Tile is considered an almost perfect flooring. She is able to serve more than a decade. The material is not afraid of damp, chemically active substances, copes well with mechanical loads.
Another advantage is the ability to mount under it almost any kind of floor heating. Let us see what criteria to choose a warm floor under the tile - which one is best suited for a private house and apartment.
The content of the article:
- What influences the choice of warm floor?
Pros and cons of heterogeneous systems
- Option # 1: water floor heating
- Option # 2: electrical cable
- Option # 3: heating mats
- Option # 4: film systems
- Option # 5: electric water heating
- What type of heating to choose?
- Top 9 best manufacturers of warm floors
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What influences the choice of warm floor?
To orient in the choice of a heat-insulated floor under a tile, it is worth paying attention to such nuances:
Functions. Power and, accordingly, the type of underfloor heating depends on whether the system is primary, additional or alternative. If the warm floor is designed for additional heating, the choice is wider.
- Screed. It is necessary to decide whether a concrete screed will be made when the floor is laid. Also fundamentally important may be the question of its thickness, especially when it comes to a room with a low ceiling.
- Type of dwelling. If in private houses almost any solutions are permissible, then apartment owners in high-rise buildings are often limited in the choice of heating systems.
- The cost of the system itself and its operation. Cheap equipment is not always the most economical. When choosing a heated floor should take into account everything: the cost of materials, the complexity of installation, consumption and price of energy.
In any case, it is better to put a warm floor under the tile, because the material is very cold to the touch and it is unpleasant to get feet on it.
However, the type of system should be chosen wisely. It must fully perform its functions, rationally spend resources.
Water floor is an advantageous solution. Although the installation of the system is labor-consuming, and the materials are expensive, these costs and efforts are paid for by the extremely rational use of resources
When choosing a system, you must also take into account the features of its maintenance and repair. It is desirable that the equipment has free access in case of breakage.
Pros and cons of heterogeneous systems
In hardware and hardware stores you can purchase underfloor heating of the following types:
- electric water.
Moreover, electro-water systems have appeared recently, so it is difficult to judge their effectiveness and durability. But electric and water heating tested by time. The pros and cons of these genders are well known.
A photo of
Classical floor heating system, which has long and firmly won the trust of our compatriots. Although materials are expensive, and installation requires time and effort, low cost operation 100% compensates for investments. This is the most economical option for underfloor heating.
Of all the electric floor heating systems, cable is considered the most popular. It is gradually replaced by heating mats, because They are more convenient to install. One of the main disadvantages of cable floors: it is desirable to lay them before the finishing works in the room
Depending on the required heating capacity, thin or thicker heating mats can be chosen. If floor heating is necessary only in the off-season or will be used as an addition to the radiator system, installation of thin low-power systems is sufficient. They will heat the tiles and dry the air in the room.
Combined floor heating systems combine the advantages of water and electric, but they are not without drawbacks of both types of floors. The most significant disadvantage is the limitations in scope. Of the benefits - high efficiency, the absence of the boiler and the corresponding additional equipment
Water floor heating system
Efficient electrical cable system
Floor rolled heating mats
Warm electro-water floors
We propose to consider in detail all the options for underfloor heating, compare their advantages, disadvantages, limitations in the scope of application. So it will be easier to choose a suitable warm floor under the tile, taking into account the operating conditions, type and purpose of the premises.
Option # 1: water floor heating
A water floor is a heat transfer piping system that is located between a base of concrete or wood and a clean floor covering. The heated water enters the pipes either directly from the boiler or from central heating.
Polymer and metal pipes are suitable for water systems, however, products of the first type are increasingly being chosen. This is due to the greater durability of pipelines, their corrosion resistance.
You should not choose a water system for an apartment in a high-rise building. This is due to the inconvenience that may arise due to the connection to district heating, and the possible consequences of accidents. The risks are too great. But for private houses there are no such restrictions.
Although it is undesirable to install water floors in high-rise buildings, the owners of apartments located on the first floors can afford such luxury and connect to the return pipe (coordination is required)
Water systems are economical. Their installation allows to reduce energy consumption by 20-30%, and in rooms with high ceilings - up to 50-60%. This is possible due to the fact that the temperature of the coolant in the pipes does not exceed 30-50 ° C. If the house has a ceiling height higher than the standard, the air is not fully warmed up: 2-2.5 m above the floor level.
In a private house, two heating circuits are often connected. The water is heated in the boiler, passes through radiators, and then goes to the pipeline underfloor heating. This allows you to make rational use of resources and get the most out of it.
The design of the water floor is complex and is a multilayer cake. Moreover, at each stage of installation, it is necessary to carry out work carefully, otherwise accidents and leaks are possible. If this happens, you will have to tear the floors for repairs.
Properly installed water floors become a reliable and efficient source of heat. Ideally, they should supplement or duplicate the main heating system. Another caveat: to warm up was uniform and stable, you will have to take care of high-quality thermal insulation.
Option # 2: electrical cable
Cable floors do not require any special care and maintenance, unlike water systems. They can be installed in country houses or cottages, where they do not live permanently, but visit on weekends and holidays.
Non-freezing liquid has to be poured into the pipes of the water floors so that the system does not disperse during severe frosts. It is also desirable to clean the coolant. There are no such problems with the cable.
The efficiency of cable electric floors reaches 100%, which is impossible to achieve when installing water systems, in which there is additional heat loss when moving heated water through the pipeline
When installing cable floors, the height of the room from the floor to the ceiling decreases slightly, because screed thickness may be minimal. On average, the thickness of the “cake” of warm electropol is less than 5 cm. Cable weight is much less than pipes. Accordingly, the load on the floor slab is reduced.
Connecting to the 220 V network is enough for the operation of the cable electric floor, but the quality of the wiring is of fundamental importance. The power of the equipment is about 80 - 150 W / sq.m, and the power grid in the house must withstand the additional load. This limits the use of electric heating systems in rooms with old wiring: it will have to be changed.
To reduce the load on the network, save on paying bills and achieve the optimum temperature in any weather, you can use temperature controllers that control the system
Under favorable conditions, the life of the cable can reach half a century. The design is simple, reliable, does not require special maintenance. This is due to the lack of friction parts that could fail. There are cases where the electrical system has worked without any disruption for 62 years - in the Oslo Cathedral. It was dismantled in working condition when replacing a worn coating.
Cable floor tile - a great solution for an apartment and a private house. The electrical system consumes more resources than water, and is more expensive to operate, but has its own undeniable advantages.
Option # 3: heating mats
This is still the same cable floor, but in a more convenient form: the wire is fixed on a special grid (width 50 cm, length up to 30 m). The use of mats significantly speeds up electrical installation. They can be laid not on the entire floor, but only on the part that needs warming up, bypassing the area where the furniture or plumbing will be installed.
Single- and two-conductor cables are used in heating mats. Products of the first type are cheaper, while the second is safer, since during their work there is no radiation of the electromagnetic field. Both types of thermomats are convenient to install and do not reduce the distance to the ceiling (the grid thickness is about 3 mm).
To put a thermomat, no special skills are needed: it is enough to be able to handle simple tools and to follow the instructions of the manufacturer clearly.
Thermal mat - the perfect solution for a warm floor under the tile. This system is as simple and effective as cable, and for its installation you need to exert a minimum of effort.
Option # 4: film systems
Film systems operate by radiating energy in the infrared spectrum. They heat up opaque objects, incl. flooring. The main advantage of the film is that the temperature of the heating rods themselves almost does not rise, i.e. no extra power consumption. When the top cover heats up, the heat rises up by 2-2.5 m. The most comfortable zone is at the bottom, near the feet.
The system is simple. It consists of a polymeric heating film about 0.4 mm thick, a temperature sensor, and a thermostat. Electric current is supplied to the graphite strips, and they generate infrared radiation.
The sensor is a rod or plate of two welded metal elements. Depending on the type, it can be remote or located between heaters.
When heated to a predetermined temperature sensor is triggered, and the thermostat controls the operation of a heated floor. The convenience of operating the system depends largely on the type of thermostat selected.
Some models are real mini-computers that can be programmed to a specific mode of operation for a long time - for a week, two or a month.
When a film heating system is in operation, an electromagnetic field is generated, but it is very weak and has virtually no effect on humans.
With all the advantages of infrared film, it is better not to lay it under the tile or choose with carbon heaters, because Bimetal will not work. Because of the poor adhesion of the film to the tile adhesive, problems arise: the system works inefficiently.
Due to the small film thickness, the floor heating system occupies a minimum of space. Installation is simple, does not require the use of expensive tools and sophisticated technology.
Difficulties with the quality of adhesion of glue and underfloor heating can be solved: you can lay a fine-meshed fiberglass mesh or lay sheets of fiberboard, and on top of them tile. This will somewhat improve the situation. But then the logical question arises whether to overpay for materials and invest more power in the installation, if you can simply choose heating mats or cable system.
Option # 5: electric water heating
Such heating is a system of pipes made of structured polyethylene with a diameter of about 2 cm. Antifreeze is poured in them and a seven-core chrome-nickel heating cable with a teflon coating is laid. The pipeline is laid in a concrete screed. If it is damaged, antifreeze will appear on the surface of the coating, indicating the location of the breakdown. This greatly facilitates the diagnosis and repair of floor heating.
On average, electric-water floors consume about 14.4 W / m2. The system is controlled by a thermostat, which turns on the heating after the temperature has decreased. As the antifreeze cools down very slowly, the power consumption is small
The heating element gives off heat to the antifreeze, which almost instantly boils. Due to this, the floor warms up very quickly, after which it keeps the temperature for a long time. This system allows you to spend a minimum of electricity with maximum efficiency. It is resistant to overheating, so it can be safely mounted under the furniture, make a permutation.
What type of heating to choose?
Under the tile is best suited heating mats, water, electric-water floors. The cable system option should be considered if you have the skills of self-laying of such floors or you can order this service for reasonable money. It is worth remembering that there may be a problem with the diagnosis and repair of breakdowns.
Water floor - relatively cheap heating. If it is possible to connect the heating circuit to the gas boiler, you can provide economical floor heating. If you have to use electricity, it is better to give preference to an electric-water system.
Film infrared floors are considered the worst solution, despite the effectiveness and efficiency. They are great for installation under the laminate, but bad "get along" with the tile. Experts advise to choose a different, more practical, option of heating.
Top 9 best manufacturers of warm floors
There are many good manufacturers of warm floors, but when choosing a heating system, it makes sense to buy not just good, but the best and at a reasonable price. Domestic ratings are headed by such brands:
- "National comfort".
These trademarks have proven themselves well. Their products undergo rigorous multi-stage quality control, and there are practically no complaints from buyers.
A photo of
The brand exists since 1991, and over the past decades has won the trust of customers. The special feature of Thermo systems is the unique branded regulators that clearly control the temperature up to 1 degree. Overheating of the floor is not possible, and energy consumption is minimal. The manufacturer took care of a simple power calculation scheme.
The ideal floor under the tile - "Heatlux". This is a domestic brand, and the manufacturer is focused on the Russian consumer. Production facilities are equipped with equipment from Kuhne, Nokia, Spirka, Dunst, etc. The quality of products at the height. The company also produces special adhesive compositions for the installation of systems under the tile
During its existence (since 1991), the National Comfort trademark has gained the reputation of a reliable manufacturer of warm floors. The company is engaged in scientific research, testing and development that can improve product quality
Rehau is a well-known trademark. The manufacturer produces high-quality water and electrical systems, monitors the safety and hypoallergenic raw materials used. There are no complaints about the work of underfloor heating. Installation and assembly are extremely simplified.
They trust the Finnish heating systems for a reason: they are rationally thought out, effective, economical. Ensto floor heating is no exception. These systems are well proven, because able to create a comfortable temperature regime even in the most adverse conditions (concrete, stone, poor thermal insulation). Floors are fixed to tile adhesive
Devi (Denmark) is an inexpensive warm electropol. It costs almost half the price of many analogs (about 850 rubles per 1 square meter), but is not at all inferior to them in quality. Systems are designed to easily control heating and select the desired mode.
The manufacturer made sure that Caleo electric floor buyers did not experience installation problems. The systems are simple, inexpensive, practical. If necessary, you can always purchase additional mounting kits. Film floors - ultrathin (0.42 mm). Price per 1 sq. M. - about 1500 rubles
Infrared floors are not only film. Carbon mats are a great option for tiles. They are mounted in bathrooms, saunas, swimming pools. Graphite-silver rods from which Unimat heating mats are made maintain a constant floor temperature
Installation of a heat-insulated floor of Thermo
Temperature regulators of the Teplolux trademark
"National comfort" in every home
Warm eletropol brand Rehau
Ensto - for rooms with poor thermal insulation
Devi - proven Scandinavian quality
Caleo - simple and practical systems.
Unimat - a unique carbon floor
All these market leaders are deservedly popular. Another important plus: the systems are really inexpensive and economical.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
All heated floors have features that are not mentioned by manufacturers. We offer useful video tutorials and reviews. Thanks to them, you can choose the right system that is suitable for your operating conditions.
Video instructions for choosing the best electric flooring:
Video tutorial on laying tiles on a mounted floor heating:
The main disadvantages of different types of electric floors:
What a warm floor is better under the tile, can only determine the owner of the premises. Only he knows everything about the operating conditions of the system, the intensity of its work, the desired temperature conditions. General recommendations are not suitable for everyone, so it is worth spending time and choosing the best option for heating. The reward for your efforts will be warmth, comfort and savings in the future.