solution of various impurities), which accumulates in the drainage collector.
The degree of filtration depends on the size of pores in the membrane:
- up to 1 micron - microfiltration;
- up to 0.1 microns - ultrafiltration;
- to 0.01 microns - nanofiltration;
- less than 0.001 microns - reverse osmosis.
The reverse osmosis unit performs the highest possible filtration of water, cleaning it at the molecular level, removing all microorganisms, heavy metal salts, and organic impurities.
After passing through such a filter, only 20–30% of mineral substances remain in the water; it becomes poorly mineralized, which can be interpreted as dignity and lack.
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The highest degree of purification of drinking water is carried out by the installation operating on the principle of reverse osmosis.
The installation includes: mechanical sediment filter, carbon sorption filters, a block with a semi-permeable reverse osmosis membrane and a post-filter
The installation, which includes a complex of filtering devices, purifies water by 99%. Removes all types of inclusions, viruses and bacteria.
Purified tap water is supplied through a separate chrome-plated faucet. There is a storage tank for water storage.
You can assemble and install the reverse osmosis system with your own hands due to the extreme simplicity of the design
The instructions supplied by the manufacturer to the equipment, describes the scheme and options for assembly. All system components are numbered.
The frequency of changing the units of the reverse osmosis unit depends on the quality of the supplied water and its typical composition for the region.
The disadvantages of reverse osmosis systems include quite impressive size and too high degree of purification, eliminating from the water not only harmful substances, but also useful minerals.
Installation for the preparation of drinking water
The composition of the filtration complex
The degree of purification of the reverse osmosis system
Devices for collecting purified water and feeding to the collection
Self-assembly cleaning system
Numbering blocks with filters
Replaceable filling of filtering units
The disadvantages of reverse osmosis systems
With a rating of water treatment devices installed under the kitchen sink, will introduce useful article, the content of which we recommend to read.
Filter maintenance and cartridge replacement
Sediment filter maintenance involves periodic cleaning of the filter screen. Before starting work, you need to turn off the tap, then unscrew the revision cover and remove the grid. The frequency of inspections depends on the quality of water, on the degree of its pollution. After cleaning, you must install the elements in place and check for leaks.
To avoid the destruction of the filter elements it is not recommended to use detergents containing solvent.
To clean disc filters, remove them from the line, open the housing and remove the filter element. When removing the filter, the latch, pressing the disks to each other, is weakened and they are unclenched. Then all the elements are washed, for more thorough cleaning the device is disassembled and cleaned with a brush or sponge.
It is possible to carry out automatic washing without dismantling the internal elements by starting the flow of water in the direction opposite to the working
Polypropylene cartridge filters must be replaced after contamination. Manufacturers of different models on the packaging indicate the amount of water in liters that the device can clean.
Objectively, the duration of the filter depends on the state of water in a centralized water supply system or an autonomous source. Therefore, it can serve up to six months. But with a rush of plumbing or for other reasons, it can clog even in one day.
The need to replace the cartridge is evaluated by its condition (degree of contamination). The signal can be a decrease in pressure in the water supply
In reverse osmosis fine filters, the replacement period for replacement elements depends on the type of filler. For prefilters, it is half a year, for a coal postfilter - a year, for a membrane - 2–2.5 years.
To properly place the replaceable elements, you must remember their original location. Before you start drinking water from a new filter or cartridge, you must flush the system — drain the water after you first fill the tank.
After a long system downtime, more than 3 months, and even after the replacement of replaceable elements, it is disinfected. If the filter shows rapid development of microorganisms and fouling of prefilters, it is recommended to additionally install an ultraviolet lamp complete with a main prefilter.
Rules for the installation of filtration devices
When a multi-stage cleaning device, the first stage is always a filter that performs a rough cleaning. When using several types of systems, first mount the device with a large micronage.
If you install filters of different cleaning methods in the wrong sequence, they will not be able to fully perform the task.
Installation of filtering devices in front of pumping equipment is not recommended. The exceptions are screen filters with near zero resistance, which protect the pump from large debris.
The use of any other filters - iron removers, softeners, etc. - will lead to an increase in the load on the pump station and will cause its premature wear. Installation, adjustment and repair is carried out in the absence of pressure in the water supply system.
Installation of sediment filters (mud collectors)
Oblique and straight clutch filters are installed on horizontal sections of the water pipe exclusively in the direction of flow. Oblique filters can also be mounted on a vertical pipeline if the flow moves from top to bottom.
The direction of flow should correspond to the arrow signs marked on the filter. Incorrect installation will result in poor throughput and clogged pipeline (+)
The filter should not be subjected to loads from vibration, bending, compression and stretching of the pipeline. When installing it, uniform fastening of the fastener is achieved, if necessary, compensators and supports are installed to reduce the load.
The correct location of the filter - lid revision down. For preventive maintenance under the device provide free space.
Mesh filters are divided by coupling method and flange. The first type is installed on pipes of small diameters, the second type is used for water mains, interchanges in the plumbing system of apartment buildings. On pipes with a diameter of up to two inches used threaded filters, the so-called American.
A filter that cuts into the water supply system may have a different degree of purification and character of filtration, be washed manually or automatically.
How to install a reverse osmosis system?
The installation of the filter is carried out in an easily accessible place on a horizontal section of the water pipe with a downwardly directed flask. When installing a water meter filter must be placed in front of him.
Installation is carried out in the following sequence:
- An anaerobic sealant is applied to the connecting threads, filling all the grooves with a uniform layer and leaving it to cure for 15 minutes.
- Next, attach the fastener to the filter, paying attention to the direction of water flow in the water supply.
- Putting the filter fasteners to the wall, and making sure that the device bends coincide with the position of the pipe, mark the place for the holes.
- Drill holes and insert dowels, then, using screws, screw the holder with the filter to the wall.
- To connect the filter taps to the line, cut the pipe and bend it in order to align its axis with the filter axis. So that the pipe does not break when it is bent, a special jig is brought into the middle.
- Then put a compression ring and a nut on a pipe, insert a fitting (against the stop). Crimping ring tight against the fitting and tighten the nut.
- Connect the fitting to the filter and twist the union nut, tightly tightening the key.
After installation, open the water, check for leaks. For the convenience of repair and maintenance on both sides of the device provide shut-off valves.
Connection of reverse osmosis filter
Installation of the cleaning system consists of the assembly of individual elements and does not require special tools. Therefore hold reverse osmosis system can even a person who has never done this.
The manufacturer recommends placing the filter under the kitchen sink. To make it comfortable to collect filtered water, install a separate faucet. To install it, you will have to drill a hole in the corner of the sink or on the worktop near the sink.
In the standard configuration of the reverse osmosis system there is no pump that would increase the pressure - if necessary, it is installed separately. Additionally, the system can be equipped with an ice generator and replaceable elements for more efficient removal of fluorine, nitrates
The reverse osmosis filter is assembled as a constructor. Installation consists of the following steps:
- installation of the drinking tap and its connection to the filter;
- connection to the cold water pipeline;
- installation of the ball valve of the tank and drainage clamp;
- start-up and flushing of the system.
For good performance and performance of the reverse osmosis filter, it is required to ensure a normal pressure in the system. If the water pressure in the supply pipe does not exceed 2.8 bar, it is recommended to install a pressure boosting pump.
It is installed before the first filter in the gap of the incoming tube. When using a pump, it is imperative to install a high pressure sensor - it automates the process of turning off and on the equipment.
Owners of their own pools will get a lot of useful information about filter installations. in the next articlewhich we recommend to read.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Movie # 1. How to choose a filter according to the degree and method of cleaning:
Movie # 2. How to insert a filter in the water supply system:
Movie # 3. Installation of reverse osmosis filter and change of cartridges:
When choosing a device for water treatment is not a question, what filter to install - for coarse or fine cleaning. It is more correct to ask the question for what purposes water will be used and what result should be achieved.
It is necessary to use water filtration devices from coarse cleaning to the finest, if necessary, that will remove impurities to the smallest particles.
Those who wish to share their experience, express an opinion, ask questions, note shortcomings in the presented material, we invite you to write comments. You can leave them in the block located under the text of the article.