Low pressure in the water supply is able to bring not only you out of yourself, but also expensive equipment fails. Agree, both that and another simply need to be protected. Such situations are mostly oppressed by the owners of private houses, but they also happen in apartments connected to centralized networks. How to deal with them?
Permanently relieve these troubles pumps to increase water pressure. They will provide the operating parameters required for normal functionality of household appliances. Compact, almost imperceptible devices will protect your nerves and extend the working life of the units.
The article presented to your attention details the principles of equipment selection and the rules for its installation. Those who wish to carry out the work with their own hands or check the hired plumbers will be helped by useful schemes. Complementary information photo-clips and videos.
The content of the article:
- The operation of the pump to increase the pressure in the network
- Rules for the selection of power units
- Principles of installation of self-priming models
- Some useful tips
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The operation of the pump to increase the pressure in the network
The problem of low pressure in the water supply system is solved with the help of two types of devices: circulation pumps and self-priming pumps. The first ones are simpler and easier to mount into the system.
A conventional circulation pump consists of a rotor attached to it by an impeller and an engine that rotates it all. Usually, if there is water in the system, but its pressure is weak, one or two pumps are enough.
The task of increasing the pressure in the plumbing system is solved in two ways: by installing a circulation or centrifugal self-priming pump (click to enlarge)
But if water does not flow to the upper floors at all, you will have to install high-power pump station with hydraulic tank. Such a device is simply installed as part of the plumbing system in a suitable place. The impeller is spinning, giving the flow of water additional acceleration.
As a result, pipes are filled with water faster, providing the necessary level of pressure in the water supply system. These are compact low-power devices designed to solve local problems. Suction pumps are more productive and more complex.
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Compact automatic pumps are used not only to organize independent water supply, but also to increase the pressure in the hydraulic circuits
Domestic pumping equipment in this category is used to pump only clean well, tap and rain water.
Household automatic stations and automatic pumps relate to surface-type equipment, water from a depth of up to 8 m can be pumped out.
The pumping station operated in order to increase the pressure raises it to 1.5 atmospheres.
Small-sized pumping station can be connected to the same line, pumping water from the accumulator to a specific plumbing fixture
The booster station installed after the hydraulic tank improves the pressure parameters in all the water mains
Depending on the model, the station or automatic pump can supply water to a height of 33 or 43 m. The maximum values are 2 m more than the workers, indicated in the marking by the numbers 35 and 45
Pump stations and automatic machines used to increase pressure are equipped with a dry-running protection device and an overheat prevention system.
Self-priming automatic pump
Specific operation of the pumping station
Surface pump suction performance
Application to increase the pressure on the water
Connect two or more lines
Head generated by pumping equipment
Units with protective systems
In addition to a suction pump capable of pumping water to a considerable height, the system is also completed hydroaccumulatorequipped with a special membrane.
The work of this technology is automated, used pressure switch. Water is first fed into the storage tank, and then enters the water supply, providing the necessary characteristics inside the system.
Thus, if a centrifugal pump solves the problem in a separate area, the suction equipment is used to control the entire water supply in a house or apartment.
Self-priming booster pumps are able to raise the liquid to a height of up to 12 m, while their power starts from 2 m3/ h
This schematic drawing allows you to get an idea of how to connect the pumping station with a hydraulic accumulator. It is an expensive system, but it gives a stable pressure in the plumbing system.
Boost water pressure the pump works as follows. When the water flow reaches 1.5 cubic meters, the motion sensor lobe changes position.
This causes the pump to turn on automatically. When the water flow stops, the pump shuts off. This type of equipment is used in private cottages and apartment buildings.
It is especially relevant in high-rise residential buildings, where it is impossible to ensure the normal delivery of water to the upper floors without a special pump for various reasons. Installing a single pump or even a special station with increased power can be a real salvation for residents of the upper floors.
Sometimes you have to use not one booster pump, but two or more. Owners of houses in which the plumbing system was originally designed with errors sometimes face such a need.
In this case, you will have to calculate the cost of reworking the water supply (if such an opportunity exists at all) and the cost of installing additional equipment.
A small pumping station, installed in front of household appliances, will ensure a normal water supply.
It should be remembered that for pumping hot water are special types of equipment. They are made of special heat-resistant materials, so they are more expensive than simpler models, designed for contact with cold water only. There are also universal step-up pumps that are suitable for both cold and hot water.
Conventional power circulation pump It is small, it consumes less energy than some incandescent bulbs.
When it is included in the system, it is possible to achieve an increase in pressure of about 2-3 atmospheres. If more serious correction of characteristics is required, more powerful equipment should be preferred.
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To increase the pressure in the water supply circuits that supply hot water, circulating pumps are used. They are also suitable for heating and cold water systems.
Pump units that increase the pressure in existing systems are used because of too low pressure for the normal operation of the washing machine and taking a shower
They are necessary in cases of insufficient pressure to turn on a gas or electric water heater. Function in manual and automatic mode, provided by the response of the sensor flow of water to its flow
The pump is a wet-rotor device in which the engine cools the pumped liquid during operation. The device is energy efficient
Pumps for hot and cold water
Installation options for booster pumps
Work in tandem with gas equipment
Long life device
Circulation pumps have the ability to work "at a standstill", i.e. they do not need to be turned off even if all taps are closed and water is not taken from the system. Similarly, the supply pumps operate to increase the water pressure. These devices are similar in design to circulating models.
If such a pump is turned off, water will circulate freely through its housing. As soon as power is supplied to the engine, the pump turns on. The impeller begins to rotate and the water pressure in the system increases. If there is a choice between systems with automatic or manual control, usually preference is given first.
Comparing the layout of the plumbing system with and without a booster pump allows for a more accurate representation of the installation of such equipment
This technique is more convenient to use, and it lasts longer, because it does not work idly. It makes sense to take a pump on manual control only in cases where it will be used either very briefly (temporary), or extremely rarely (in summer, in the country, only on weekends).
The diagram clearly shows the device of a wet rotor pump. Water washes moving parts of the pump and absorbs excess heat.
The concept of a dry and wet rotor refers to information about the cooling system of the device. In the first case, it is cooled by a stream of air, and in the second - by the stream of pumped water.
A wet rotor pump is cheaper, but serves less because of the negative effects of sludge that accumulates during the pumping of water in the working parts. Models with a dry rotor cope with their tasks more effectively, and they have a longer service life.
Rules for the selection of power units
The power of the device must be commensurate with the needs of the system. Lack of pressure is bad, but too much pressure is not needed.
If an overpumping pump is chosen for the water supply, the pressure in the system will increase, and all its elements will be subjected to unnecessary additional load. This leads to rapid wear and frequent breakdowns.
Stable system water pressure must be no less than two atmospheres. This is enough for comfortable water treatments, as well as for starting an automatic washing machine.
Although some models are more demanding in terms of operating conditions. For example, if the house has a shower, hydromassage, jacuzzi or other similar devices, the pressure should be higher.
In this case, it is better to increase the pressure in the plumbing system to 5-6 atmospheres. Certain types of technology require even higher rates.
Therefore, the first step before installing a pressure-boosting pump should be to study the documentation of household appliances. If any devices are planned to be purchased in the future, their characteristics should also be taken into account.
To create a constant high pressure in the system use special pumping stations, including a pump and hydraulic tank. Their operation is controlled by a pressure switch.
Accurate calculations can be made by a specialist, but usually enough preliminary data made “by eye”. To determine what pressure really exists in the system, you can use a regular liter jar. Water is opened and measured, how many liters of water spilled from the tap within a minute.
Then you need to deal with current needs. If the inconvenience is due to the fact that it is difficult to take a shower due to the low pressure when the faucet is open, it is enough to use an ordinary pump that will increase the pressure on a couple of atmospheres.
But if the house has an automatic washing machine, shower or other appliances of this kind, you should study the technical documentation.
Each such consumer requires a certain pressure of water. Lack of sufficient pressure can lead to expensive idling.
On such working conditions household appliances, especially those of foreign manufacture, are not designed. A failure caused by the absence of a normal head can be considered a case that does not meet warranty conditions.
You can focus on the maximum pressure plumbing systemindicated in the passports of devices. In the presence of a large number of such equipment is to seek advice from the engineer.
Choosing a suitable power model of a water pump to increase the pressure, you should also take into account the needs of equipment, the acquisition of which is planned in the future.
The lack of pressure in the plumbing system can lead to premature wear and failure of expensive water heating and plumbing equipment
Principles of installation of self-priming models
Installing a pump of this type is not very complex. For this, we will need approximately the same skills and tools that are needed to install a different type of pumping equipment.
Schematically, the installation of the booster pump can be represented in the form of the following steps:
- The choice of location for the accumulator and the pump.
- Installing the accumulator.
- Installation of pipes for connecting equipment to the water supply.
- Hanging the pump to the wall.
- Strapping pump and accumulator.
- Check equipment operation in automatic mode.
Essentially, a pump and a hydroaccumulator with a pressure switch is a variation pumping station. To implement the installation of such a system of devices, you first need to find a place to place the tank.
Some craftsmen replace the hydroaccumulator with a membrane with a conventional high capacity, for example, a plastic tank of 200 liters.
Instead of a pressure switch tank equip float sensorto ensure its automatic filling as needed. This tank is installed as high as possible: in the attic or on the top floor. Immediately you should think not only about the size, but also about the configuration of the capacity.
A flat and narrow tank will take up less space than a traditional cylindrical model. Although there are no special requirements for capacity configuration. When choosing a place for the tank, you should provide access to the tank / accumulator or the possibility of easy disassembly of this element. This is necessary to perform maintenance, repair or replace the device.
The photo shows the installation of check valves when installing a plastic tank, as well as the order of connecting the inlet and outlet nozzles to the water pipe
Accumulators are supplied ready for installation, but the tank should be prepared. It has holes for entry and collection of water. You can also make a separate stop valve to drain the water in an emergency. Branch pipes for supplying water to the tank and for taking it to the water distribution system are mounted to one water pipe.
In modern conditions it is more logical to use simple to install and reliable plastic pipes for the installation of water supply.
To prevent air from the pump from being sucked into the tank, and also to prevent water from entering when the equipment is turned off, check valves should be installed on both nozzles. Then mount the pipes with which the tank is attached to the plumbing system.
Circulation pumps occupy a minimum of space, do not interfere with the maintenance of household appliances
After the tank or hydroaccumulator The necessary water pipes have been installed, and the water pipes have been laid; installation of the suction pump can be started. Usually such a device comes in a disassembled state. It is first collected, and then proceed to install.
If you decide to fix the pump on the wall, you must first make a markup for fasteners. Then the pump is suspended and connected to water pipes. In general, this is not a very complicated operation. An important point - the direction of the fluid in the pump. It is indicated on the body with special marks.
The pump should be installed in such a way that the movement of water is from the tank to the points of water analysis. Thus, the scheme of installation and connection of the pressure boosting pump is as follows: hydroaccumulator-pump-consumer. Then the pump is strapped.
This is a detailed diagram of the connection of the pressure boosting pump to the water supply system. For installation, pipes are usually disconnected at the beginning of the system and a pump is attached to them using fittings.
All connections must be carefully sealed. If threaded connections are used to connect the booster pump, a suitable sealant should be used: FUM tape, linen thread, etc.
The amount of seal should be sufficient, but not excessive. The device is connected to plastic pipes by means of special fittings.
After that, you should check the operation of the entire system. If a tank with a float sensor was used, it is filled with water. Check not only the sensor. Capacity that serves as a storage tank should be checked for leaks. If everything is in order, you can proceed to testing the operation of the pump itself.
The pump must be connected to the mains. It is recommended to move the pump switch lever to the position corresponding to the automatic mode. It remains to open the nearest water tap and watch the operation of the device. If the installation is correct, the pump should automatically turn on, and the water pressure will increase markedly.
Similarly, the installation of circulating pressure boosting pumps. For them, choose the right place in the water supply, and cut it there. In this case, it is also extremely important to properly connect the pump, taking into account the direction of fluid flow. If the position of the device is incorrect, the pump will still let the water flow through.
Connection diagram of the circulating pump to the water supply system. Installation of such a device is very simple, but it is important not to confuse the direction of water flow.
But his work will be extremely inefficient, since the device simply will not function. The instructions and on the body detail the correct position of the pump. After installation, the pump is turned on and checked for operation. If the water pressure at the nearest water intake point has increased, it means that the installation was performed correctly.
A small pump to increase the pressure just cut into the system. Usually, it is enough to remove a piece of pipe of the appropriate length at the beginning of the pipeline.
Installation of a system with a hydroaccumulator looks a bit more complicated. First you need to deal with the device of the whole structure. The pump is connected to the hydraulic accumulator using special hoses. Then connect the pressure switch, through which the equipment will turn on and off.
This figure shows in detail the principle of operation of the pump with accumulator and the order of its connection. The pump fills the tank and then shuts off.
Special attention deserves relay setting. Before starting work it is recommended to carefully read the instructions and recommendations of the manufacturer.
If the knowledge and skills for high-quality installation and adjustment of equipment is not enough, it is better to contact a specialist for advice or completely instruct him to complete all the work.
Some useful tips
Not always, to solve the problem of low water pressure in the system, a step-up pump is absolutely necessary. To begin with, it does not hurt to diagnose the state of water pipes. Cleaning or replacing them can restore normal pressure without additional equipment.
To understand that the problem is in the poor condition of water pipes, it is sometimes enough to ask the neighbors living in apartments on the same floor or above. If they have a normal pressure, they almost certainly need to clean the pipes.
If the picture is the same for all, perhaps there are more serious problems concerning the entire water supply system of the house and even the district. In high-rise buildings, water sometimes just does not flow to the upper floors. It requires high-power and fairly expensive equipment.
It makes sense to cooperate with other tenants to share the costs. It’s a good idea to ask for a solution to the problem from the organization that receives payment for the water supply, since it is she who should provide the water supply to the consumer.
The lack of water on the upper floors is a violation of fire safety requirements. When communicating with a water service provider, you should pay attention to this point and mention the possibility of legal proceedings due to non-compliance with legislation.
Installation of equipment in an apartment building is best to entrust the staff plumbing management company. He is also better acquainted with the system, and will be liable in the event of leaks or breakdowns caused by poor installation of equipment.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Visually, the operation of the booster pump in the conditions of an apartment of a multi-storey building is presented in the following video:
Informative video on the installation of a booster pump:
Many models of step-up pumps can easily be installed independently. Even a novice plumber will cope with this task without any problems. But the level of comfort with a normal water pressure in the system will increase very noticeably.
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