Face saw on wood: choose, adjust, make of Bulgarian and circular
A wide application for large volumes of work with boards, bars and other lumber made of wood or composite materials based on wood, find end saws. They are installed on a flat, horizontal frame of the device with an electric drive for cross-cutting of long sawn timber. Despite the presence of a bed, such equipment is not stationary, since it can be installed in any place, transported or transferred to the place where it is necessary to perform the sawing.
1What is the purpose of this tool and how is it arranged
- 1.1Parts of the mechanism
- 1.2Design and operation principle of the miter saw - video
- 2Types of saws for wood
3How to choose a desktop tool for home
- 3.1Engine power and disk size
- 3.2Woodcut parameters
- 3.4engine's type
- 3.5Type of transfer
- 3.6The design of the pivoting device
- 3.7Security systems and additional functions
4How to use the tool
- 4.1Setting the miter saw - video
- 4.2How to adjust the degree of inclination of the cutting head - video
- 5If the saw does not turn on - typical faults and repairs
6From what you can make an electric saw with your own hands
6.1From the Bulgarian on a metal stand
- 6.1.1Making the simplest saw of a Bulgarian - video
- 6.1.2How to make a miter saw with the possibility of cutting at an angle - video
- 6.2From a manual circular on a wooden support table
- 6.3Homemade workbench (fasteners) without a drawing
What is the purpose of this tool and how is it arranged
Device designed for transverse racesdrankThe use of wooden workpieces at different angles is calledface (crosscut)drankOh. Often such a tool is also called an electric chair, by analogy with a carpenter's device in the form of a tray for cutting boards under a certain slope. The construction of such adranksallowsCutting, changing both vertical and horizontal angledrankth disc.
Functionality of trimmingdranksallow it to be used in woodworking, where exact joining of two elements of a product or structure is required. Precisely to ensure the accuracy of the racesdrankAnd a bed is required, which can have legs or be placed on a table. Such work is often necessary for the following purposes:
- the production of decorative frames;
- cashing in door lashes;
- the device of plinths;
- the construction of wooden building structures for the construction of houses and auxiliary structures;
- finishing work by lining or plastic panels, as well as laying wooden, parquet floor or laminate.
If you install a certain type of disc on such equipment, you can cut a light metal or plastic profile and pipes. If necessary, trimmingdrankoh, you can even choosethickness of wood, arranging grooves, which are often used for the manufacture of window or door frames and laths.
Despite the solid appearance, and the fact that suchdranksoften called machine tools, their weight is small (about 18 kg) and they can be an excellent tool for a home or country workshop.
Parts of the mechanism
All millingdrankshave a simple construction inbasically similar for different types of this tool. Their main elements are:
- frame with a round turntable (some models have a pull-out in both directions, an extension table on integrated supports);
- The swing arm, attached to the frame by a special hinge with a return spring, on which is fasteneddrankdisk and a handle with start and stop buttons for the disc, such a lever is called a pendulum, which is why the whole instrument was called a pendulumdranka;
- electric motor, located on the pendulum to the right ofdrank(in some models, to make a better view, it is installed on the back of the pendulum;
- a disk angle adjustment unit that allows you to turn the cutting head of the tool to the left of the operator to any angle up to
45o, turning to the right is impossible because of the motor located on this side;
- branch pipedrankapprox., to which it is possible to attach a hose of a vacuum cleaner or a bag for assembling chips;
- supports for convenient placement of workpieces and clamps in the form of clamps to secure it securely.
A special insert is provided on the tool table at the cutting site, in the form of a tray-type recess allowingdrankto cut the workpiece to the end, making a neat cut. The scale is placed on the bed to turn the table in both directions to a certain angle. In the desired position, the table is fixed with a screw clamp.DrankThe tool's disc is protected by a special transparent casing, which allows the master to clearly see the place of the racesdranka. For convenience, many models of millingdrankwith a laser pointer showingwhere will the cut and the backlight of the table be made.
More details on the design of the trimmingdranks, the purpose of its main nodes, as well as see how they are used in the work, you can on the following video.
Design and operation principle of the trimmingdranks- video
End typesdrankon wood
The modern market of power tools can offer a large selection of a wide variety of milling machinesdrank, which may differ in the following parameters and design features:
- type and power of the engine, as well as its location;
- type gearbox, transmitting torque from the motor shaftdrankdisk;
- the presence of an electronic system that is necessary to maintain the speed of rotation of the disk when it is inserted into the thickness of the material of the workpiece;
- availability of a pull system that allowsdranka horizontal disc that provides racesdrankwide workpieces;
- the size of the discs used.
Drankstrimming are equipped with three types of engines:
- gate valves.
Electric motors of the asynchronous type are reliable, economical and operate without creating much noise. Their disadvantage is the large weight (up to 20 kg) and low power, which does not allow to develop speeds of more than 2800 rpm. For these reasons, such engines are rarely used in pendulumdrankOh.
The motors of the collector type have more compact dimensions and less weight. They can develop a speed of up to 5-10 thousand rpm, but with the operation of the collector brush create a certain level of noise. Such an engine requires periodic maintenance, which consists in the replacement of brushes, but despite this, it is used in most models of millingdrank.
Electric motors of the third kind, valve, represent the most modern and perfect device, taking all the best qualities of asynchronous and collector motors. Instead of a brush unit, they have an electronic unit that allows to reach a high speed of rotation of the motor shaft. But such motors are quite expensive, and are used only on high-quality crosscuttingdrankOhhigher price segment.
According to the type of reducer used, the pendulumdrankscan be with belt or gear transmission. Of course, the gears provide more reliable grip and better torque transmission. But they create additional noise when working, and if the gear-type reducer fails. you will need a complicated repair in a specialized service. At the same time, the belt can be easily replaced by yourself, and it works almost silently. In addition, the belt drive extinguishes the vibrations of the disc and extends the service life of the bearings.
It is very important to obtain qualitative racesdranka, especially solid wood and viscous composite materials, stabilize the number of revolutionsdrankdisk under load.It is for this purpose in most modern millingdrankthere is a special electronic unit. Widely used electronics and to create a more comfortable working environment with this tool, namely:
- to ensure a smooth start of the engine;
- for its braking when the motor is disconnected;
- for various safety interlocks providing safety of work on the cutting power tool.
The presence of electronics in different models gives them additional advantages, but also leads to a rise in price of the enddranks. The more functions there are in the design of this tool, the more convenient it is to work on it.
Increasingly popular latelydrankswith broach. Two rods on which the pendulum with a cutting head is attached allow you to movedrankdisc to produce high-quality smooth racesdrankwide material.
There are pendulardranksAlso by size and type of useddrankdisks. The main parameters of the cutting elementdranksare:
- landing diameter;
- outside diameter;
- number of teeth - the more it is, the better the cut will be;
- thickness of the disc;
- maximum speed of rotation.
All these parameters are plotted on the disc itself, in a certain place. For racesdrankand more thin workpieces (for example, from a laminate) will require a disk with a large number of teeth.
How to choose a desktop tool for home
To select the right miterdrankyou need to be well-represented for the production of what kind of work you are going to use. Here, the material of the racesdrankand its density, and thickness. On this depends on what parameters the instrument will suit you most. On what criteria, first of all, should pay attention to the choice of trimmingdranks?
Engine power and disk size
Both these parameters are interrelated.Under a certain engine power, use only specific disk sizes. Today in the market you can find enddrankspower from 800 to 2500 watts. The most demanded tool with engines on, kW, because of such powerdrankswill be enough for a home workshop, and for doing small business related to woodworking. More powerfuldranksbelong to the category of professional, and will be quite appropriate for large amounts of work on the racesdranktimber lumber.
The greater the power of the tool, the larger diameter the disc can use, naturally, suitable for the diameter of the seating hole. For household purposes, unless a large number of races are planneddrankvegetable works, the best option is todrankdisk with a diameter of 200-215 mm, for professional use you need to buy a tool designed for discs from 250 mm in diameter.
Parameters aboutdranka tree
The main indicator characterizing thedrank, is its width, which directly depends on the thickness of the disk. For valuable timber, it is better to choose more thin discs, so as not to waste unnecessary expensive wood ondrankki. Such disks wear out faster than thick ones, which have a significantly greater resource.
On the purity of thedrankbut the number of teeth on the disc influences it, it can be in the range from 8-10, to 80-90. The more teeth are on the disc, the more pure and qualitative is thedrank.
An important parameter characterizing the work of the enddranks, is the number of revolutionsdrankth disc. Modern trimmingdranksare produced with a speed of rotation of the cutting tool from 3200 to 6 thousand. rpm. Only when working at high disk rotation speeds can you provide a clean smooth racesdrankwithout splitting of fibers and chipsdrankof the material. Therefore, in expensive professional models of the most famous brands, this figure does not happen less than 4-5 thousand rpm.
The most practical and affordable option isend facedrankbut with the collector motionthe hotel. Such a motor will provide a sufficient number of revolutions per minute, without making the whole tool heavier. After all, in most cases,dranksshould be able to move closer to the place where construction or finishing work is being done. Pendulumdrankbut with an asynchronous motor can be useful for a home workshop. It has large dimensions, and it is best to install it permanently on a specially made workbench.
Type of transfer
In order not to have trouble with the need to ensure frequent lubrication of the gears of the reducer and to monitor the condition of the bearings, it is best to purchase racesdranka tool with a belt drive. It will work more silently, and if you fail (belt break or stretching) it will be enough to simply remove the gear cover and replace the belt.
The design of the pivoting device
One of the defining criteria that should be taken into account when choosing the trimmingdrankis the possibility of racesdrankbut blanks from different angles. For this, the tool construction has a rotary table, which provides the required inclination of the racesdrankbut in the vertical plane, as well as the mechanism of turning the cutting head of the tool, to give the desired slopedrankdisk in the horizontal plane. Available for saledranksvarious designs of the rotary system:
- without turningdrankdisk;
- with a right turn to an angle of 45-50;
- with the turn of the disk left and right.
The possibilities for ensuring the rotation of the cutting head depend on the location of the electric motor on the pendulum of the tool. Buying enddrankwith the possibility of adjusting both the vertical and horizontal angles of the racesdrankAnd, you get a more functional device, which can always come in handy for any work on woodworking.
Security systems and additional functions
Choosing the miterdranky, we should pay attention to some of the nuances of its design, ensuring the safety and convenience of carrying out racesdrankvegetable works, namely the presence of such elements and nodes as:
- electronic soft start and braking system, as well as a system providing stabilization of the rotational speed of the disk under load;
- protective transparent casing;
- the mechanism of drawing the cutting head of the tool;
- extension table, with special, extendable along the guide supports, for more secure fixing of the workpiece;
- illumination of the working area, if you carry out racesdrankit is assumed in premises with poor illumination;
- laser guidance, to ensure accuratedrankbut on the planned line.
According to buyers feedbackfacedrankshould pay attention toon such details as:
- possibility of racesdrankovki boards with maximum dimensions of 50x200 mm;
- as compact as possible and lighter weight, so that the tool can be placed in the trunk of the car;
- acceptable price
How to use the tool
Settings require any that you just boughtdranka, regardless of the model and manufacturer, as well as the tool that has already been in operation, if the accuracy of the racesdranka. This procedure is performed as a kind of maintenance of a complex tool designed to perform precise work operations. The number of configuration operations includes:
- adjustment of the fit of the side stop to the surface of the turntable, it can have burrs, uneven surface, which need to be cleaned, and to grind the bottom surface of the abutment abrasive paper;
- setting and fixing the stop on the frame strictly perpendicular to the line of the racesdrankand with the help of a small play provided in the fastening holes of this element;
- the elimination of the play of the turntable in the place where it is fixed with the rod;
- Adjustment of the perpendicularity of the vertical section, as well as the cut at an angle of 45o;
- adjusting the tension of the return spring, so that when the pendulum is lowered by the handle, do not apply excessive forces leading to deformation of the tool design and violation of the accuracy of thedranka.
The order of work on adjusting the trimmingdranksvery clearly and in detail is presented on the following video.
Setting the trimmingdranks- video
How to adjust the degree of inclination of the cutting head - video
Ifdrankand does not turn on - typical faults and repairs
Cross-sectiondrankand, like any mechanism operating under the influence of large dynamic loads, is prone to defects and malfunctions. Among the most common failures of this tool are the following:
- combustion of the engine (rotor or stator) which can be caused by improper selection of the cutting speed and feed ratedrankor use an improper disc for racesdrankand a certain material - all this leads to an overload of the electric motor, and its combustion;
- wear of the rotor gear of the electric motor or gear wheels of the reducer;
- wear of the brushes of the induction motor;
- loosening or breaking the belt.
All faults associated with the electric motor should be entrusted to professionals, since for the repair it will be necessary and special equipment, and knowledge of the device and the principle of operation of electric motors. Independently it is possible to replace worn out brushes of a collector of the asynchronous engine or to change a belt of a reducer.
From what you can make an electricdrankat one's own hands
If in the process of work there was a need for performing racesdrankbut boards or other material for the subsequent docking of the workpieces by the ends, and the pendulumdranksthere is no near at hand, it can be made by own hands from already available tool at you. To do this, any electric tool, in which the working element isdrankth disc.
From the Bulgarian on a metal stand
The Bulgarian is a unique tool from which it is possible to make any cutting devices and devices, including crosscuttingdranky. The simplest design of the trimming will allow the racesdrankTo lay boards and other material at an angle of 90 °
It's quite simple to build such a tool. To do this you need:
- From the metal sheet and corners make the frame, and weld (bolted) to it a rack from the corner 50x50.
- For the lever, use a pipe on which to weld two brackets for fastening the Bulgarian. The Bulgarian is bolted to the casing, which must have sufficient rigidity and thickness. Everyone can, with a fantasy, come up with his own version of the fastening.
- Fastening of the lever to the vertical rack of the machine can be performed by a conventional bolt, providing for fixation in the vertical position, or simply using a self-closing design, as in the following video 1.
- Attaching to the pipe bulgarku, you need to make a slot in the frame todrankThe disc could freely pass through it, providing a completedrankblanks.
- The lateral stop can be made rotary by providing the markings on the frame at the right angles, and turning the workpiece on the table, as is done in video 2.
Making the simplest enddranksfrom Bulgarian - video
How to make a trimmingdrankwith the possibility of cutting at an angle - video
From a manual circular on a wooden support table
To build a machine tooldrankVegetable for cutting wooden blanks can also be made from manual circulardranks. It can be made of metal or wood, as shown in the figure below.
The construction of such a trimmingdranksis quite simple. To make it yourself you need:
- From sheets of plywood or chipboard to build a frame on which to fix a vertical rack with it planted in it on a long shdrankThe construction of a kind of pendulum made of a board. Preliminary in this board you need to cut openings for fixing the manual circular.
- From the metal rod and the corner, make a rear movable hinge, and by installing a spring on the rod, attach the hinge to the frame and pendulum, as is done in the following figure.
- Disconnect the handle from the manual circular, fix it in the slots on the pendulum of the machine.
- It remains to lay the cable neatly in the grooves provided for it, and after connecting the tool, make a cut in the table top. At right angles to the cutting line, fix the side stops. Having made them rotary, it will be possible to cut workpieces at a given angle.
Homemade workbench (fasteners) without a drawing
For convenience of work on the trimmingdrankf, you need to make a workbench for it. It is desirable that it is collapsible, in case you have to work with a tool not at the place of residence, but on the construction site. Therefore, it is best to fasten the table top to the legs using self-tapping screws. To make such a workbench you need:
- To make the upper frame of the table from a wooden beam 40x40 in length two widths of the miterdranks. Screw to it with self-tapping screws from the samedrankomateriala, not forgetting to make spacers at a distance of 15 cm from the floor and strengthen the junction of metal corners.
- From the board we make a tabletop 10 cm wider than the length of the structuredranks, and length equal to the width of the trimming multiplied by 3.
- From sheets of plywood, chipboard or MDF we make improvised tables so that their surface, when installed on the tabletop, is at the same level with the surface of the turntable enddranks, as shown in the following figure.
- We fasten the tables on the table top, leaving in the middle enough space to place the instrument.
Such a workbench can be used both in a home workshop and take with them for export. to the place of production.
Miter saws are a unique tool for performing many construction works related to woodworking. When you have a need for such equipment, you can now correctly choose for yourself the most suitable cutting, or make it yourself, if the need for sawing works does not arise too much often..