The technology of growing and breeding of small animals at home is very simple, even an amateur can cope. However, before you start and grow mushrooms, it is worth to familiarize yourself with the existing methods and requirements for the environment in which mushrooms will develop normally. With what to begin and how to make the process from scratch, we will tell you step by step, and even a newcomer will easily breed and plant mushrooms..
Table of contents
- Conditions for growing oyster mushrooms at home
- Methods of growing mushrooms at home
- How to dilute in bags with your own hands
- Step-by-step technology of breeding on stumps
- On substrate briquettes
- On the shelves
- How to make a mycelium for cherry
- Stages of cultivation of mycelium
- Care for mushrooms during growth
- Profitability of growing at home
Conditions for growing oyster mushrooms at home
Organize a place for the cultivation of mushrooms can be in the cellars, cellars or specially designed rooms in the suburban area. For the cultivation of cherries, the following conditions must be created:
- possibility to set and maintain a temperature regime within10-20 degrees;
- equip a roomventilation systemfor drainage of carbon dioxide and lamps with fluorescent lamps;
- set humidity mode70-90%.
Mushrooms absorb the elements of the environment, including toxins, thanks to their properties. Therefore, it is important that all the surfaces in the basement are decontaminatedwithout signs of mold and pests. Keep the purity needed until the end of the harvest.
Methods of growing mushrooms at home
There are several ways to grow chicken at home. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, so it is recommended that you readwith all the subtleties of technologyto choose the most suitable option for yourself.
How to dilute in bags with your own hands
A substratum can be purchased ready or procured by his own hand. The best raw material for veshenok is consideredstraw of barley or wheat. Suitable also:
- hardwood shavings;
- buckwheat husk;
- husk from under the sunflower;
- corn cobs and stems.
Used components are necessarycrush to 5-10 cm.
Those who are just starting to master the technology of growing mushrooms at home are advised to refrain from using sawdust. This method is characterized by complexity and special requirements.
Before using the substrate,disinfectionmaterial. To do this, it is subjected to heat treatment.
Step-by-step procedure for disinfection of the substrate:
- the selected crushed raw material is covered in a metal tank or a capacious pan;
- pour the container with water (proportions:);
- bring the contents of the pan to a boil and cook for about 2 hours.
The finished substrate must bemoist and soft, but do not overdo it with water. The correct composition when wringing out gives off a minimum amount of moisture.
In addition to the substrate, a seed is placed in the sack (mycelium). It is not worth buying it immediately, it quickly deteriorates. If proper care is provided, thenwith 1 kg of raw materials you can get up to 3 kg of veshenok.
The basis in bags is laid in layers, alternating the sphere of the substrate with the seed material. The bags are filled tightly, but without tamping. After a strong tightening of the edges of the packaging on the surface of the polyethylene, cut the cross-shaped holes with a blade. They should be placed at an interval of 10 cm in staggered order.
For 2 weeks, the bag is lowered into the basement to pass the incubation period at a temperature of19-23 degrees. Lighting is not required at this stage.
The main advantage of the method lies in the simplicity of the technology. However, there is often a bad fruiting or a complete lack of it. In such cases, you need to go through the substrate, and check the presence of mold in it.
Step-by-step technology of breeding on stumps
There are two main ways to grow a vesenok: intense and extensive. In the first case, specialpremiseswith favorable conditions. The second method represents the technology of cultivation of fungiin the open air. The timing of the harvest depends entirely on the weather conditions.
If the dacha does not have a pile or a cellar, you should not get upset. Grow oyster can be directly on the stumps or scraps of hardwood (chestnut, ash, poplar, beech, etc.).
Terms of sowing beginin springwhen establishingplustemperatures. Prunings should be soaked for 1-2 days before use. With a fresh tree, this procedure is not performed.
On the stumps pre-make holes with a diameter10 mmwith deepening on5-6 cm. In the holes lay the seed and cover with moss or sticky tape. Mycelium, having the shape of a stick, is enough to insert into the hole and close it with clay.
Place for growing mushrooms is selectedin the shadowunder thick branches of trees. This is necessary to prevent the drying of the veal in the warm season.
When using logs, it is provided for digging holes and laying on the bottom of wet sawdust. Further in the prepared depressions are inserted the soaked scraps of the tree and are buried by the soil for a third of the length (not less than 15 cm). The interval between stumps should be 35-50 cm.
Further care for the mushroom beds is to water the soil around the billets. Timing of collection of veshenok more often falls onAug. Sept. Such a plantation will bring a good increase to 5 years with the most generous fruit for 2-3 years after planting.
On substrate briquettes
Substrate briquettes aresleeve made of polyethylene, tightly stuffed with filler. The surface of the film is pre-appliedperforationround or other shape. Holes can be located evenly throughout the block or cover only two sides.
In the first case, when fixing briquettes, they should not be allowed to come into contact, in contrast to a double-sided perforation, where the docking space has no holes.
The most popular containers are the following:
- weight - 15 kg;
- length - 70 cm;
- diameter is 25 cm.
There are many options for placing substrate briquettes. They can be suspended2-3 pieces per ropeor attach each separately to the valve. The weight of the bags is quite heavy, which provides stability when storing blocksEach other. The result is a solid wall..
It is also possible to place briquettes on shelvesin vertical or horizontalposition. The rope stretched from the back of the shelves acts as an insurance against flooding or falling of the substrate. When growing mushrooms at home, the decision to place bags is made based on the characteristics of the premises.
The advantages of the method:
- convenient application;
- simple care;
- getting a quick harvest (after, -2 months).
The disadvantage is the additional costs for the purchase of substrate briquettes.
On the shelves
Briquettes or bags with a substrate and seed material in the basement or cellar can be placed on the shelves, if space allows. The shelves themselves must be made of wood or of rolled steel. Blocks are placedvertically or horizontally.
The racks are manufactured in various designs. Folk craftsmen independently develop drawings, providing for safety elements that prevent the falling of bags. One of the options is equipped with special pins on the shelves, on top of which the blocks are mounted. Due to this, their stability increases.
Mushroom sleeves can be installed in several tiers, butno more than three. In this case, the distance between the shelves must be70 centimeters, and between the mushroom bags -15-40 cm.
This method of growing oyster mushrooms is characterized by convenient maintenance and harvesting. However, not all summer cottages and cellars have enough space for the shelving systems..
How to make a mycelium for cherry
It is not difficult to buy a ready-made mycelium, but it is possible to evaluate the quality of the purchase only after several weeks. If a poor-quality product is identified, it is no longer possible to compensate for raw material costs and energy resources, so many mushroom growers master the technology of mushroom picking independently.
Mycelium is aplanting stock, which is introduced into the substrate to produce a mushroom crop.
At home, mycelia is mainly grownon wood or grain. The method with wood is appropriate for use in the subsequent planting of mycelium on hemp. This seed material has a long shelf life and resistance to disease. The grain form is obtained as a result of applying the uterine culture to a substrate of cereal grains.
High-quality mycelium getin the laboratory. At home this process can be repeated, having prepared special equipment in advance:
- test tubes;
Also, the work requires water, electricity, gas.
Stages of cultivation of mycelium
- To obtain the uterine mycelium,to nip off the oyster(from the site closer to the cap) a few small pieces. To clean separated fragments from bacteria and parasites, it is recommended to dip them into hydrogen peroxide. Processed pieces are dropped into test tubes with crushed grains. Instead of a grain substrate, carrots, oat or potato agar can be used.
The tubes are tightly closed and placed for storage in a room with an average moisture level and a temperature of about20 degrees. After 2 weeks in the correctly prepared test tubes, a white edge appears. This is the uterine mycelium.
- To obtain an intermediate mycelium,boil downthe grain of cereals within 15 minutes. After cooling and drying, they are mixed with chalk and gypsum (at 1 kg of grains take 30 gr. gypsum and 10 gr. chalk). The mixture is poured into cans, filling it with 2 / 3. Next, the uterine mycelium is inserted into the tank from the test tube. The neck of the jar is covered with foil, which is fixed with an adhesive tape. The blank is stored under the same conditions as the test tubes for2-3 weeks. As a result, you get a bank filled with grains and fringe - intermediate mushroom picking.
- Seed is obtained in a similar way, placing in the pure containers with a substrate intermediate mycelium. After the growth of the mycelium, it is transferred to bags or briquettes with a substrate in which mushrooms will be grown.
Care for mushrooms during growth
After replanting into the holes of polyethylene, mycelium bags are sent toincubation, which takes up to 3 weeks. The temperature regime should not reach 30 degrees, otherwise the planting material will be subjected to heat shock.
At this stageairing is not carried out. The accumulation of carbon dioxide creates favorable conditions for the development of mycelium. It will take only daily cleaning of surfaces with the use of chlorine-containing products. This will help prevent the formation of mold.
Then bags are placed in a specially equipped room with a temperature10-20 degrees. The cooler the air, the less intense the color of the hat. Lighting should be12 hourswith an intensity of 5 kW per 1 m2. Every day 1-2 times watering mushrooms with a special sprinkler.
In a room where mushrooms are cultivated, there is a high level of spores in the air, so work should be done in a mask and glasses. This will help prevent an allergy attack..
Profitability of growing at home
You can grow mushrooms in several briquettes, satisfying the demands of your family. But this kind of activity with a reasonable approach sometimes becomes a means of additional income. Especially since caring for mushroom beds is not considered difficult.
If you create optimal conditions for the maintenance of mushroom briquettes (bags) and adhere to the established temperature regime, then with a single block you can actually remove 3 kg of mushrooms. Respectivelywith 100 bags received 350 kg of veshenok.
Given the market value (approximately 130 rubles per kg), the income will be 4, 00 rubles. Approximately half of the funds go to associated costs associated with creating conditions for the cultivation of fungi. The net profit will be 2, 85 rubles. The profitability in this case is75%, payback cycle, which in translation for months means13-15 months.
The process of growing veshenok at home is quite fascinating and informative. Accumulating experience, you can gradually increase the volume, which will make it possible to turn a hobby into a small business..